E. W. Palsrok, Dir. Workforce Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – E. W. Palsrok, Dir. Workforce Development PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: e563-YzFjY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

E. W. Palsrok, Dir. Workforce Development

Description:

... parts (e.g., an auto chassis) monitoring the entire life cycle of parts throughout their 'life' advance process technology, causing more disruption. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:264
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 61
Provided by: edpal
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: E. W. Palsrok, Dir. Workforce Development


1

Micro-Fabrication Nano-Fabrication
Visualization, Planning Knowledge Management
Solid Free-Form Fabrication
Modeling and Simulation

Reconfigurable Tools and Systems
Smart Systems

Sensors
2
definition of disruptive is as follows
  • technological developments that have reached
    sufficient critical mass or tipping point to
    cause a significant proportion of manufacturers
    to fundamentally alter their planning,
    operations, structure or processes.

3
Presentation Outline
  • Scope A broad description of this category for
    the purposes of this presentation. Note These
    descriptions are not intended to be formal
    technical definitions.
  • Current Practice A characterization of the
    state-of-the art of each category
  • Future Trends A brief description of some of
    the trends in cutting-edge research, including
    some specific examples of those trends provided
    by industry executives. Industry recommendations
    for action in connection with these trends are
    also reported.
  • Disruptive State An estimate of the impact of
    these technology categories when they become
    disruptive
  • Environmental and/or Energy-related Impacts
    Comments on the impact of these technologies on
    the environment and on energy efficiency
  • Areas for Further Research - Where appropriate,
    the report includes suggested areas for further
    research.

4
Micro-Fabrication Nano-Fabrication
Visualization, Planning Knowledge Management
Reconfigurable Tools and Systems
Solid Free-Form Fabrication
Advanced Technologies Categories
Sensors
5
Micro Nano-fabrication . . .
  • will introduce a much higher level of agility
    into the industrial base over the longer term.
  • represents the most promising approach to make
    large objects into precision products through
    tools such as molecular machine design, molecular
    manipulation and construction, and molecular
    modeling design tools
  • will be common for switches, filters, and motors.
  • will allow the DoD to focus on the use of
    molecular manufacturing for improving the
    performance of existing military systems, and to
    develop defense strategies against future
    nanomachine-based weapons.

6
Scope Micro Nano Fabrication
  • Micro fabrication - Working with material at the
    micron scale. This would include depositing
    materials onto the surface of a substrate and
    patterning the deposited thin film for
    fabrication of microelectronic circuits.
  • Nano-fabrication - Working with material at the
    nano-scale. This is essentially the creation of
    materials and parts through the manipulation of
    matter at the atomic, molecular level.

7
Current Practice Micro Nano Fabrication
  • Cost is currently a significant restraint on the
    widespread use of these technologies in
    manufacturing
  • Adoption limited until improvements in size,
    weight, and power.
  • U.S. is closer to maturing these technologies
    than many think (ex. carbon nanotubes and
    nanomotors are already being made and
    nanocomputers are becoming a reality)
  • Micro/nano machines obsolescence and strength
    problems
  • On balance, although micro-fabrication and
    nano-fabrication will have far-reaching impacts
    on production systems, these processes are
    currently being implemented in industry at a
    relatively slow rate.

8
Future Trends Micro Nano Fabrication
  • Because of increased federal funding, cited
    above, research in these technology areas is
    moving ahead at a more rapid pace.
  • growing recognition these technologies provide
    more agility in the industrial base over the
    longer term. For example, micro- and
    nano-manufacturing represent approaches in the
    future with the capability to make large objects
    into precision products through tools such as
    molecular machine design, molecular manipulation
    (such as growing a table instead of a tree) and
    construction, and molecular modeling design
    tools.

9
Disruptive State Micro Nano Fabrication
  • Molecular manufacturing will be the most
    disruptive factor within supply chains over the
    long term. There is no supply chain that goes
    directly from raw chemicals to a finished,
    atomically-precise product, in one step
  • Some products will be made using generic raw
    materials such as silica (sand), obviating the
    need for mining and processing of raw materials
  • Products designed and made at the point of use or
    sale, eliminating the geographical dispersion of
    the supply base and making distributed
    manufacturing a reality
  • Micro-nano designer chemical compounds developed
    will revolutionize the consumer-goods industries.
    (Grow furniture not wood, nano products add 50
    increased strength less cost)

10
Environmental and/or energy-related impacts
Micro Nano Fabrication
  • In the short term, these technologies are
    unlikely to have a significant impact on the
    environment or on energy costs. These
    technologies will lead to higher energy costs in
    their early developmental stages due to current
    processing technology.
  • However, advanced micro-and nano-fabrication are
    exciting from the aspect that fewer energy and
    fixed resources will be consumed once these
    technologies mature. For example, as these
    technologies are more widely implemented, they
    will lead to scrap reduction and less waste due
    to the build up process versus removal of
    material to obtain the end product.

11
Areas for Further Research Micro Nano
Fabrication
  • There is a need to identify specific products,
    forms, materials and manufacturing processes for
    pilot studies versus just developing
    nano-science. An example here is use of nanotubes
    for an atomic clock versus just developing nano
    tubes. Tools to manipulate and manufacture
    molecular structures and significant investment
    in the design and manufacture of
    nano-electromechanical devices are examples of
    current gaps in the advancement of this
    technology and benefit realization.
  • A technology roadmap needs to be developed,
    including standards and metrics, and a benefit
    analysis providing the business case to
    accelerate RD in micro- and nano-fabrication.

12
Micro-Fabrication Nano-Fabrication
Modeling and Simulation
13
Scope Modeling and Simulation
  • Using high-speed computers to build virtual
    representations of parts, processes and systems,
    simulate their interaction with one another, and
    observe that process in a way that is useful.
  • This technology allows the visualization of
    things before they are actually created. The
    capacity for innovation is greatly improved as
    the time and cost required to experiment with new
    materials and simulate new processes is
    dramatically reduced.

14
Current Practice Modeling Simulation (MS)
  • Advanced (MS) is mentioned as a need in many
    industry roadmaps. It was the technology category
    most frequently cited by industry participants in
    this project.
  • Full potential coming only with significant
    advances in computing power and software,
    allowing iterative virtual development and
    testing of product and process design as well as
    manufacturing processes which reduces the number
    of unnecessary changes and enables rapid response
    to desired ones.
  • MS in the aerospace and defense sectors is
    already "disruptive." Recent advances in three
    dimensional (3D) graphics packages and related
    simulation software have greatly improved the
    ability to accurately depict reality within
    aerospace manufacturing systems.
  • The integration of machine kinematics (branch of
    mechanics describing the motion of objects
    without the consideration of the masses or forces
    that bring about the motion) for example, is now
    readily available so that movements of machines
    in the real vs. virtual world accurately
    represent actual movements. This capability
    enables manufacturing equipment and processes to
    interface precisely with digital product designs
    (components, assemblies, or just parts).

15
Current Practice (MS) continued
  • There are two kinds of modeling today
    descriptive (observed or recorded laboratory
    data) and predictive (descriptive model becomes
    predictive when you use it to predict behavior of
    a new system).
  • These disciplines need to be brought together, in
    order to substantially realize their potential
    benefits. The benefits include reduced testing
    and time required to design products and bring
    them to the marketplace. While MS of global
    supply chain process and product packages has
    generated significant savings, due to the cost of
    development process simulation and modeling they
    have returned modest results unless high volume
    production is required.

16
Future Trends Modeling Simulation
  • One of the barriers ahead to effective use of MS
    is the inability of modeling tools and platforms
    to interoperate. Standards efforts such as the
    Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data
    (STEP - ISO10303) have made progress, but
    ultimately cannot keep up with the demands for
    new and different data sets covering such areas
    as cost data, simulation results, and test
    results. Visualization has been put forth as an
    alternative but 3D visualization cannot carry all
    of the information necessary to support
    collaborative design and, over time, the same
    issues of model complexity and interoperability
    will again appear.
  • DoD is pursuing Defense Transformation in every
    aspect of their operations from war fighting to
    acquisition to the support of systems and troops.
    New systems are very complex, as are the
    scenarios in which they operate. Acquisition and
    support of these systems depends increasingly on
    analysis of performance, cost and support
    requirements. Much of this analysis is done
    through MS. MS will play a larger part in
    sustainment and logistics support processes
  • The Army has launched a new set of models (Combat
    21 and others) to assess the performance of
    systems in urban combat situations. MS is used
    throughout the design of the system and as part
    of the manufacturing engineering process, which
    will become a requirement for engineering and
    manufacturing readiness.

17
Disruptive State Modeling Simulation
  • With virtual factory simulation, industry will
    have the capabilities to evaluate other
    manufacturers skills, machine capabilities, etc.
    This will have a huge impact on supply chain
    management. Companies will create an auction
    market place for capacities of machines and
    talents. Modeling will be especially useful
    within supply chains to prevent mistakes, and
    reduce labor and overhead costs.
  • With advanced computer power and software,
    modeling will dramatically reduce the number of
    unnecessary changes and enable very rapid
    response times. Companies will have interactive,
    predictive capabilities for advanced MS of
    highly complex production systems.

18
Environmental and/or Energy-Related Impacts
Modeling Simulation
  • Simulation results have less environmental
    impact, faster technology insertion, more
    optimized products. These have a positive impact
    both on the environment and on energy
    conservation. MS can increasingly replace
    physical testing, and build/bust development.
    Researchers should be able to identify
    environmental impacts before system build with
    MS.
  • Better control of manufacturing process through
    simulations will lead to reduced energy
    consumption and better asset utilization.

19
Areas for Further Research Modeling Simulation
  • To enable adaptive simulations, further
    research is needed on the use of micro/nano
    sensors to provide inputs into MS
  • Real incentives must be defined to clarify the
    need for using MS, which could include such as
    the impact of relocation of work force
    suppliers to other vital areas, model
    interoperability, and review of lessons learned
    from pre- and post-visuals of models.
  • U.S. mfrs need standards for MS, since there are
    too many different models, which make integration
    difficult or impossible.
  • Standards need to be established by key users and
    developers to facilitate interoperability. The
    building of standardized ontologies and
    improvement in the ability of simulations to
    interoperate with one another and with other
    engineer and manufacturing execution systems need
    additional development.

20
Micro-Fabrication Nano-Fabrication
Modeling and Simulation

Reconfigurable Tools and Systems
21
Reconfigurable Tools and Systems . . .
  • will enable much shorter product life cycles,
    reduced lot sizes, and cheaper, more flexible
    manufacturing processes and making mass
    customization a reality for many manufacturers.
  • will change the layout and number of machine
    tools needed to manufacture, requiring less floor
    space and fewer facilities.
  • with further refinements, will allow machines to
    work directly from product designs, correct
    problems on the fly, detect and perform
    maintenance adjustments, and adapt themselves to
    changing conditions.

22
Scope - Reconfigurable Tools and Systems . . .
  • Software, tools or machines that can perform
    multiple functions including functions not
    anticipated in the original design and without
    requiring new tool production.
  • As much as reconfigurable tools and systems may
    affect manufacturing, this study showed key
    disruptions may come from cross-technology/cross-c
    utting issues and developments. Timely, new and
    effective approaches and tools (including
    software and the application of simulation and
    visioning tools to technology management) will be
    critical and are evolving.

23
Current Practice Reconfigurable Tools and
Systems . . .
  • This is already becoming a disruptive technology
    category, for example, military fighter aircraft
    manufacturing. Today, reconfigurable tools
    provide substantial cost savings benefits
    (potential) not only for very expensive hard
    tools, but also for the elimination of their
    maintenance in the aircraft industry.
  • Industry is producing aircraft with laser
    alignment vs. hard /special tooling. Efforts in
    the area of wire harness fabrication have yielded
    a "flexible tool" approach providing the same
    type of advantages. Within the last ten years
    this technology has also been used in machine
    tools to allow for more flexibility and agility.
  • In response to market demand, one camera company
    was very successful in using this process with
    single-use disposable camerassame platform with
    derivatives for black and white, color,
    underwater, flash, wide angle cameras, etc., The
    auto industry, aerospace industry and chemical
    industry are making increasing use of this
    technology.

24
Future Trends Reconfigurable Tools and Systems
. . .
  • This technology will realize greater
    implementation when the manufacturing process
    benefits are clearly capable of lowering costs,
    increasing reliability, and providing greater
    consistency. Future research will focus on
    increasing the capability to using this
    technology with multiple manufacturing processes.
  • Future research will also focus on new concepts
    that utilize alternative production processes vs.
    hard tooling, i.e. powdered metals,
    stereo-lithography/metal printing vs. machining
    of metals. Other trends more high-speed
    machining (HSM) processes by using monolithic
    structures in place of assemblies, a precept
    often enabled by HSM elimination of assembly
    jigs with the use of laser projection graded
    metal interfaces may make joint areas stronger
    and not the inherent weak point.
  • As military products move towards mass
    customization the ability to reconfigure tooling
    and test equipment will mean increased readiness
    and adaptability, faster production time, with
    less risk. Simplicity of use is also key to the
    extent of future deployment of this important
    technology category.

25
Disruptive State Reconfigurable Tools and
Systems . . .
  • Reconfigurable tools and systems will enable much
    shorter product life cycles, reduced lot sizes,
    and cheaper, more flexible manufacturing
    processes. These capabilities will help make mass
    customization a reality for many manufacturers.
  • Reconfigurable tools and systems will
  • Change the layout and number of machine tools
    needed to manufacture, requiring less floor space
    and fewer facilities.
  • Allow machines to work directly from product
    designs
  • Correct problems on the fly
  • Detect and perform maintenance adjustments
  • Adapt themselves to changing conditions.

26
Environmental and/or Energy-Related Impacts
Reconfigurable Tools and Systems . . .
  • This technology should have positive impact
    environmentally.
  • Rebuilding parts without fixtures (e.g. laser
    additive manufacturing) will reduce the need for
    new parts, reducing energy and material
    consumption.

27
Areas for further research Reconfigurable
Tools and Systems . . .
  • Industry needs to study and identify regions of
    standardized modularity (size and performance
    ranges) that fit all target applications so the
    real value is quantified
  • Studies needed qualify quantify cost
    effectiveness, reliability, simplicity, and
    improved cost models.
  • Industrial partnerships, (OEMs) and machine tool
    builders, for more flexible and reconfigurable
    machines and solutions, including software and
    funding profiles.

28
Micro-Fabrication Nano-Fabrication
Modeling and Simulation

Reconfigurable Tools and Systems

Sensors
29
Sensors will . . .
  • enable new, paradigm-shifting mfg processes
    leading to far greater flexibility, adaptability
    and real-time control
  • enable efficient virtual factory operations and
    cost reduction- possible more disruption than
    micro or nano-fabrication
  • give detailed real-time feedback during the mfg
    process, continuously monitoring the health of
    mfg platforms products being manufactured
  • be embedded in large product parts (e.g., an auto
    chassis) monitoring the entire life cycle of
    parts throughout their life
  • advance process technology, causing more
    disruption.
  • improve performance by intelligent machine tools
    many miniature sensors linked together for
    process monitoring
  • cause control processes to use adaptive
    intelligence (adaptive response) moving from
    pre-programmed function (a set of givens)
  • become common occurrences in manufacturing
    production processes.
  • allow distance sensing and in some cases be
    wireless with small power requirements and the
    ability to transmit and/or receive signals over
    significant distances.
  • be reduced in size sufficient that advanced
    micro-sensors will be embedded in Electro-optics
    systems and advanced radio frequency products.

30
Scope - Sensors
  • These are devices that respond to external
    stimuli and feed that data into a larger
    monitoring, diagnostic and actuation systems

31
Current Practice Sensors
  • Sensor technology is changing rapidly from
    extended sensors to embedded sensors. Currently
    the commercial industrial base is incorporating
    sensors in all phases of manufacturing and into
    the product. For example, Caterpillar is now
    incorporating sensors into the steel frames of
    their equipment.
  • More broadly, sensor fusion sharing of
    information between sensors and other functions
    is an important enabling input today into active
    safety systems, automatic suspension systems on
    cars, as well as climate and heating controls. A
    trade-off being debated related to cost is over
    the number of sensors versus the ability to
    interpret and extrapolate data. Sensors are
    proving their value for lean manufacturing by
    detecting problems early, enhancing product
    quality, reducing scrap and improving
    reliability.

32
Future Trends Sensors
  • Sensor fusion (combination of and reaction to
    input from multiple sensors), chemical and
    molecular signal generation sensors are on the
    horizon.
  • Evolving into miniaturized smart systems.
    Developing wireless networking applications
    linking tiny sensors the size one cubic
    millimeter. Smaller power usage as sensors
    usually off. Need more advanced knowledge
    management programs to use the information from
    these sensors.
  • Sensor interface standards are critical. Control
    and communication methodology must progress to
    enable the increases in data input for system
    management.
  • Two philosophies - redundancy vs. robustness - no
    clear answer yet. Adding sensors cannot degrade
    the robustness of the production system. The next
    frontier is to make sensing capability inherent
    to the material, not just stuck on or
    molded-in .
  • New sensors emerging that, e.g. friend-or-foe
    (FOF), new bio-sensors, gas-detect, optic,
    fatigue, and integrated multi-sensors. These used
    in all areas of manufacturing measurement and
    monitoring. Redundancy will play a larger role as
    advanced sensor technology matures to eliminate
    false readings.
  • Some of the funding for radio frequency (RF),
    electro-optic, and bio sensors is being provided
    by individual companies.
  • Urgent national security requirement for DOD to
    remain in a leadership role in the areas of
    advanced sensors. For example, the manufacture of
    Combat ID Hot Sensors should remain in the
    U.S. for critical national security reasons.
  • Sensor technology is one of the most active areas
    of international research (e.g., bio-sensing in
    Europe may be more advanced than in the U.S.).
    Therefore, U.S. manufacturers will need to
    accelerate their research and development (RD)
    in this arena to remain globally competitive.

33
Disruptive State Sensors
  • Advanced sensors key to efficient virtual factory
    operations and cost reduction, and the enabler to
    realizing the full benefits of other technologies
    they will be game-changers for the foreseeable
    future.
  • Will give detailed real-time feedback during the
    manufacturing process, continuously monitoring
    the health of manufacturing platforms. Ex
    sensors embedded in automotive chasses could
    monitor each chassis throughout its life, from
    the initial manufacturing, to testing, to
    performance in the field.
  • Sensors will continue to mature and reach cost
    target goals as micro-electro-mechanical machines
    (MEMs) and nano-technologies become more robust
    and sharply increase demand for various new
    applications. As current radio frequency
    identification (RFID) sensors get cheaper, uses
    for sensor capabilities will expand.
  • Miniature sensors will play a key part in the
    advancement of process technology, causing more
    disruption. Intelligent machine tools will rely
    heavily on increased use of sensing of functions.
    These tools will become heavily dependent on many
    miniature sensors linked together for process
    monitoring. The ability to control processes will
    move from pre-programmed functions (a set of
    givens) to adaptive intelligence (adaptive
    response) enabled by sensors.

34
Environmental and/or Energy-Related Impacts
-Sensors
  • Advanced sensors key to efficient virtual factory
    operations and cost reduction, and the enabler to
    realizing the full benefits of other technologies
    they will be game-changers for the foreseeable
    future.
  • Will give detailed real-time feedback during the
    manufacturing process, continuously monitoring
    the health of manufacturing platforms. Ex
    sensors embedded in automotive chasses could
    monitor each chassis throughout its life, from
    the initial manufacturing, to testing, to
    performance in the field.
  • Sensors will continue to mature and reach cost
    target goals as micro-electro-mechanical machines
    (MEMs) and nano-technologies become more robust
    and sharply increase demand for various new
    applications. As current radio frequency
    identification (RFID) sensors get cheaper, uses
    for sensor capabilities will expand.
  • Miniature sensors will play a key part in the
    advancement of process technology, causing more
    disruption. Intelligent machine tools will rely
    heavily on increased use of sensing of functions.
    These tools will become heavily dependent on many
    miniature sensors linked together for process
    monitoring. The ability to control processes will
    move from pre-programmed functions (a set of
    givens) to adaptive intelligence (adaptive
    response) enabled by sensors.

35
Areas for further research Sensors
  • Some types of sensors (e.g.., electro optic
    sensors) are being developed globally faster than
    in the U.S. The U.S. needs to remain in the lead
    in certain defense-critical advanced sensor
    technologies, requiring the U.S. to aggressively
    monitor--and utilize--the latest developments in
    sensor research internationally
  • Software development and integration for advanced
    sensors need funding profiles and technology
    roadmaps. These roadmaps should illuminate the
    long-term durability of embedded sensors, data
    acquisition, action-integration and control
    systems/mechanisms needed for sensors to enhance
    controls in automated manufacturing.
  • There is currently a huge gap between the
    technology available today and the realization of
    potential benefits in application. Areas that
    need to be addressed include applications that
    they could impact, integration, and embedding
    software. Sensor robustness, accuracy,
    reliability and manufacturing costs need to be
    addressed. A study to clarify gaps in development
    and the funding required should be started.

36
Micro-Fabrication Nano-Fabrication
Modeling and Simulation

Reconfigurable Tools and Systems
Smart Systems

Sensors
37
Smart Systems will . . .
  • reduce cost and time in the development of new
    systems
  • enhance first-part correct manufacturing (FPC)
    which is the ability to transition from design
    concept to a finished product with absolute
    certainty that a part or product will be produced
    correctly, automatically documenting how each
    part is made, with the ability to transition
    from one to many without interruption.
  • self adapt to automatically reduce scrap, rework,
    and setup costs. The application of smart systems
    will involve the use of modeling and simulation
    and knowledge management.

38
Scope Smart Systems
  • Computer-integrated, electro-mechanical systems
    and processes that have the capacity to learn

39
Current Practice Smart Systems
  • Smart systems are in development both for
    products and for manufacturing processes.
    Machines already have better understanding of
    manufacturing processes and are better able to
    optimize production, working directly from
    product designs, sensing and correcting problems
    in process through embedded sensors.

40
Future Trends Smart Systems
  • Intelligent machine tools that are integrated
    into the manufacturing enterprise will be the
    future for manufacturing. Future smart systems
    will be centered on a virtual network of support
    resources and companies. Through virtual systems
    analysis, the impact of 'buy vs. make' will be
    readily apparent early in the quoting or planning
    process. The critical metric of the future will
    be time--the time to design, produce and
    deliver to the customer.
  • Smart systems are dependent upon advanced
    sensors, software development, and even modeling
    and simulation for future development. U.S.
    manufacturers have not been able to work
    effectively across industry because of limited
    general purpose software.
  • With more dependence in micro-nano and
    bio-technologies, the need for smart systems to
    control these will increase significantly. While
    the demand for more adaptive machining will
    grow, it can be accomplished only with smart
    systems.
  • Smart systems will provide the new supply chain
    environment with a virtual or extended capability
    that may extend through several organizations.
    Most if not all information will be handled
    electronically with electronic money as the
    primary exchange. Each OEM or customer will have
    access to a broader network of suppliers with
    standard certifications identified.
  • Federal programs that seek to extend the
    knowledge base for smart systems and their
    applications, such as the Defense Advanced
    Research Project Agency (DARPA) Challenge program
    (Prize competition for a driverless cars) could
    be a key development tool for smart systems in
    the future.

41
Areas for Further Research Smart Systems
  • A study would be useful on the current needs of
    smart systems. For successful advancement, both
    an incremental approach and integration
    demonstrations are required. Researchers will
    need stronger feedback on processing/mechanism/too
    ls to improve existing processes. This research
    should examine the linkage to advanced sensors
    that already exists in the field of modeling and
    simulation. Embedding sensor technology into
    mainstream products such as programmable logic
    controllers (PLCs), and new materials require new
    manufacturing methods and integration to make
    this a smart system.
  • A roadmap on smart systems needs to be developed
    and include the following
  • Integration of multiple cross function
    technologies/ capabilities
  • Cost and ROI analysis in specific applications.
  • Smart systems have been very narrowly focused,
    and broader analysis is needed (i.e. across
    industry sectors, and across technologies).

42
Micro-Fabrication Nano-Fabrication
Solid Free-Form Fabrication
Modeling and Simulation

Reconfigurable Tools and Systems
Smart Systems

Sensors
43
Solid Free-Form Fabrication (SFFF) will. . .
  • probably lead to industry changes that would
    alter the industrial base with a large payoff for
    limited (less than 100 units) production.
  • allow industry to make more complex shapes with
    fewer material defects than conventional
    machining or molding due to purity of material
    and more efficient heating. Graded metal
    interfaces may make joint areas stronger and
    not the inherent weak point.

44
Scope - Solid Free-Form Fabrication (SFFF)
  • SFFF can be called layered manufacturing,
    additive manufacturing or growing parts. It is
    the ability to create a product (solid) directly
    from powder, liquids without the use of molds or
    tooling.

45
Scope - Solid Free-Form Fabrication (SFFF)
  • SFFF can be called layered manufacturing,
    additive manufacturing or growing parts. It is
    the ability to create a product (solid) directly
    from powder, liquids without the use of molds or
    tooling.

46
Current Practice - Solid Free-Form Fabrication
(SFFF)
  • Some industries are already using fused
    deposition modeling (e.g., Stratysys-plastics) to
    make tooling details and secondary structures.
    Further, additive manufacturing of metal
    structures (laser, e-beam, welding) continues to
    evolve and is looking for a niche. DoD is already
    building worm machining parts in the field.
  • Rapid Prototyping is a subset of SFFF.
    Currently it is used in metal rapid prototyping
    and heavily used in digital requirements for
    composites. Today this process is cost effective
    for one-off manufacturing (i.e. prototype,
    specialty products). The use of this technology
    for composites tooling is still in its infancy.

47
Future Practice - Solid Free-Form Fabrication
(SFFF)
  • Rapid prototyping can generate great savings and
    flexibility. As the process becomes more cost
    effective, SFFF will grow in proportion to the
    material advances and to the accuracy of the end
    product. SFFF needs more RD to make the process
    faster and expand the limits on current
    materials.
  • SFFF will become very pervasive as cost comes
    down. The ability to produce complex parts versus
    multiple parts which require significant assembly
    makes this technology category attractive. One
    could imagine layer-by-layer manufacturing
    (deposit, heat, treat, and machine) as opposed to
    just additive. Because of the computing
    requirements, SFFF can overwhelm conventional CAD
    capabilities. There is a need for CAD development
    to support SFFF.
  • The increasing trend of transitioning the range
    of techniques from model building to
    prototyping to production parts has made this a
    viable manufacturing option. It allows one to
    create very complex prototypes prior to costly
    manufacture of a product, i.e., using stereo
    lithography. Another potentially disruptive SFFF
    process is the new method of screen printing
    metal powder with a binder and then sintering
    that product to form a final product.

48
Disruptive State Solid Free-Form Fabrication
(SFFF)
  • SFFF could lead to industry changes that would
    alter the industrial base with a large payoff for
    limited (rate/low quality less than 100)
    production. SFFF will allow industry to make more
    complex shapes with fewer material defects than
    conventional machining or molding due to purity
    of material and less heat required to build the
    product.

49
Environmental and/or Energy-Related Impacts
Solid Free-Form Fabrication (SFFF)
  • This technology presents tremendous potential for
    scrap reduction and associated avoidance of
    process energy waste. The ability to build
    products directly from powder or liquid versus
    machinery requires less energy and yields less
    scrap. Example a titanium jet and rotor blade
    made from powder required only 5 machinery.
    Direct machining from a block of titanium
    produces 96 chips.

50
Areas for Further Research Solid Free-Form
Fabrication (SFFF)
  • Studies need to be conducted on how to improve
    methods and new materials so that producing parts
    through SFFF can be made more effective,
    especially as an aid to mass customization.
  • Research on designer materials is needed
    beginning with a study of lessons learned on the
    use of current materials.
  • Standardization of models and the ability to
    integrate models done on different systems will
    help this technology. A technology gap analysis
    across different systems would show areas in
    which CAD techniques could be improved to better
    support SFFF.
  • Software limitations rooted in the predominant
    languages used today should also be examined to
    identify ways to better support SFFF.

51

Micro-Fabrication Nano-Fabrication
Visualization, Planning Knowledge Management
Solid Free-Form Fabrication
Modeling and Simulation

Reconfigurable Tools and Systems
Smart Systems

Sensors
52
Visualization, Planning Knowledge Management .
. .
  • is a category of technologies that have the
    potential to enable industry to collect,
    synthesize, rapidly transfer, and utilize large
    quantities of data. This capability will
    effectively use new modeling and simulation
    capabilities.
  • use on shop floor control systems will enable a
    much higher level of integration between original
    equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and their
    suppliers.

53
Scope - Visualization, Planning Knowledge
Management
  • Virtual reality systems that can be used on
    relatively low-end desk top computers.

54
Current Trends -Visualization, Planning
Knowledge Management
  • There are elements within all three of the topics
    listed that are potentially disruptive. These
    technologies are a must to achieve desired levels
    of productivity, supply chain robustness, and a
    more disciplined approached to manufacturing
    management.
  • Knowledge management is the key enabler here.
    Being able to get the critical information needed
    to manufacturers in a timely fashion is vital to
    having a competitive advantage.
  • 3D visualization is beginning to penetrate wider
    audiences, down to 3rd tier suppliers.
    Visualization already allows users to see inside
    large-scale 3D representations of products and
    components. Ex. Motorola engineers use an
    advanced visualization technology to see inside a
    cell phone as it breaks on impact with a hard
    surface facilitating improved construction. DoDs
    Future Combat Systems (FCS) analytical tool is
    taking advantage of this technology to increase
    the visualization capabilities of the agile
    soldier.

55
Future Trends -Visualization, Planning
Knowledge Management
  • These technologies are essential for increasing
    the robustness of supply chains, including
    defense supply chains.
  • DoD is likely to intensify efforts to get
    information about advanced production
    technologies disseminated more broadly throughout
    the defense supply chain, especially since prime
    defense contractors are relying increasingly on
    their supply chains for manufacturing and
    innovation.
  • Promising Precision Theory in mathematics needs
    greater attention and is an underlying
    requirement to see fuller realization of
    technology visualization. Math-based processes
    for visualization and knowledge management are
    needed.
  • Research on Knowledge Management standards is
    urgently needed to make knowledge management
    information more useful across industry sectors.
  • Technology to mine data is available and some
    decision making tools are available, but
    enterprise integration is lacking..

56
Disruptive State -Visualization, Planning
Knowledge Management
  • These items have the potential to enable industry
    to collect, sort, synthesize, rapidly transfer,
    and utilize large quantities of data. This
    capability will effectively use new modeling and
    simulation capabilities.
  • Shop floor control systems using visualization,
    planning and technology will enable a much higher
    level of integration between OEMS and their
    suppliers. Advanced software quality assurance
    (SQA) programs will greatly enhance the data base
    capabilities underlying knowledge management.

57
Environmental and/or Energy-Related Impacts
-Visualization, Planning Knowledge Management
  • NONE KNOWN AT THIS TIME

58
Areas of Other Research -Visualization, Planning
Knowledge Management
  • Need ways to communicate information about
    visualization and knowledge management to SMEs
    (Small Manufacturing Entities) in all industrial
    sectors. Virtual reality applications used to
    simulate various fighter pilot scenarios to
    enhance training prior to actual combat are
    compelling examples of visualization that
    Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) centers
    can use to help the broader industrial-technology
    community understand the power of this
    technology.
  • A high priority is standards for knowledge
    management transfer so the knowledge transfer is
    more useful across industry sectors.

59
(No Transcript)
60
Electricity Electronics

Mechanical Pumps
Hydraulics
  • Advanced Manufacturing Curriculum

Machine Tool
CAD CAM Rapid Prototyping

Welding
Pneumatics

Robotics
About PowerShow.com