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Chapter 4 Convergence and Conflict 1660s1763


Alexis De Tocqueville [1830s] ... Spanish begin Texas missions. 1718 ... The Spanish in Texas and California. The French along the Mississippi and in Louisiana ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4 Convergence and Conflict 1660s1763

Chapter 4 Convergence and Conflict 1660s1763
"If we think them not enlightened enough to
exercise their control with a wholesome
discretion, the remedy is not to take it from
them, but to inform their discretion by
education. ... If the nation expects to be
ignorant and free ... it expects what never was
and never will be." -- Thomas Jefferson
"Liberty cannot be preserved without a general
knowledge among the people, who have a right and
a desire to know but besides this, they have a
right, an indisputable, unalienable,
indefeasible, divine right to that most dreaded
and envied kind of knowledge. I mean the
characters and conduct of their rulers." -- John
Adams "A popular government, without popular
information, or the means of acquiring it, is but
a prologue to a farce or a tragedy or perhaps
both. Knowledge will forever govern ignorance
and a people who mean to be their own governors,
must arm themselves with the power which
knowledge gives." -- James Madison
"I know of no country in which there is so little
independence of mind and real freedom of
discussion as in America."  Alexis De Tocqueville
1830s "The latent causes of faction are thus
sown in the nature of man and we see them
everywhere brought into different degrees of
activity, according to the different
circumstances of civil society." James Madison,
Federalist 10 "Anyone who has the power to make
you believe absurdities has the power to make you
commit injustices."  Voltaire  
Key Questions
  • In what ways was trade regulated between Britain
    and the colonies?
  • How did prominent colonists go about developing
    Americas intellectual life?
  • What effect did the Great Awakening have on the
    American colonists?
  • How did the Glorious Revolution effect the
  • What geographic area made up the backcountry
    and who settled there?
  • How did the French and Indian War effect the
  • Explain the importance of the Enlightenment on
    the American colonies.

The Transformation of Culture
  • Goods and Houses
  • For examples, see my PowerPoint slides chapter 5
  • Shaping Minds and Manners
  • Age of Enlightenment Age of Reason
  • Scientific study, hypothesis, link of science to
  • Galileo Galilei, Rene Descartes, Francis Bacon,
    Sir Isaac Newton
  • Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan 1651
  • John Locke, natural law
  • French philosophes Baron de Montesquieu,
    Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Social Contract 1762
  • Immanuel Kant, David Hume
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Thomas Paine, Adam Smith

  • George Washington
  • Cotton Mather
  • George Whitefield
  • Benjamin Franklin

  • Bernard Bailyn, The Peopling of British North
    America An Introduction (1986)
  • David Hackett Fischer's Albion's Seed (1990)
  • Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin
    Franklin (1790)
  • Richard Hofstadter, America at 1750 (1971)
    consensus school of history
  • James Kirby Martin, editor, Interpreting Colonial
    America (1973)
  • Malachi Martin, The Jesuits The Society of Jesus
    and the Betrayal of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Gary Nash, The Urban Crucible (1979)
  • Arthur Schlesinger, Sr. editor, A History of
    America Life (1948)
  • Laurel T. Ulrich, Good Wives Image and Reality
    in the Lives of Women in Northern New England,
    1650-1750 (1982)
  • David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North
    America (1992)

  • Actual representation v. virtual representation
  • Age of Enlightenment Age of Reason
  • Albany Plan of Union, 1754
  • Whig ideology
  • Dominion of New England -- Edmund Andros, Jacob
  • Enumerated products enumerated powers in
    Article I, section 8
  • French and Indian War 7 Years War in Europe
  • Glorious Revolution 1688, William of Orange,
    Bill of Rights
  • Great Awakening George Whitefield New Lights
    v. Old Lights
  • Half-way Covenant
  • Mercantilism
  • 1763 Treaty of Paris
  • Father Junipero Serra Franciscan, 1834
  • My red maple tree from George Washingtons Mt.
    Vernon tree!

Text Identifications
  • Enlightenment
  • Seven Years War/French and Indian War, 1756
  • John Locke
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Great Awakening, George Whitefield
  • James Oglethorpe
  • Stono Uprising
  • William Pitt, James Wolfe
  • Proclamation of 1763
  • Paxton Boys

The 13 Virtues of Benjamin Franklin
  • Eat not to Dulness, sic Drink not to Elevation
  • Speak not but what may benefit others or your
    self. Avoic trifling Conversation
  • ORDER.
  • Let all your Things have their Places. Let each
    Part of your Business have its Time
  • Resolve to perform what you ought. Perform
    without fail what you resolve.
  • Make no Expence sic but to do good to others or
    yourself i.e. Waste nothing
  • Lose no time, -- Be always employd sic in
    something useful. Cut off all unnecessary
    Actions, --

  • Use no hurtful Deceit. Think innocently and
    justly and , if you speak speak accordingly.
  • Wrong none, by doing Injuries or omitting the
    Benefits that are your duty.
  • Avoid Extreams. sic Forbear resenting Injuries
    so much as you think they deserve.
  • Tolerate no Uncleanness in Body, Cloaths sic or
  • Be not disturbed at Trifles, or at Accidents
    common or unavoidable.
  • Rarely use Venery but for Health or Offspring
    Never to Dulness, sic Weakness, or the Injury
    of your own or anothers Peace or Reputation.
  • Imitate Jesus and Socrates. --

  • 1636 Harvard College founded
  • 1651 1733 Series of Navigation Acts
  • 1660 Charles II becomes King, restoration
  • 1662 Half-Way Covenant in New England
  • 1674 Bishopric of Quebec established
  • 1680s William Penn begins recruiting settlers
    from Europe
  • 1682 Mary Rowlandson's Sovereignty Goodness of
  • James II becomes King of England
  • 1686-89 Dominion of New England
  • 1689 Toleration Act passed by Parliament, Bill
    of Rights
  • 1690s Beginnings of Jesuit missions in Arizona
  • College of William and Mary founded
  • 1698 First French Settlements near mouth of
    Miss. River
  • 1700s Plains Indians domesticate the horse
  • 1701 Yale College founded Iroquois sign treaty
    of neutrality
  • 1704 Deerfield raid

  • 1708 Saybrook Platform in Connecticut
  • 1716 Spanish begin Texas missions
  • 1718 French found New Orleans
  • 1730s French decimate the Natchez and defeat the
    Fox Indians
  • 1732 Ben Franklin begins publishing Poor
    Richard's Almanac
  • 1733 Georgia founded
  • 1734 Great Awakening begins Jonathan Edwards in
  • 1735 John Peter Zenger acquitted from libeling
    New Yorks governor
  • 1738 George Whitefield first tours the colonies
  • 1740s Great Awakening gets under way in the
  • 1740 Parliament passes a naturalization law for
    the colonies
  • College of New Jersey (Princeton) founded
  • 1754 63 French and Indian War in North America
  • 1760s Great Awakening - full impact in South
  • 1769 Spanish colonization of CA begins (Father
    Junípero Serra)
  • 1773 Pope Clement XIV abolished Society of Jesus
    (resurrected Pope Pius VII, 1814)
  • 1775 Indian revolt at San Diego
  • 1776 San Francisco founded
  • 1781 Los Angeles founded

Map 4-1  Anglo-American Transatlantic Commerce
By the eighteenth century, Great Britain and its
colonies were enmeshed in a complex web of trade.
Britain exchanged manufactured goods for colonial
raw materials, while Africa provided the enslaved
laborers who produced the most valuable colonial
Map 4-2  European Empires in North America,
Great Britains victory in the French and Indian
War transformed the map of North America. France
lost its mainland colonies, England claimed all
lands east of the Mississippi, and Spain gained
nominal control over the Trans-Mississippi West.
New Amsterdam, 17th century
City Hall and Great Dock in the late 17th
century. (colored engraving, 1898).
Paul Revere
John Singleton Copleys portrait of the
silversmith Paul Revere, painted about 1769,
depicts one of Bostons most prominent artisans.
As colonists grew wealthier, some commissioned
portraits for their homes to serve as emblems of
their rising social aspirations. Even so, Copley
despaired that America would ever provide a
suitable market for his artistic talents and he
eventually moved to England.
Mahogany Clothespress
During the eighteenth century, quantities of
imported English manufactures began to appear in
many colonial houses. This elegant mahogany
clothespress, made in England in the 1740s, may
have graced the Boston home of Charles Apthorp,
once called the greatest and most noble
merchant in America.
George Whitefield
George Whitefield (who, contemporaries noted,
was cross-eyed) enjoyed a remarkable career as a
powerful preacher on both sides of the Atlantic.
This portrait shows him preaching indoors to a
rapt audience. During his tour of the colonies,
Whitefield reportedly had a similar effect on
crowds of thousands who gathered outdoors to hear
his sermons.
Benjamin Franklin portrait
Painted at about the time Franklin retired from
his printing business, this portrait depicts the
one-time craftsman as an aspiring gentleman.
Wearing a wig and a shirt with ruffled cuffs,
Franklin would no longer work with his hands but
would pursue his scientific experiments and other
studies. SRC Robert Feke (1707 1752),
Portrait of Benjamin Franklin (1706 1790), c.
1746. Oil on canvas, 127 x 02 cm. Courtesy of the
Harvard University Portrait Collection. Bequest
of Dr. John Collins Warren, 1856.
Español, con India, Mestizo
This panel of an eighteenth-century painting by
an unknown Mexican artist is representative of a
genre of portraits illustrating the categories
Spanish colonists developed to designate the
offspring of various kinds of mixed marriage.
This one, labeled Español, con India, Mestizo,
depicts a Spanish father, an Indian mother, and
their mestizo child. The scarcity of European
women made mixed marriage common in Spanish
colonies. Such unions were exceedingly rare in
the English colonies, where cultural preferences
and the relative abundance of European women
discouraged intermarriage.
George Washington portrait
This, the earliest known portrait of George
Washington, was painted by Charles Wilson Peale
in 1772. It depicts him in his military uniform
from the French and Indian War. Military service
helped to strengthen Washingtons ties with the
British Empire. Washington/Custis/Lee
Collection, Washington and Lee University,
Lexington, VA.
Cotton Mather's "Late Memorable Providences
Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions, Clearly
A historic title page containing a brief summary
of the book concerning witchcraft in New England.
Phillis Wheatley
Phillis Wheatley was brought to Boston on a
slave ship in 1761 and was educated in English,
Greek, and Latin by the Wheatley family. By the
1770s, she had written and published several
books of poetry.
San Xavier del Bac
The San Xavier del Bac mission near Tucson,
Arizona with its tall towers.
"To be sold. . .a cargo of 170 prime young likely
healthy Guinea slaves. Savannah, July 25, 1774."
The proprietary colony of Georgia came late to
slavery. Initially forbidden from owning enslaved
Africans, Georgians ''rented'' them for
''100-year'' terms from South Carolinians. After
1750, Georgians moved rapidly to secure their
share of the ever-increasing trade in Africans.
Faneuil Hall, Boston
Faneuil Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. Built by
Peter Faneuil in 1742, this building became a
hotbed of Revolutionary sentiment. Samuel Adams,
James Otis, and others came here to express their
opposition to British colonial policies.
Thanksgiving Proclamation, Connecticut, 1721
Public festivals and days of thanksgiving were
prominent in Colonial society. Here, Governor
Gurdon Saltonstall proclaims November 8, 1721, as
a ''day of Publick THANKSGIVING.''
The Old Tun Tavern, Philadelphia
Colonial taverns served not only food, drink,
and lodging--they were also an arena for the
exchange of community information. The Tun
Tavern, built by Samuel Carpenter in 1685, served
as the headquarters for several charitable,
fraternal and social organizations, counted
numerous colonial celebrities as frequent
visitors, and is acknowledged as being the
birthplace of the United States Marine Corps in
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Acrostic, by Benjamin Franklin B-e to thy
parents an obedient son, E-ach day let duty
constantly be done. N-ever give way to sloth or
lust or pride, I-f free you'd be from thousand
ills beside A-bove all ills, be sure avoid the
shelf' M-an's danger lies in Satan, sin, and
self. I-n virtue, learning, wisdom progress
make, N-e'er shrink at surrendering for thy
Saviour's sake. F-raud and all falsehood in thy
dealings flee, R-eligious always in thy station
be, A-dore the maker of thy inward part. N-ow's
the accepted time give God thy heart K-eep a
good conscience, 'tis a constant friend L-ike a
judge and witness this thy act attend. I-n
heart, with bended knee, alone, adore N-one but
the Three-in-One forevermore.
Economic Development Imperial Trade in the
British Colonies
  • The Regulation of Trade
  • Mercantilism
  • Enumerated products
  • The Colonial Export Trade and the Spirit of
  • Transatlantic commerce triangular trade
  • The Import Trade and Ties of Credit
  • Becoming More Like England

Colonial Religion and the Great Awakening
  • Halfway Covenant
  • Great Awakening
  • New Lights v. Old Lights

The Colonial Political World
  • The Dominion of New England and Limits of British
  • The Legacy of the Glorious Revolution
  • Diverging Politics in the Colonies and Great
  • Virtual verse actual representation
  • Boston Celebrates a New King August 1727

Expanding Empires
  • British Colonists in the Backcountry
  • The Spanish in Texas and California
  • The French along the Mississippi and in Louisiana

A Century of Warfare
  • Imperial Conflict and the Establishment of an
    American Balance of Power, 1689-1738
  • King Williams War
  • Queen Annes War
  • Country or Real Whig Ideology
  • Grand Settlement of 1701
  • King Georges War Shifts the Balance, 1739-1754
  • The French and Indian War, 1754-1760
  • Albany Plan of Union
  • French and Indian War
  • The Triumph of the British Empire, 1763
  • Treaty of Paris