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Improving Achievement and Closing Gaps Between Groups: Lessons from High Performing Schools and Districts

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Title: Improving Achievement and Closing Gaps Between Groups: Lessons from High Performing Schools and Districts


1
Improving Achievement and Closing Gaps Between
GroupsLessons from High Performing Schools and
Districts
  • Prepared for the Rockford Public Schools
  • Education Trust, 2004

2
What Do We Know About Student Achievement?
3
12th Grade Achievement In Math and Science is Up
Somewhat
4
High School Achievement Math and Science
Source NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress.
5
In Reading, 12th Grade Achievement is Headed
Downward
6
HIGH SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT READING AND WRITING
7
What about different groups of students?During
seventies and eighties, much progress.
8
Gaps Narrow 1970-88NAEP Reading 17 Year-Olds
Source US Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends
in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC US
Department of Education, August 2000
9
Gaps Narrow 1973-86NAEP Math Scores, 13 Year-Olds
Source US Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends
in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC US
Department of Education, August 2000
10
Between 1988-90, that progress came to a haltand
gaps began to widen once again.
11
Gaps Narrow, Then Hold Steady or Widen NAEP
Math Scores, 17 Year-Olds
32
20
Source US Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends
in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC US
Department of Education, August 2000
12
After 1988, Gaps Mostly Widen NAEP Reading, 17
Year-Olds
21
31
Source US Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends
in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC US
Department of Education, August 2000
13
How much of this learning took place during high
school?Students Make More Growth Grade 4 to
8 than Grade 8 to 12
14
Academic GrowthGrades 5-8, 9-12
15
Value Added in High School Declined During the
Nineties
16
Value Added Declining in High School Math...
Age 13-17 Growth
Source NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress
17
Still
Age 13-17 Growth
Source Main NAEP 1996, 2000
18
Reading Students Entering Better Prepared, But
Leaving Worse
Source NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress
19
Hormones?
20
Students in Other Countries Gain far More in High
School
21
TIMSS
22
Source NCES 1999-081R, Highlights From TIMSS
23
Source NCES 1999-081R, Highlights From TIMSS
24
PISA
25
US 15 Year-Olds Rank Near Middle Of The Pack
Among 32 Participating Countries
26
One measure on which we rank high?Inequality!
27
Performance Of U.S.15 Year-Olds Highly Variable
Of 27 OECD countries
Source OECD, Knowledge and Skills for Life
First Results From PISA 2000, 2001.
28
Where are we now?
29
Where Are We Now? 4th Grade Reading All Students
2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
30
By Race, Ethnicity NAEP 4th Grade Reading 2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
31
By Family Income NAEP 4th Grade Reading 2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
32
Where Are We Now? 8th Grade Math All Students
2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
33
By Race, Ethnicity NAEP 8th Grade Math 2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
34
By Family Income NAEP 8th Grade Math 2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
35
African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Do Math
at Same Levels As White 13 Year Olds
Source NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables
(online)
36
African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Read at
Same Levels as White 13 Year Olds
Source Source NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends
Summary Tables (online)
37
These patterns are reflected, too, in high school
completion, college entry and college graduation
rates.
38
Students Graduate From High School At Different
Rates
Source US Bureau of Census, Current Population
Reports, Educational Attainment in the United
States March 1998 (p. 20-513), Detailed Tables
No. 2
39
Highest Achieving Low-Income Students Attend
Postsecondary at Same Rate as Bottom Achieving
High Income Students
Source NELS 88, Second (1992) and Third Follow
up (1994) in, USDOE, NCES, NCES Condition of
Education 1997 p. 64
40
ADD IT ALL UP...
41
Of Every 100 White Kindergartners
(25-to 29-Year-Olds)
Source US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census. March Current Population Surveys,
1971-2001, in The Condition of Education 2002.
42
Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners
(25-to 29-Year-Olds)
Source US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census. March Current Population Survey,
1971-2001, In The Condition of Education 2002.
43
Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners
(25-to 29-Year-Olds)
Source US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census. March Current Population Surveys,
1971-2001, In The condition of Education 2002.
44
Of Every 100 American Indian/Alaskan Native
Kindergartners
(24 Year Olds)
45
College Graduates by Age 26
Source Tom Mortenson, Research Seminar on Public
Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Post
Secondary, 1997.
46
WHY?
47
What We Hear Adults Say
  • Theyre poor
  • Their parents dont care
  • They come to schools without breakfast
  • Not enough books
  • Not enough parents . . .

48
But if theyre right, then why are poor and
minority children performing so high in...
49
Some schools...
50
Samuel W. Tucker ElementaryAlexandria, VA
  • ?68 African American and Latino
  • ?53 low-income
  • Outperformed 2/3 of VA elem. schools in both
    reading and math for two years in a row (2001-2).
  • In 2002, out-performed 92 of VA elem. schools in
    reading and 86 in math.

Source Virginia Department of Education
51
West Manor Elementary Atlanta, GA
  • ?99 African American.
  • ?80 low-income
  • Outscored 98 of GA elementary schools in 2nd
    grade reading in 2002.
  • Outperformed 90 of GA elementary schools in 2nd
    grade math in 2002.

Source The Education Trust, Dispelling the Myth
52
Sycamore Elementary SchoolKokomo, IN
  • ?37 African American and Latino.
  • ?62 low-income
  • Increased African American 3rd graders meeting
    state standard in math by 55 percentage points
    between 2000 and 2002.
  • Closed Black-White 3rd grade reading gap.

Source Indiana Department of Education
53
Lincoln Elementary SchoolMount Vernon, NY
  • ?69 African American and Latino
  • ?49 low-income
  • Has outperformed nearly ¾ of NY elem. schools in
    both math and English for three years in a row.
  • In 2002, outscored 98 of NY elem. schools in
    math and 99 in English.

Source Ed Trust. Dispelling the Myth Online and
New York State Department of Education. Overview
of School Performance In English Language Arts,
Mathematics, and Science and Analysis of Student
Subgroup Performance for Lincoln School. April
10, 2003
54
Hambrick Middle School,Aldine, TX
  • 94 African American and Latino (state 56)
  • 85 low-income (state 50)
  • Has performed in the top fifth of all Texas
    middle schools in both reading and math in both
    7th and 8th grades over a 3-year period.

55
Inman Middle School, Atlanta, GA
  • 60 Low Income
  • 60 African American and Latino
  • (58 African American and 2 Latino)
  • Outperformed about 95 of other GA schools on
    average in both 2001 and 2002.
  • Over 90 of 6th graders, 7th graders, and 8th
    graders met state standard in reading in 2002.

Source The Education Trust, Dispelling the Myth
Online. Composite measure averaging across
grades and subject areas tested.
56
Prince Edward County High, Farmville VA
(715 students 55 African American and Latino)
Sources Virginia Department of Education Web
site, http//www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/200
2SOLpassrates.html.
57
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org).
58
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org).
59
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org).
60
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org).
61
Dispelling the Myth
62
Some districts...
63
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64
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65
Aldine, TX Raising Achievement for All While
Narrowing Gaps
Source Texas Education Agency-Academic
Excellence Indicator System Report 1994 through
2001.
66
Aldine, TX Raising Achievement for All While
Narrowing Gaps
Source Texas Education Agency-Academic
Excellence Indicator System Report 1994 through
2001.
67
And some entire states...
68
MA Passing HS Competency Exam
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
Web site.
69
MA Narrowing the High School Competency Gap
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
Web site.
70
MA Narrowing the High School Competency Gap
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
Web site.
71
MA Narrowing the High School Competency Gap
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
Web site.
72
4th Grade Math African American Gains Between
1992 and 2000
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
73
4th Grade Math Latino Gains Between 1992 and 2000
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
74
Delaware Gains in Grade 4 Reading Outpace the
Nation, 1998-2002
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
75
Big Differences Among States in the Performance
of the Same Group.Take a look...
76
Latino 4th Graders NAEP Reading
77
Black 4th Graders NAEP Reading
78
White 4th graders NAEP Reading
79
Black 8th Graders? NAEP MATH
80
Latino 8th Graders? NAEP MATH
81
White 8th Graders NAEP Math
82
Minority and/or poor students in some states
outperforming white and/or non-poor students in
others.
83
8th Grade Writing African Americans in Texas
Perform as Well or Better Than Whites in 7 States
Source NCES, National Assessment of Educational
Progress
84
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, Institute
of Education Sciences, National Center for
Education Statistics, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
85
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, Institute
of Education Sciences, National Center for
Education Statistics, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
86
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87
What Students Say Yes, some blame themselves.
But they also say...
  • some teachers dont know
  • their subjects
  • counselors underestimate our
  • potential
  • principals dismiss concerns
  • expectations wretchedly, boringly low.

88
What Do We Know About The Places that are
Improving Results?
89
Element 1 They Make No Excuses. Everybody
Takes Responsibility for Student Learning.
90
Element 2 They Do Not Leave Anything About
Teaching and Learning to Chance
91
Historically, most of the really important
decisions about what students should learn and
what kind of work was good enough left to
individual teachers.
92
Result? A System That
  • Doesnt expect very much from MOST students and,
  • Expects much less from some types of students
    than others.

93
Students can do no better than the assignments
they are given...
94
Grade 10 Writing Assignment
A frequent theme in literature is the conflict
between the individual and society. From
literature you have read, select a character who
struggled with society. In a well-developed
essay, identify the character and explain why
this characters conflict with society is
important.
95
Grade 10 Writing Assignment
Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on
Martin Luther Kings most important contribution
to this society. Illustrate your work with a
neat cover page. Neatness counts.
96
High Performing Districts
  • Have clear and specific goals for what students
    should learn in every grade, including the order
    in which they should learn it
  • Provide teachers with common curriculum,
    assignments
  • Assess students every 4-8 weeks to measure
    progress
  • ACT immediately on the results of those
    assessments.

97
Element 3 High Performing Schools, Districts
Insist on Rigor All the Way Up the Line
98
Most High School Grads Go On To Postsecondary
Within 2 Years
Source NELS 88, Second (1992) and Third (1994)
Follow up in, USDOE, NCES, Access to
Postsecondary Education for the 1992 High School
Graduates, 1998, Table 2.
99
College Freshmen Not Returning for Sophomore Year
Source Tom Mortensen, Postsecondary Opportunity,
No. 89, November 1999
100
Transcript Study single biggest predictor of
college success isQUALITY AND INTENSITY OF HIGH
SCHOOL CURRICULUM
  • Cliff Adelman, Answers in the Tool Box, U.S.
    Department of Education.

101
But college prep curriculum has benefits far
beyond college.
102
Students of all sorts will learn more...
103
Low Quartile Students Gain More From College Prep
Courses
Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th
grade achievement.
Source USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the
United States Toward the Year 2000, in Issue
Brief Students Who Prepare for College and
Vocation
104
They will also fail less often...
105
Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure
Rates, Even for Lowest Achievers
Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low
level course, and eighth-grade reading
achievement quartiles
Source SREB, Middle Grades to High School
Mending a Weak Link. Unpublished Draft, 2002.
106
And theyll be better prepared for the workplace.
107
Leading districts, states making college prep the
default curriculum.
108
Element 4 They KNOW That Good Teachers Matter
More Than Anything Else
109
1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.
110
1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.
111
1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.
112
Most teachers--like most other professionals--can
get more and more effective.
113
Accordingly, smart states, districts do two
important things
  • STOP drive-by workshops
  • invest in intensive, focused
  • professional development.

114
In the meantime, though, weve got to work
toward a more equitable distribution of teachers.
115
Virtually every high poverty school has
some spectacularly wonderful teachers, but...
116
Classes in High Poverty High Schools More Often
Taught by Misassigned Teachers
Teachers who lack a major or minor in the
field Source National Commission on Teaching and
Americas Future, What Matters Most Teaching for
Americas Future (p.16) 1996.
117
Math and Science Classes of Mostly Minority
Students Are More Often Taught by Misassigned
Teachers
Source Jeannie Oakes. Multiplying Inequalities
The Effects of Race, Social Class, and Tracking
on Opportunities to Learn Mathematics and
Science (Rand 1990)
118
Poor and Minority Students Get More
Inexperienced Teachers
Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience.
High and low refer to top and bottom
quartiles. Source National Center for Education
Statistics, Monitoring Quality An Indicators
Report, December 2000.
119
High-Poverty Schools Get More Low-Scoring
Teachers
Teachers scoring in the bottom quartile on on
SAT/ACT. High-poverty schools have 2/3 or more
students eligible for reduced-price
lunch. Source Education Week, Quality Counts
2001, January 2001.
120
Devastating Impact
121
If we had the courage and creativity to change
these patterns?
122
By our estimates from Texas schools, having an
above average teacher for five years running can
completely close the average gap between
low-income students and others. John Kain and
Eric Hanushek
123
Principals Must become Finders AND Keepers
  • Principals key variable in attracting and keeping
    strong teachers
  • Teachers stay when feel supported and effective
  • Teachers want both concrete (ie. Curriculum,
    lessons, mentoring) and psychological support.

124
FINALLY, A FEW WORDS ABOUT HOW WE TALK ABOUT
GAP-CLOSING AND NCLB
125
Statement of Purpose
Closing the achievement gap between high- and
low-performing children, especially the
achievement gaps between minority and nonminority
students, and between disadvantaged children and
their more advantaged peers. 20 U.S.C. 6301
126
  • Unnecessary
  • Unfair
  • Feds should have left it to the states
  • Will label good, even great schools as failures

127
Abraham Lincoln Middle School Alachua, Florida
  • 31 White
  • 59 African American
  • 57 Low Income
  • An A school under the Florida accountability
    model

Source Florida Department of Education,
http//web.fldoe.org.
128
Achievement Gaps at Lincoln2002-03 Reading
AYP Target 31
Source Florida Department of Education,
http//web.fldoe.org
129
Achievement Gaps at Lincoln 2002-03 Math
AYP Target 38
Source Florida Department of Education,
http//web.fldoe.org
130
Alexis I du Pont High SchoolRed Clay, Delaware
  • 49 White
  • 24 African American
  • 21 Latino
  • 31 Low Income
  • Named One of Americas Best High Schools by
    Newsweek Magazine

Source Delaware Department of Education,
http//www.doe.state.de.us
Newsweek Magazine, June 2, 2003
131
Achievement Gaps at du Pont2003 English/Language
Arts 10th Grade
AYP Target 57
Source Delaware Department of Education,
http//www.doe.state.de.us
132
Achievement Gaps at du Pont2003 Math 10th Grade
AYP Target 33
Source Delaware Department of Education,
http//www.doe.state.de.us
133
NCLB says simply that these schools need to
improve.
  • WOULDNT YOU AGREE?

134
Some education leaders are talking about the
challenges in closing the gap one way
135
  • Requiring every group of students in every
    school to be proficient within 12 years, is like
    asking every kid to jump the Grand Canyon.
  • educator, Connecticut
  • June 10, 2002
  • Associated Press

136
"It is so inflexible. If any group of kids fails
to meet the standard, the whole school is labeled
as failing. suburban superintendent (used to
doing extremely well under old system of
averages)
137
  • "I have difficulty with the standards because
    they're so unattainable for so many of our
    students . . . We just don't have the same kids
    they have on Long Island or Orchard Park.
  • Superintendent, New York October 21, 2002, The
    Buffalo News

138
They may as well have decreed that pigs can fly
. . . I think the State Board of Education is
dealing with reality, not myth. Some of these
politicians just have their heads in the
sand. -Wayne Johnson, CTA President Los Angeles
Times August 6, 2002
139
If we could do it, we already would have. --
Peter Gutierrez, assistant superintendent of the
Hollister School District, Hollister Free Lance
(CA), 4/30/03
140
Think about the messages in what they say
  • To parentsabout whose kids matter
  • To studentsabout how much educators think they
    can learn and,
  • To our colleaguesabout whether they even have to
    try.

141
Fortunately, other education leaders are talking
about the same challenge in quite different ways
142
"There are people who'll say, 'Given that
neighborhood a child is from, what do you
expect. It's our job to say there are no
excuses - that we have to address students' needs
so they can achieve." Frank Tinney, director of
standards, assessment and accountability in the
Palm Springs Unified School District, The Desert
Sun (Palm Springs, CA), 4/8/03
143
"It's not that they are failing so much as we are
failingThis shines a very bright light on
something we have known for years but haven't
been forced to deal with until now ---- that we
have to close this massive gap if all of our
students are going to succeed." Ken Noonan,
Oceanside Unified School District Superintendent,
North County Times (CA), 5/25/03
144
We have really blown that myth about
high-poverty schools being low achievers out of
the water. Economically deprived doesn't mean
brain deprived. Janie Moran, Principal
Southern Hills, a high poverty school in
Louisiana where all but one of their 48 4th grade
student passed LEAP, Shreveport Times, 5/29/03
145
"Neither poverty nor race is an excuse. All
children can rise to the standards and there are
many schools in the data that you have to prove
it. Rick Mills, Commissioner of Education,
New York. March 28, 2002, New York Times
146
With proper instruction, students here can blow
other kids away in the humanities. The more you
challenge them, the better they'll do.
Dolores Edwards Sullivan, an English teacher
in the predominantly African American Roosevelt
school district, whose 11th graders are starting
to earn higher marks on state Regents exams.
147
Yes, parents may have the greatest impact on how
their children come to us. But we have the
greatest impact on how they leave
us. Superintendent, North Carolina
148
Yes, this is going to be hard. But how we
communicate will play a large role in whether
people will even try.
149
The Education Trust
  • www.edtrust.org
  • Washington, DC 202-293-1217
  • Oakland, CA 510-465-6444
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