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Development of Sustainable Power for Electrical Resources SuPER System


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Title: Development of Sustainable Power for Electrical Resources SuPER System

Development of Sustainable Power for Electrical
Resources SuPER System
  • EE 563 Graduate Seminar
  • September 30, 2005
  • James G. Harris, Professor
  • EE Department and CPE Program

  • Background
  • Technical Description of SuPER System
  • Feasibility Analysis
  • Five Year Plan for Development
  • Faculty Participating in SuPER Project
  • Student Involvement
  • Facilities, Equipment, and Resources
  • Status and Plans

Background - Electrification
  • Electrification National Academy of
    Engineerings top engineering achievement for the
    20th Century
  • Estimated 1/3 of population (now, 6B) do not have
  • Significant proportion of remainder does not have
    reliable access to battery or grid
  • 18,000 occupied structures on Navajo Nation lack
    electrical power (2001 legislation)

Background - Significance
  • Impact of electrification significant
  • Transformation of Western world
  • Thomas Hughes Networks of Power
  • People who caused change
  • Social Impact standard of living
  • Recognized by National Renewable Energy
    Laboratory in late 1990s
  • Village Power Program
  • Development of microfinancing

Background Solar Insolation
  • Goal to provide electrical resources to people in
    underdeveloped countries
  • Leapfrog technology no need for 100 years of
  • Example of cell phone in Asia
  • Review of global insolation map
  • Poorest people (1-2 a day income)
  • Within plus or minus 30 degree of latitude
  • Highest values of solar insolation (minimum W
    hr/sq m/day)

(No Transcript)
Background DC Power
  • Solar photovoltaic systems inherently DC
  • History of DC (Edison) versus AC (Westinghouse
    and Tesla) at end of 19th century
  • DC versus AC for generation, distribution, and
  • Initially, applied to lighting
  • Lighting today
  • 60W incandescent bulb and 20W compact fluorescent
    bulb lumens
  • Equivalent to 3W LED technology, and improving

Background DC power loads
  • Efficiency of electrical motors few horsepower
  • Permanent magnet DC motors
  • Electrical appliances
  • Computer 50W laptop (DC)
  • TVs, radios use DC power
  • RV 12V DC market kitchen appliances
  • Portable power tools battery powered (DC)
  • Computers wireless connection
  • Internet, phone (voice over IP), TV, radio,
  • Education MIT Media Lab 100 laptop project

Background Moores Law
  • Stand-alone solar photovoltaic system technology
    is mature, e.g., Sandia Handbook
  • Application of Moores Law to development of
    SuPER system
  • Solar cell development commercial and research
  • Estimate 5 per decade with base of 16 in 2005
  • Implies 25 efficiency in 2025
  • DARPA RFP 1000 units of 50 efficiency

Commercial Module Range
Laboratory Cells Histories of Silicon
Photovoltaic Module and Cell Efficiencies Ref.
Martin A. Green "Silicon Photovoltaic Modules A
Brief History of the First 50 Years" Prog.
Photovolt Res. Appl. 2005 13447455 (Published
online 18 April 2005 in Wiley InterScience
April Allderdice and John H. Rogers Renewable
Energy for Microenterprise National Renewable
Energy Laboratory November 2000
Antonio C. Jimenez, Tom Lawand Renewable Energy
for Rural Schools National Renewable Energy
Laboratory November 2000
Jonathan O.V. Touryan and Kenell J. Touryan
Renewable Energy for Sustainable Rural Village
Power Presented at the American Scientific
Affiliation Conference Arkansas August 1,
1999 National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Background Solar and DC Power
  • Conclusion
  • Solar photovoltaic is poised for leapfrog
  • Many development tools available
  • Expectation of future efficiencies
  • Sustainable power source
  • Digital control of standalone system
  • DC is power of future
  • Decentralized
  • Matched to source and loads

Technical Description of SuPER System
  • Modular design four subsystems
  • Stand-alone solar photovoltaic system design very

Technical Description of SuPER System approach
and goals
  • Approach to design from first principles
  • Created set of five sets of requirements
  • Overall, and a set for each subsystem
  • Overall goal
  • Mean time between failures (MTBF) 25 years
  • Mean time to repair (MTTR) 1 hour
  • Design lifecycle of 20 years
  • Cost less than 500 for 1 sq m PV module
    including battery replacements

Technical Description of SuPER System -
  • Overall system requirements (abbreviated)
  • Total power/energy budget input, storage, output
  • Measurements and definition of state
  • Safety NEC/standards code, grounding
  • Mechanical design enclosure/packaging
  • Startup and shutdown, error detection/recovery
  • Documentation General Public License (Open

Technical Description of SuPER System -
  • Solar Panel requirements (abbreviated)
  • Size 1, 2, 4 sq m modular design
  • Voltage (DC) 12V, 24V, 48V
  • Fixed tilt _at_ latitude or 15 deg
  • Modularity parallel/series, interface DC sources
  • Maintenance
  • Measurements voltage/current spectral and
    temporal characterization temperature

Technical Description of SuPER System -
  • Energy storage requirements (abbreviated)
  • Type deep cycle, AGM-gel, Ni-Cd
  • Maintenance minimal (clean terminals)
  • Replacement schedule every 5-10 years
  • Safety and sustainability
  • Measurements charging and discharging
  • Grounding and mechanical

Technical Description of SuPER System -
  • DC interface requirements (abbreviated)
  • Single or multiple DC outputs model of AC 110V
    input service bus with multiple circuits
  • Currents use of AWG 12 or 14 implies 15A
  • Circuit breakers, GFI, overload for motors
  • Characterization of DC electrical loads
  • Modular design for load growth
  • Forum for DC standarization model of Internet
    Engineering Task Force (IETF)

Technical Description of SuPER System-
  • Control and status module requirements
  • Digital development technology example is Altera
    FPGA/NIOS with uclinux OS, internet I/F
  • Switching of array power with conditioning
  • User display/interface
  • Digital control algorithms maximum power point
    tracking (MPPT), softstart for power switching
  • Safety and grounding
  • Enclosure with environmental conditioning

Feasibility Analysis
  • Worst case global solar radiation 4 KW h / sq m
    per day
  • Solar cell efficiency of 10 yields 400 W h / sq
  • Solar module of 1 sq m for 400 W h per day
  • Energy storage at 12V with discharge of 50
    yields 66 A h battery
  • Car/truck battery
  • Five year replacement

Feasibility Analysis
  • Lighting 5 LED lamps _at_ 3W for 4 hours yields 60
    W h
  • Water pump ¼ HP (187 W) for one hour
  • 565 liters at maximum heigth of 7.62 m (garden
  • Computer and communication 50 W for one hour
  • Refrigerator (12V DC) _at_ 50 W h
  • Portable battery charging _at_ 50 W h

Feasibility Analysis
Daily Source (W h) Solar energy
production 400 Total energy use allocation
397 Lighting 60 Pump/motor 187 Com
puter/communications 50 Refrigerator
50 Portable battery charging 50 Energy
storage 12V AGM lead acid battery rated at 66 A
h (one day supply for 50 discharge)
Feasibility Analysis
  • Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS)
  • SunWize Systems model DC30 75/100
  • Manufacturer suggested retail price 1469
  • Solar power generator system
  • Self-contained 12V DC with battery storage
  • 190 W h with input solar radiation of 4 K w h /
  • Marketed for emergency power applications
  • AC output models available

Five Year Plan for Development
  • Summary of development process
  • First three years for prototype development
  • Three generations at one year for each
  • Use of Electric Power Institute for
  • Last two years for field testing
  • Five years for completed design and testing
  • Includes business plan, documentation and

Five Year Plan for Development
  • First year activities
  • First generation functional design
  • Use of 20-101 power senior project lab
  • Set up development environment
  • FPGA and uclinux OS
  • Using EE/CPE senior project and thesis
  • Prototype goal satisfy all functional
  • Marketing plans with OCOB students
  • Winter 06 client for BUS 454 Developing and
    Presenting Marketing Plans/Senior Project
  • At least three marketing plans proposed
  • USA investors for SuPER development
  • Indigenous entrepreneurs business opportunity
  • Indigenous consumers for SuPER system

Five Year Plan for Development
  • Second year activities
  • Second generation prototype addressing
  • modularity, manufacturing, reliability,
    maintainability, cost, packaging
  • Development of involvement of student clubs
  • Extensive system testing and evaluation
  • Initiation of business plan
  • Establishment of DC standards forum

Five Year Plan for Development
  • Third year of activities
  • Third generation SuPER prototype addressing
  • Packaging
  • Satisfies all functional and performance
  • Cost requirements satisfied
  • Extensive testing and evaluation
  • Complete open source documentation of SuPER
    System GPL compliant
  • Growth of DC standard forum development
  • Business plans disseminated
  • Targeted entrepreneurs within countries of
  • Plan for field testing in fourth year
  • Potential of Navajo Nation developed

Five Year Plan for Development
  • Fourth and fifth year of activities
  • Assessment of SuPER system
  • Improvement of design and construction
  • MTBF of 25 years, MTTR of 1 hour
  • 20 year lifecycle cost
  • Update of SuPER system open source documentation
  • Pilot projects initiated and evaluated
  • DC standards forum publishes DC standard
  • Revised business plan disseminated

Faculty Participating on SuPER Project
  • Administrated by Electric Power Institute
  • Dr. Ahmad Nafisi, Director
  • Collaboration with CENG Center for Sustainability
    in Engineering
  • Dr. Deanna Richards, Director
  • EE/CPE faculty initially involved
  • Drs. James G. Harris, Ahmad Nafisi, Ali Shaban,
  • OCOB faculty initially involved
  • Dr. Doug Cerf, Associate Dean
  • Dr. Norm Borin, Chair of Marketing Area

Student Involvement
  • EE graduate students for thesis work in system
  • Overall system requirements, design, integration
    and testing
  • System design for status and control
  • EE and CPE students for senior projects in
    subsystem development
  • Design and testing of subsystems
  • OCOB students for senior projects in BUS 454 for
    marketing plans
  • Development of a Cal Poly SuPER team

Student Involvement
  • Initially work with resources available
  • Adequate for start, just lengthens schedule
  • Plan to acquire support for not only additional
    resources, but also students
  • Faculty to provide continuing direction through
    generations of students working on SuPER

Facilities, Equipment and Resources
  • Solar panel system available in EE Department
    see photo
  • Development laboratory to be established in power
    senior project laboratory (20-101)
  • Resources of Power Electronics Laboratory
    available (20-104)
  • Basic infrastructure for system development
    exists at Cal Poly

450-W 24-V Solar Panels on mobile station, 40-Amp
charge controller, Solar Boost MPPT, and 2 Deka
Solar Sealed Electrolyte Batteries lab also has
a 3.5 kW Outback All-In-One (MPPT, Charge
Controller, and Inverter) to accommodate future
expansion of the solar panel system.
Status and Plans - foundations
  • Support solicited over summer from foundations
  • MacArthur
  • Rockefeller Brothers
  • Energy Foundation
  • Ford
  • Hewlett
  • Packard
  • Clairborne (Liz) and Art Ortenbery
  • Gates
  • Kaufman
  • it does not fall within either of their current
    funding priorities and/or guidelines.

Status and Plans - NSF
  • Submitted proposal to National Science Foundation
    on September 23, 2005
  • RUI Development of Sustainable Power for
    Electrical Resources SuPER System
  • Research in Undergraduate Institutions (RUI)
    Program Announcement within its Faculty Research
    Projects area for three years and total of 240K
  • Submitted to Control, Networks Computation
    Intelligence (CCNI) program within Electrical
    Communications and Systems (ECS) Division of the
    Engineering Directorate

Status and Plans - start
  • Initiate the effort with existing resources
  • Senior projects and thesis work
  • Engineering technical
  • Business economic
  • Establish DC web-based forum
  • Continue to involve other faculty and students

Why? Broader Impact of SuPER Project
  • Provides family owned electrical power source
  • Only electrical power source for family
  • Increasing power resource with time
  • With financial business plan 2-3 per month for
    all electrical power needs
  • Decentralized, sustainable development of
    electrical power in poorest countries
  • SuPER system potential resource for raising
    standard of living of poorest to par with rest of

Broader Impact
  • Priority and focus on developing sustainable
    electrical resource for poorest people
  • Success will provide model for people in
    developed nations
  • Recognize commitment to status quo
  • Centralized AC power generation with distribution
  • Review current PGE bill
  • Replace with sustainable distributed DC power

(No Transcript)
Interested in Participating?
  • Check out SuPER website http//
  • Announcement of opportunities
  • White Paper
  • Graduate Seminar Presentation
  • Visit with faculty involved
  • EE Jim Harris, Ahmad Nafisi, Ali Shaban, Taufik
  • OCOB Doug Cerf, Norm Borin

  • 1. George Constable, Bob Somerville A Century of
    Innovation Twenty Engineering Achievements that
    Transformed our Lives National Academy of
    Engineering 2003 overview available at
  • 2. Jonathan O.V. Touryan, Kenell J. Touryan
    "Renewable Energy for
  • Sustainable Rural Village Power" Presented at
    the American Scientific Affiliation
  • Conference Arkansas August 1999, available from
    NREL as NREL/CP-720-26871
  • hybrid system for nrel village power program
  • 3. Begay-Campbell, Sandia National Laboratories
    "Sustainable Hybrid System Deployment with the
    Navajo Tribal Utility Authority" NCPV and Solar
    Program Review Meeting 2003 NREL/CD-520-33586
    Page 541 available at http//
    m/pdfs/33586073.pdf estimated date 2003,
    describes program resulting from "On November 5,
    2001, President Bush signed the Navajo Nation
    Electrification Demonstration Program (Section
    602, Public Law 106-511) into Law. This law
    directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a
    5-year program to assist the Navajo Nation in
    meeting its electricity needs for the estimated
    18,000 occupied structures on the Navajo Nation
    that lack electric power."
  • 4. Thomas P. Hughes Networks of Power
    Electrification in Western Society, 1880-1930
    Baltimore Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983
  • 5. Thomas P. Hughes American Genesis A Century
    of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm
    1870-1970 Penguin Books 1989
  • 6. David Nye Electrifying America Social
    Meanings of a New Technology, 1880-1940 MIT
    Press 1990

  • 7. Antonio C. Jimenez, Tom Lawand "Renewable
    Energy for Rural Schools" National Renewable
    Energy Laboratory November 2000
  • report from village power program at nrel
    covers all renewable sources
  • 8. April Allderdice, John H. Rogers Renewable
    Energy for Microenterprise NREL November 2000
    available from http//
  • microfinance introduction for renewable energy
    in underdevelopment countries
  • 9. Ulrich Stutenbaumer, Tesfaye Negash, Amensisa
    Abdi "Performance of small scale photovoltaic
    systems and their potential for rural
    electrification in Ethiopia" Renewable Energy
    18 (1999) pp 35-48
  • authored by locals, but dated example of
    early recognition of possibilities
  • 10. Sunwize Technologies http//
    insolation map available at
  • on-line catalog and interactive planning
    support global insolation map
  • 11. Evan Mills "The Specter of Fuel-Based
    Lighting" Science v. 308, 27 May 2005, pp
  • 12. E. Fred Schubert, Jong Kyu Kim "Solid-State
    Light Sources Getting Smart" Science v. 308, 27
    May 2005, pp 1274-1278
  • 13. Thurton, J.P. and Stafford, B "Successful
    Design of PV Power Systems for Solid-State
    Lighting Applications" Fourth International
    Conference on Solid State Lighting 3-6 August,
    2004, Denver. Colorado / Proc. of SPIE v. 5530
    2004 pp284-295
  • mainly lessons learned

  • 14. MIT Media Lab http//
  • 15. Sandia National Laboratories, Solar Programs
    and Technologies Department Southwest Technology
    Development Institute, New Mexico State
    University Daystar, Inc., Las Cruces, NM
    "Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems A Handbook of
    Recommended Design Practices" Sandia National
    Laboratories, SAND87-7023 Updated July 2003
  • revised handbook first published in 1988
  • 16. Kyocera Solar, Inc., Solar Electric Products
    Catalog , August 2005
  • available on web prices for small modules
  • 17. IEA PVPS International Energy Agency
    Implementing Agreement on Photovoltaic Power
    Systems Task 3 Use of Photovoltaic Power Systems
    in Stand-Alone and Island
  • Applications Report IEA PVPS T3-09 2002 "Use of
    appliances in Stand-Alone PV Power supply
    systems problems and solutions September 2002
  • dos and don'ts for design
  • 18. Alison Wilshaw, Lucy Southgate Rolf Oldach
    "Quality Management of Stand Alone PV Systems
    Recommended Practices" IEA Task 3,
  • another report of iea agreement
  • 19. Martin A. Green "Silicon Photovoltaic
    Modules A Brief History of the First
  • 50 Years" Prog. Photovolt Res. Appl. 2005
    13447455 (Published online 18 April 2005 in
    Wiley InterScience (
    DOI 10.1002/pip.612)
  • history and use of moore's law with darpa rfp
    also figure
  • 20. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
    (DARPA) BAA05-21 posted Feb. 25, 2005 RFPVery
    High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program
    announcement with deadline on 3/29/2005, which
    will be open at least a year from this date see

  • 21. H. Spanggaard, F.C. Krebs "A brief history
    of the development of organic and
  • polymeric photovoltaics" Solar Energy Materials
    Solar Cells 83 (2004) 125146
  • overview in context of inorganic (si) pv's)
  • 22. T. Givler, P. Lilienthal "Using HOMER
    Software, NRELs Micropower Optimization Model,
    to Explore the Role of Gen-sets in Small Solar
    Power Systems Case Study Sri Lanka" Technical
    Report NREL/TP-710-36774 May 2005.
  • 23. David L. King, Thomas D. Hund, William E.
    Boyson, Mark E. Ralph, Marlene Brown, Ron Orozco
    "Experimental Optimization of the FireFly. 600
    Photovoltaic Off-Grid System" Sandia National
    Laboratories, SAND2003-3493 October 2003
  • system and component test with ac inverter
    measurement parameters standards and codes
    identified, e.g., grounding
  • 24. R. Akkaya, A. A. Kulaksiz "A
    microcontroller-based stand-alone photovoltaic
    power system for residential appliances" Applied
    Energy 78 (2004) 419431 available at
  • microbased control, but focused on AC output

  • 25. Angel V. Peterchev, Seth R. Sanders
    "Digital Loss-Minimizing Multi-Mode Synchronous
    Buck Converter Control" 2004 35th Annual IEEE
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference Aachen,
    Germany, 2004
  • dc to dc for cell phone/computer using
    digital techniques
  • 26. Jason Hatashita, "Evaluation of a Network
    Co-processing Architecture Implemented in
    Programmable Hardware." EE MS Thesis, February
    2002 available at http//
  • 27. Homepage for Cal Poly Marketing Program
    see client application in lower right hand space
  • 28. EE 460/463/464 Senior Seminar/Senior Project
    Handbook available at
  • http//
  • 29. Muhammad H. Rashid Power Electronics
    Circuits, Devices and Applications(3rd Edition)
    Prentice-Hall 2004