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An Indian Perspective on IT


International Institute of Information Technology, Pune, India ... In the 20th century, India was termed as a rich country where poor people live ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Indian Perspective on IT

An Indian Perspective on IT Engineering
ProgramsThe Quality Imperative
  • Vijay Bhatkar
  • International Institute of Information
    Technology, Pune, India

India The Knowledge-based Civilization
  • Worlds first knowledge-based civilization since
    the Vedic times, 5000 years back
  • Veda Knowledge
  • Vast knowledge heritage through the centuries
  • First universities (Taxila, Nalanda) were borne
  • Invention of zero, decimal system, and early
    advances in language, mathematics, astronomy,
    etc. credited to India.
  • Richest country of the world till the 11th
  • In the 20th century, India was termed as a rich
    country where poor people live

India The Economic Miracle in the Making
  • A nation of 1 billion people (not a billion
    mouths to be fed by a billion minds to be
  • Fourth largest economy in the world in terms of
  • GDP expected to grow at a rate 7 plus in 2003-4
  • To emerge as worlds 3rd economic superpower by
  • Worlds 2nd largest ST manpower now
  • Worlds largest English speaking nation by 2010
  • Synonymous with Information Technology now

A Huge Market Potential for Education
  • 1 billion plus population
  • Education No. 1 priority for parents
  • Enrollments at Higher Education level growing at
    7 plus in last few decades

Stupendous Growth in Higher Education Segment
  • A culture of propensity for higher education in
    India, supported by a strong institutional
  • No. of UGC recognized universities increased from
    27 in 1950-51 to 272 in 2001-02 colleges from
    580 to 11,100 in the same period
  • Enrollment of 8 million graduates
    post-graduates in 2001

Governments Role in Education Sector
  • The role of Government in higher education has
    progressively decreased over the years. The
    Government spend on higher education has come
    down from 33 to 19 over the last decades.
  • This trend is expected to continue, as the
    Government is targeting the goal of Education
    for all at the elementary education level.

Governments Role in Education Sector
  • Budgetary allocation across segments
  • USD (Bn)
  • Primary education 0.80
  • Secondary education 0.21
  • Higher education 0.14
  • Total 1.15
  • Budgetary allocation for higher education has
    been frozen at 1991-92 levels
  • Budgetary Constraint of the Government has been
    an important driver for the opening-up of the
    higher education segment to private investment.

Increase in Private Sector Participation
  • There has been a significant increase in the
    number of higher education institutes promoted by
    the private sector
  • A bulk of the recent growth has occurred in the
    engineering management segments
  • - In the last decade the number of engineering
    colleges have trebled from 400 to 1200
  • - Presently, there are around 750 management
    institutions in the country
  • However, a number of the new entrants have not
    been able to match upto the quality benchmarks of
    publicly funded premier institutes.

Gap in Quality Education in India
  • Although the number of students enrolled in
    higher education institutes has grown
    significantly over the years
  • Growth in Enrollments Higher Education

Gap in Quality Education in India
  • However, there remains a sizeable unmet demand
    for top quality professional education
  • Institute Annual Intake Average number
  • of applicants
  • IITs 3,800 170,000 -gt 2 success rate
  • IIMs 1,250 130,000 -gt 1 success rate
  • Besides, barely 50 of the 750 recognized
    management institutes make it to the serious
    recruiters list.

Significant Growth in the Number of Students
Opting to Go Abroad
  • The unmet demand is partially met by students
    going overseas to earn professional
    qualifications particularly in the areas of
    engineering, IT, management and medicine
  • Indian Students in Foreign Universities
  • - US accounts for the largest share (74)
  • - There has been a 58 increase in the number of
    students going to US in the past two years
  • - About 75 of the students go for higher
  • On an average a student going to the US spends in
    the range of USD 20,000 to USD 40,000 on tuition
    fee alone

Summary of Key Trends in Indian Higher Education
  • India has a strong base for higher education, and
    this segment has registered over 7 compounded
    growth over the past few decades
  • Traditionally, the Government has been the
    biggest funder of higher education However, this
    has changed in the last decade, and Government
    spending has decreased significantly during this
    period. Changes in the regulatory framework have
    also enabled private investment in this sector.
  • The Private Sector has moved in to fill this gap
    but there is a distinct gap in quality in most of
    the newer entrants.
  • There is a big demand for quality higher
    education, and number of Indian students going
    overseas for higher education in engineering, IT
    and management has seen a steep increase.

India Emerging as IT Superpower
  • IT has crossed US 13 billion ICT 20 billion
  • Present growth rate 25 plus per annum
  • GDP share 4 plus export share 25 plus
  • Significant increase in employment opportunities
    in ICT sector
  • Number of professionals in IT sector increased
    from 160,000 to 650,000 in 5 years
  • IT will cross US 80 billion in 2008 ICT US 100

IT Industry Targets for 2008 (Software)

  • In US Billion

  • Total Production (Export Target)
  • IT Services 38.05 (23)
  • Software Products 19.5 (08)
  • ITeS 19.0 (15)
  • E-Business 10.0 (04)
  • Total 87.0 (50)
  • Source MIT X Plan Study Team

Software Manpower Break-up for 2008
  • (In Million)
  • Segment MIT Study NASSCOM /
  • McKinsey
  • IT Services 0.58 ) 1.10
  • Software Products 0.20 )
  • ITeS 1.26 ) 1.10
  • E-Business 0.33 )
  • Total 2.37 2.20

IT Manpower Projections for 2008
  • (in Millions)
  • Software 2.2
  • Hardware
  • - Direct 1.6
  • - Indirect 3.2
  • Total 7.0
  • Source Task Force on HRD McKinsey Report

Supply of IT Manpower (2000)
  • Colleges Awarding Engineering Degrees 776
  • Colleges Awarding MCA Degrees 494
  • Total Colleges 1270
  • Total Intake 200,000 (Appx.)
  • IT Courses Intake 60,000 (33)
  • IITs, IIITs, IISc 7000 (1200 in IT

  • (courses)
  • Total IT Intake 73,000

Projections on Availability of IT Manpower by 2008
  • Graduates 785,000
  • Post-Graduates 263,000
  • IITs, IIITs, IISc 12,000
  • Total Availability 1060,000

IT Skills in Demand
  • Programmers/Engineers/Analyst/ 41
  • Computer Scientists
  • Internet/e-Commerce Applications/Web
    Designers 19
  • Database Administrators/Developers 11
  • Network Specialists/Telecom Engineers 14
  • Digital Media Technical Writing 5
  • ITeS Managers/Engineers 10

Life Skills Required
  • Communication Skills/Technical Writing Skills
  • Project Management/Time Management
  • Team Work
  • Stress Management/Emotion Management
  • Multi-Ethnic Culture
  • Ethics,Values Attitude
  • IQ, EQ SQ

The Quality Issue
  • Rigid and outdated course curricula
  • Inability to adapt course curricula to dynamic
    industry requirements
  • Poor lab infrastructures
  • Limited exposure to latest tools techniques
  • Limited exposure to industry problems
  • Poor industry linkages
  • Best do not come to academics to teach
  • Little RD
  • Inability to enter into emerging areas
  • Problems of economic viability
  • No significant endowments/grants/donations

The Quality Issue (Pedagogy)
  • Examination Orientation
  • Insufficient grounding in theoretical concepts
  • Inability to explain applied framework
  • Inadequate lab/tools techniques infrastructure
  • Little real-life case studies
  • Little scope for creative learning

Strategy for High-Quality High-End Education
Program in ICT Emerging Technologies
  • Increase in No. of IITs/IIMs Capacity Increase
    in each Institute
  • Upgradation of RECs as NITs
  • Consolidation of IIITs with Private Sector
  • New World Class Institutes/Corporate Universities
    High-End ICT Emerging Technology Education with
    Global Collaborations
  • Distance Education through Advanced e-Learning

Drivers for New Strategy
  • Demand Drivers
  • Significant Growth in New Technology Industries
  • - IT
  • - Communications
  • - Biotechnology
  • - Bioinformatics
  • - Nanotechnology
  • Gap In High-Quality Higher Education in India

  • Supply Constraints
  • - Limited Quality Graduate Institutes
  • - Constraints in Capacity Increase in Existing
    Publicly Funded Institutes
  • Indias Global Positioning
  • - Indias Brand Equity in ICT
  • - Indias Emergence as a Global RD Hub

Indias Emergence as a Global RD Hub
  • Availability of High-Quality Low-Cost ST
  • Over 100 of Fortune 500 Companies have set-up RD
    bases in India.
  • These RD bases have been remarkably
  • Over 1000 patents filed
  • The new phenomenon of brain-gain
  • Increase in demand for highly skilled resources
    in frontier areas of IT, ST, and Tech

New Areas for Advanced Education
  • ICT
  • - Microelectronics VLSI
  • - Embedded Technology
  • - Advanced Networking
  • - Wireless Technologies
  • - Web-Services Architectures Applications
  • - Advanced Database, Data-warehousing
  • - e-Manufacturing
  • - ITeS

New Areas for Advanced Education (contd.)
  • Biotechnology
  • Bioinformatics Biocomputing
  • Environmental Technology
  • Management of ITeS/BPOs
  • Advanced Technology Management

Success Failures Lessons Learnt
  • IITs IIMs emerged as world-class institutions
  • However, recent Government signals on Policy
    Changes have created confusion
  • Capacity expansion taking time
  • Upgradation plan of RECs to NITs is slow
  • IIITs with State Government involvement is a
    mixed success (IISE, Mumbai closed)
  • Creating research and industry linkages is a
    major challenge
  • I2IT started with a private initiative shines as
    a successful model

  • India poised for an explosive growth in ICT
  • India emerging as a global RD Hub
  • From brain drain to brain gain
  • Millions of jobs will be created in ICT other
    emerging technology areas
  • Quality issues will have to be addressed
  • Private Sector world class institutions will
    emerge with global collaborations
  • India will reclaim its ancient heritage of the
    worlds most advanced knowledge-based
    civilization called Bharat.