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Muhammad and the Collection of the Quran

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Muhammad and the Collection of the Quran. Life of Muhammad ... 'Do not hasten your tongue in reciting it; Indeed its collection and recitation are upon Us. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Muhammad and the Collection of the Quran


1
Muhammad and the Collection of the Quran
2
Life of Muhammad - Periodization
  • Preparation for Prophecy
  • Childhood preparation for prophecy
  • Merchant career and marriage
  • Meccan Revelations and Persecution
  • Early revelations in Mecca
  • Building up early network of followers
  • Persecution by Meccans
  • Isra and Miraj (??????? ? ???????)
  • Emigration and War
  • Building Medinan community, political ruler
  • War with Meccans, their allies, conflict with
    Medinan Jews
  • After the Conquest
  • Conquest of Mecca in 8/630 CE
  • Receiving submission of Arabian tribes
  • Conquest of Arabian peninsula
  • Death in 632 after short illness

3
Preparation for Prophecy
  • Born around 570CE in the prominent clan of Banu
    Hashim of the Quraysh tribe soon he is
    orphaned.
  • He is raised by foster parents in the desert as a
    shepherd, where his heart is cleansed by angels
  • Adopted into the home of his uncle Abu Talib, he
    becomes known as al-Amin the trustworthy one

4
Preparation for Prophecy - 2
  • With his uncle, he goes on merchant caravans
    north to Syria where he is recognized by the
    Christian monk Buhayra
  • At 25, the 40-year-old widow Khadija offers him
    marriage and control of her business they have
    4 daughters (one is Fatema)
  • As a manager, he has more time and begins
    meditating in the desert and the mountain cave of
    Hira
  • And in 610 CE….

5
Meccan Revelations
  • At first, preaches to family and friends
    Khadija, Abu Bakr and Ali immediately believe
  • Slowly begins preaching to the Quraysh, who meet
    him with serious opposition and mockery
  • Soon his preaching threatens the tranquility of
    the annual hajj, and Muhammad is smeared as a
    madman
  • Torture, killing of Muhammads followers
    psychological torture of Muhammad
  • Flight of some followers to Ethiopia for refuge
    with the Christian king

6
Meccan Revelations 2
  • Boycott of Banu Hashim no intermarriage or trade
    for two years
  • Conversion of Umar newfound strength
  • Year of Sadness 9/619 new protector? Abu Talib
    dies, Khadija dies, Abu Lahab new head of Quraysh
  • Prophet seeks protection in Taif when he
    fails, Mutim b. Adi protects him.
  • The Night Journey and Ascension Muhammad finds
    his place among prophets, Jerusalem is direction
    of prayer

7
Emigration to Medina and War
  • Deal worked out with Yathrib, and many Muslims
    emigrate eventually only Muhammad, Abu Bakr and
    Ali remain
  • When Mutim dies, Muhammads murder is planned…
  • 622, the tenth year of revelation, Muhammad and
    Abu Bakr move to Yathrib… the City of the
    Messenger of God

8
Medina and War with Mecca
  • Battle of Badr (624 / 2) miraculous Muslim
    victory, major Quraysh leaders killed Islam now
    a power to be reckoned with.
  • Battle of Uhud (625 / 3) almost ends in defeat
    for the Muslims
  • Battle of Khandaq (627 / 5) Meccans and their
    allies besiege Medina, Muslims drive them away.
  • Treaty of Hudaybiyya (628 / 6) peace
    established, Muslims can visit Mecca for hajj
  • Conquest of Mecca (630 / 8) after conflict
    breaks out between Meccas allies and the
    Prophets allies, Muhammad declares peace broken
    and moves to occupy Mecca. Scales have shifted
    so far towards Muslims that the conquest is
    peaceful. Abu Sufyan and Meccan opponents of
    Islam convert to Islam.

9
Establishing Control in Medina and Arabia
  • The Jewish Tribes of Medina
  • Constitution of Medina Jews and Muslims one
    community (umma)
  • Jewish tribes gradually fall into conflict with
    Muhammad, are expelled or executed
  • Marriage the Prophet marries 11 women after
    Khadija, mostly daughters of close Companions or
    of prominent tribes
  • The Year of Delegations 631/10 the Prophet
    accepts loyalty of Arab tribes

10
The Quran in Life of the Prophet
  • Landmarks first and last revelations?
  • Obvious references the battles of Badr and Uhud
  • Night Voyage to Jerusalem (Isra)
  • Debatable Which comes first the Quran or Sira?
  • Moonsplitting The hour has drawn near…
  • Skepticism the Sira is written to explain the
    Quran
  • Ex. The voyages of the winter and summer
  • Crucial example Satanic verses?

11
Revelation and Writing of Quran
  • Quran as interactive text in the Prophets life
  • Revelation through Gabriel?
  • Surely it is the revelation of the Lord of all
    beings, brought down by the faithful spirit
    (al-run al-amin)(26192)
  • The spirit of holiness (al-ruh al-qudus) has
    brought it down from your Lord in truth (16102)
  • Recording in Medina we know he had scribes
  • Divine Protection
  • Indeed We have revealed it, and We will
    safeguard it.
  • Do not hasten your tongue in reciting it Indeed
    its collection and recitation are upon Us.

12
Compilation and Collection
  • The Mushaf of Hafsa Abu Bakr orders collection
    by Zayd b. Thabit after Battle of Yamama… copy
    entrusted to Umar and then Hafsa
  • Uthman b. al-Affan orders official promulgation
    c. 650 CE after disagreement in Armenia.
    Consonental text written in Qurayshi dialect.
    All other copies ordered to be destroyed.
  • ? Mushaf al-Imam

13
Readings of the Quran
  • Readings? (qiraat)… undotted, unvowelled
  • Early Diversity different orders and wordings
  • Ibn Masuds mushaf, Kab b. Ubayys mushaf
  • Al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf, Umayyad governor of Wasit
  • Refinement in 900s 7 canonical readings of Ibn
    Mujahid (d. 936), al-Dani (d. )
  • Books of qiraat

14
Book of Qiraat
  • Kitab Ikhtilaf masahif al-Sham wa 'l-hijaz wa
    'l-Iraq by Ibn Amir al-Yahsubi (d. 118/736)
  • Kitab Ikhtilaf masahif ahl al-Madina wa-ahl
    al-Kufa wa- ahl Basra by al-Kisai (d. 189/805),
  • Kitab Ikhtilaf ahl al-Kufa wa 'l-Basra wa 'l-Sham
    fi 'l-masahif by Abu Zakariyya al-Farra (d.
    207/822)
  • Kitab Ikhtilaf al- masahif wa-jam al-qiraat by
    al-Madaini (d. ca. 231/845)
  • Kitab al- Masahif by Ibn Abi Dawud (d. 316/928),
  • Kitab al-Masahif of Ibn al-Anbari (d. 328/939)
  • Kitab al-Masahif of Ibn Ashta al-Isfahani (d.
    360/970).

15
Orthodox Readings
  • Orthodox readings
  • Nafi - Ibn Kathir - Ibn Amir
  • Abu Amr - Asim - Hamza
  • Al-Kisai
  • Readings today only two versions are in
    general use… Hafs from Asim, (in 1924 was given
    a kind of official sanction by being adopted in
    the Egyptian standard edition), and Warsh from
    Nafi

16
Modern Debates over the Quran
  • Richard Bells Theory accidental insertions
  • Revisionism Quran produced from liturgical
    material circa 800 CE
  • Quran misreading of early Muslim textual
    tradition
  • Early variants of the Quran?
  • Sanaa find etc.
  • General Consensus the arbitrary problem
  • No traces of civil wars
  • Early evidence ex. Dome of the Rock

17
  • We never sent a messenger or prophet before
    thee without Satan intervening in his desires.
    But God abrogates what Satan interposes. Then
    God confirms his signs. God is all-knowing,
    all-wise.
  • - Quran 2252

18
Undotted Consonants
  • ??? house
  • ??? daughter
  • ??? strong
  • back

19
Unvowelled Consonants
  • M-L-K
  • Mulk dominion
  • Milk property
  • Malik King
  • Malak Angel
  • Malaka he owned
  • Mulika it was owned
  • back

20
  • And We have divided the Quran into parts, that
    you may recited to men slowly , with
    deliberation. That is why We sent it down in
    degrees (nazzalnahu tanzila). 17106
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