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Sustainability and Survival for Tuvan and Saami Reindeer Herders

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Pack-carrying; riding allowed. with saddle and stirrups; used for. milk;no dogs nor decoys ... munar chary riding-buck' kuddai castrated deer' d ng r any deer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustainability and Survival for Tuvan and Saami Reindeer Herders


1
Sustainability and Survival for Tuvan and Saami
Reindeer Herders
  • Libby Amaya
  • Eliot Raynor

2
Purpose
  • Language loss is not just a problem for linguists
  • Traditional ways of life and systems of knowledge
    ie. reindeer-herding are encoded in language
  • Therefore, loss of languages like Saami and Tuvan
    is equivalent to the loss of this knowledge (or
    at least an efficient and culturally-valued way
    of organizing it).
  • Both languages have seen significant lexical
    innovation as a result of the processes of
    urbanization and modernization

3
Reindeer-herding origins
  • One of the major questions of world history
    S. Vainshtein
  • Ancient petroglyphs in Sayan-Altai region
    suggest reindeer domestication goes back until
    at least 1st century AD
  • Eminent scholars (Laufer, Leimbach,
    Mänchen-Helfen) say Tuvinian style of
    deer-herding could be oldest form in Eurasia

4
Reindeer-herding origins
  • Possibly originated under influence of Turkic
    pastoralists reindeer domestication taken up by
    Turkic or Mongolian tribes and later abandoned
    but not before being adopted by the Samodi who
    carried it North
  • However, lack of Turkic words in southern Samodi
    herding terminology (and Samodi borrowings in
    Turkic-speaking herding communities) may suggest
    that Samodi reindeer herding developed
    independently

5
Reindeer-herding styles
  • Sayan (used by modern Tuvinians) Pack-carrying
    riding allowedwith saddle and stirrups used
    formilkno dogs nor decoys
  • Tungus / Siberian carry packs allow riding with
    saddle but no stirrups drag sleds milked no
    dogs for herding

6
Reindeer-herding styles
7
Reindeer-herding styles
  • Western Siberian / Samodi carry supplies by
    draught use decoys, dogs no milking
  • North-Eastern tow sleds use decoys no dogs for
    herding
  • Saami reindeer carry food/ supplies on back,
    also dragged by harness on sled used for milk
    dogs, lassos for pasturing decoy-deer used

8
Reindeer-herding styles
9
Tuvans
  • Tyva ethnonym first associated with Turkic
    Uigurs in Sayan-Altai
  • Typically divided into two groups
  • Western pastoralists of steppe regions
  • Eastern reindeer-herding, hunting people of the
    taiga regions
  • Situated at the crossroads of China, Mongolia,
    Russian Siberia

10
Tuvan location
11
Tuvan history
  • Ruins of ancient settlements in Tuva date back to
    Paleolithic era
  • Inhabitants of the taiga area near Sayan
    Mountains were hunters and fishers
  • 2nd century BC Hun empire spreads pastoralism
  • After 500 AD Turkic settlers begin to inhabit
    the region as part of the early-medieval Turkyut
    state
  • 1000 AD Tuba (Dubo) tribes settle in
    mountain-taiga, Sayans area, overthrowing the
    Samodi people

12
Tuvan history
  • 1207 Tuva subjugated by Genghis Khan, and Mongol
    influence would increase in the area, eventually
    becoming part of the Mongol state
  • 1634 Mongol leader Ombo Erdeni swears allegiance
    to Russia
  • 18th century Manchu/Ching dynasty rules over
    Tuva by end of 1800s Tuvan people become
    unified ethnic group
  • 1914 First declaration of Tuvinian Peoples
    Republic, precursor to the Tuvan ASSR, and
    modern-day Tyva Republic

13
Tuvan language
  • Turkic language
  • 200,000 speakers in Tuvan ASSR (majority
    language 63 Tuvan-speakers)
  • Also some 3,000 speakers in China and around
    20,000 in Mongolia
  • Closely related to Todzhin ? severely endangered
    due to shift to Russian and Tuvan
  • 99 of Tuvans living in rural communities are
    monolingual in Tuvan only 9 in cities
  • 16 living in cities are monolingual in Russian

14
Tuvan language
Proliferation of lexical items referring to sex
and age of deer
  • ivi deer (general)
  • kyzyr myndy dry doe
  • kolchangy doe in fawn
  • myndy doe after fawning
  • eder chary buck
  • anai fawn up to 6 months
  • kuu anai fawn from 6-12 mths
  • dongur male fawn
  • daspan young buck (1-2 yrs)
  • myndychak female up to 2 yrs
  • düktüg myiys male up to 2 yrs
  • eder düktüg myiys buck after 3 yrs
  • munar chary riding-buck
  • kuddai castrated deer
  • döngür any deer after 4 years

15
Tuvan language
  • maina automobile
  • demir-orok railroad
  • xyycaa deadline
  • pulemyot machine gun
  • mooda motorcycle
  • magnito(f)on tape recorder/player
  • televizor television
  • universitet university
  • arbus watermelon
  • zoopark zoo

16
Saamis
17
Saami history
  • Uncertainty over the nature of Saami arrival in
    modern-day Scandinavian nations, as well as
    whether language is original or acquired from
    Finnish
  • Biological/genetic attempts at ethnic
    classification have proved ambiguous
  • The Saami have never heard that they came here
    from elsewhere

18
Saami colonializationand modernization
  • In Middle Ages Saami were mobile, sparse, divided
    into villages ? siida
  • Partly due to mobility and scattering, were
    susceptible to encroachment by settlers
  • Forced to merge or move North
  • Unable to defend against tax collectors
  • Overhunting, overfishing, and slash and burn
    farming by newcomers

19
Saami colonialization and modernization
  • Saami splits into two distinct cultures
  • Reindeer Saami focused primarily on reindeer
    husbandry based on nomadic lifestyle
  • Forest Saami mixed economy, partly
    reindeer-keeping but also hunting and fishing
    semi-nomadic
  • 20th century Reindeer Saami become semi-nomadic,
    build fixed dwellings, turn to cattle-keeping

20
Saami language
  • Finno-Ugric closest to Finnish
  • 4-10 different languages (7, traditionally)
  • South (Norway, Sweden)
  • Lule (Norway, Sweden)
  • North (Norway, Sweden, Finland)
  • Inari (Finland)
  • Skolt (Finland, Russia)
  • Kildin (Kola Peninsula, Murmansk Oblast, Russia)
  • Ter Saami (Kola Peninsula)

21
Saami language
  • Reindeer-herding
  • boazu reindeer
  • cearpmat reindeer calf (from first fall to the
    next)
  • eallu herd of hundreds of reindeer
  • goddi wild reindeer
  • heargi reindeer bull
  • spáillit male reindeer castrated in previous
    year
  • áldu calved reindeer
  • binna small herd of reindeer
  • Ice and snow
  • bievla bare spot where snow has melted
  • cuo?o crusted snowdrift (heavy things can be
    carried over)
  • ciegar old snow dug up by a reindeer during
    grazing
  • láhttu track made in snow by skis

22
Saami language
23
Saami language
  • dáaluvvat to become Norwegian to trade in Sámi
    values
  • mohtorgielká snowmobile
  • skierrocuojanas record player
  • dihtor computer
  • dihtorbiebmu input (computer)
  • dihtorcollu output (computer)
  • dihtorterminála computer terminal
  • globála liegganeapmi global warming
  • zip-fiila zip file (computers)

24
Saami
25
Language endangerment and indigenous peoples
  • Both Tuvan and Saami people have developed a
    unique and, for the most part, sustainable way of
    interacting with a harsh environment ? this is
    encoded in their languages
  • Threats to the survival of these languages are
    almost always linked to the shift away from
    traditional reindeer-herding practices and
    towards urbanization and modernization

26
Bibliography
  • Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry. Jernsletten and
    Klokov. Artic Council 2000-2002.
  • Family-Based Reindeer Herding and Hunting
    Economies, and the Status and Management of Wild
    Reindeer/Caribou Populations. Ulvevadet and
    Klokov.
  • Nomads of South Siberia. Vainshtein, Sevyed.
  • Cultural Minorities in Finland. Pentikäinnen and
    Hiltunen.
  • The Sami People. Veli-Pekka Lehtola. University
    of Alaska Press, 2004.
  • Tyvan. Gregory David Anderson and K. David
    Harrison. Lincom Europa, 1999.
  • Tuvan Dictionary. Gregory D. S. Anderson and K.
    David Harrison. Lincom Europa, 2003.
  • Sami Grammar Vocabulary. Kimberli Mäkäräinen,
    19992003. http//www.uta.fi/km56049/same/svocab.
    html
  • The Laplanders Europes Last Nomads. Per Høst.
    Dreyers Forslag-Oslo.
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