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Latter 19th Century Warfare: Prussia

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... failures and relevance of the German Staff model to the U.S. ... Reverted to 18th Century model. Military schools. Military literature. Concert of Europe ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Latter 19th Century Warfare: Prussia


1
Latter 19th Century Warfare Prussia
  • 8801, Lesson 7

2
Educational Objectives
  • Understand
  • The significance of the Prussian Armys
    reorganization
  • The accomplishments of the General Staff under
    Moltke
  • The ramifications of a professionalization
    race.
  • Analyze the success, failures and relevance of
    the German Staff model to the U.S.

3
19th Century Europe
  • European Reaction to Napoleonic Warfare
  • Continuity
  • Jomini
  • Clausewitz
  • Napoleonic warfare
  • Maneuver
  • Strength at the decisive point
  • Prussia
  • Dominant Military Power

4
Prussian Success
  • Cohesive, training fighting units
  • Elite trained officers
  • Improvisation
  • Thoughtful command

5
The European Context
  • Dealing with the aftermath of Napoleon
  • Not to be repeated
  • Reverted to 18th Century model
  • Military schools
  • Military literature
  • Concert of Europe

6
The Concert of Europe
  • Most peaceful period
  • Characteristics
  • Economic growth
  • Cultural interaction
  • Middle class
  • Goal
  • To suppress revolution
  • Avoid general war

7
The Wars of 19th Century Europe
  • 1815-1848
  • Small wars, big riots
  • 1849-1869
  • Great Powers wars
  • 1870-1914
  • Peaceful competition
  • The wars of 1849-1869
  • Crimean War
  • Italian Wars
  • Wars of German Unification
  • Franco-Prussian War

8
19th Century Europe
  • The isms
  • Nationalism
  • Darwinism
  • Imperialism
  • Militarism
  • Navalism
  • Military influences
  • Franco-Prussian War (1870)
  • The Spanish-American War (1898)
  • The Boer War (1898-1901)
  • The RussoJapanese War (1904-05)

9
Forces at work
  • Technology
  • Military professionalism
  • Population growth

unparalleled destructive potential
10
Between 1815 and 1914
  • Communications revolution
  • Transformed strategy
  • Weapons technology
  • Transformed tactics
  • Military professionalization
  • Tied these together
  • Resulting dilemma

11
Dilemma
  • The tactical problem
  • Offensive action, but
  • unsupportable casualties.
  • Reinforced by wars
  • Resolution improved artillery to neutralize
    infantry firepower

12
The Prussian Revolutionin Military Organization
  • Conscription
  • General Staff System
  • Military Education

13
The Prussian Army
  • Created by
  • Frederick the Great
  • Napoleon
  • Scharnhorst Gniesenau

14
Prussian Effectiveness
  • Organization
  • Training system
  • Study of war

15
Prussian Changes
  • Conscription
  • Goal
  • Organization of the army
  • General Staff
  • Command System

16
The Great German General Staff
  • The brains
  • Junior partners in command
  • Institutionalized combat efficiency
  • Same training
  • Similar solution
  • Auftragstaktik directive control

17
Moltke
  • Military writer of the 19th Century
  • The Fundamental Questions of Military Theorists
  • Influence of historical setting?
  • Use of historical analysis?
  • What are his ideas?
  • Build on or react to previous theorists?
  • Affect on later theorists and practitioners of
    war?

18
Moltke
  • Influence of the historical setting

19
Moltke
  • Use of historical analysis?

20
Moltke
  • What are his ideas about
  • The fundamentals of strategy
  • Civil-military relations
  • The importance of material and moral factors
  • The ability of individuals to affect events
  • Relationship between offense and defense
  • The importance of chance in war

21
Moltke and War
22
Approach to Modern war
  • Dilemma

23
Moltke
  • What are his ideas about strategy?

24
Moltke
  • What are his ideas about civil-military relations?

25
Moltke
  • What are his ideas about the importance of
    material and moral factors?

26
Moltke
  • What are his ideas about the ability of
    individuals to affect the course of events?

27
Moltke
  • What are his ideas about the importance of chance
    in war?

28
Moltke
  • What are his ideas about the relationship between
    offense and defense?

29
Moltke
  • How do his ideas build on or react to previous
    theorists?

30
Moltke
  • Affect on later theorists and practitioners of
    war?

31
Moltkes Legacy
32
Critique
33
The U.S. in the late 19th Century
  • Approach to war?
  • Roles of
  • Regular Army?
  • State militia?
  • Navy?

34
Can Prussian system be duplicated
  • In the U.S.?
  • Today?
  • Considerations
  • Functional demands v societal imperatives
  • Elites in a democracy?
  • Zero defect management mentality
  • Anti-military bias

35
Issues for Consideration
  • Prussian Military Revolution
  • Professionalization Race
  • Moltke
  • Civil-Military Relationships

36
Issues for Consideration
  • The Prussian Military Revolution
  • Meaning?
  • Causes?
  • What was it?
  • How did it work?

37
Issues for Consideration
  • Professionalization Race
  • Institutionalization of the Prussian approach?
  • Confined to one state?
  • Consequences?

38
Issues for Consideration
  • How did Moltke apply
  • Prussian traditions?
  • Clausewitizian theory?
  • His own strategic thought?

39
Issues for Consideration
  • Civil-Military Relationships
  • What was the relationship in
  • The Prussian Kingdom?
  • The German Empire?
  • Strengths?
  • Weaknesses?
  • Compared to U.S. historic civ-mil relations?

40
Summary
  • Military Revolution
  • Schlieffen Plan v TPFDL
  • General Staff v maneuver warfare?
  • Maneuver warfare v unity of command?
  • Points to remember

41
Next Week
42
Points to remember
  • The simple things are always hard.
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