Learning Theories for Teachers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Learning Theories for Teachers PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: e4335-NTU3M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Learning Theories for Teachers

Description:

Kurt Lewin produced the root ideas of cognitive-field psychology. ... Cognitive-field psychology studies the ... Behavioristic Linear Alternating Reaction ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:2352
Avg rating:5.0/5.0
Slides: 36
Provided by: nebrwe
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Learning Theories for Teachers


1
Learning Theories for Teachers
  • Morris B. Bigge Samuel Shermis
  • Chapter 9
  • What is the Cognitive Field Interactionist theory
    of Learning?

2
Introduction
  • Cognitive-field interactionist learning theory
    has emerged as a current synthesis whose basic
    paradigm or model, life space, centers upon each
    persons interaction with ones contemporaneous
    psychological environment.
  • Kurt Lewin produced the root ideas of
    cognitive-field psychology.

3
What is the Purpose of Cognitive-Field
Interactionist Learning Theory?
  • Formulate test relationships that are predictive
    of the psychological behaviors of individual
    persons in their specific life spaces or
    psychological situations.
  • Learning is a process within which a person
    attains new insights or cognitive structures or
    changes old ones.
  • Insights are senses of, or feelings for, patterns
    or relationships in a persons life situations

4
What is the Purpose of Cognitive-Field
Interactionist Learning Theory? Cont.
  • Learning is the development of insights into the
    nature of that persons world as represented by
    the model-life space.
  • Describes how a person gains understanding of
    oneself and ones universe in a situation so
    construed that both the person and the persons
    psychological environment compose a totality of
    mutually interdependent, coexisting factors.

5
What are Insights?
  • Basic senses of, or feelings for, relationships
    they are meanings or discernments.
  • A persons insights collectively constitute the
    cognitive structure of that persons life space.
  • Cognitive structure means that persons
    perception of the psychological aspects of the
    personal, physical, and social world, which
    includes the person and all of the persons
    facts, concepts, beliefs, memory, traces, and
    expectations.

6
What are the Sources of Cognitive-Field
Interactionist Learning Theory?
  • Kurt Lewin, John Dewey, Edward C. Toleman, Boyd
    H. Bode, Danald Snygg, Ernest E. Bayles, Maurice
    P. Hunt, and Albert Bandura
  • Theory is derived from cognitive and field
    psychological theories
  • Cognitive means to know
  • Field consists of the simultaneous concurrent
    interrelationships of a person and that persons
    psychological environment in any one situation

7
How Does Cognitive-Field Interactionist Learning
Theory Differ from the Stimulus-Response
Conditioning Theories?
  • Emphasize psychological functions
  • View intelligent behavior as purposive
  • The focus upon contemporaneous situations
  • View interactions of persons and their
    environments as being simultaneous and mutual,
    not alternating
  • Represent a relativistic-interactional approach
    to understanding perception

8
Why the Emphasis Upon Purposiveness of
Intelligent Behavior
  • Each person, at ones level of development, does
    the best that one knows how for whatever one
    thinks he is
  • A normal process of development produces
    self-involvement with objects, people, groups,
    and social organizations in a physical and social
    environment

9
Why do Cognitive-Field Interactionists View
Intelligence Behaviors as Being Purposive?
  • The purposivism of the cognitive-field
    interactionists theory means that a person
    operates within, not beyond, the world of ones
    experience, which prevails in workaday life
    situations.
  • Interactionists emphasize situational choice.

10
Why the Focus upon Contemporaneous Situations?
  • Cognitive-field psychology studies the presents
    of persons in order to apprehend their presents
    and thereby predict their futures.
  • Situational Emphasis a study always begins with
    a description of a current situation as whole
  • Principle of Contemporaneity everything
    psychological that is occurring in relation to a
    specific person at a given time.

11
Why a relativistic-interactional approach to an
understand of perception?
  • Relativistic vs. Mechanistic
  • Relativists counter that when a person perceives
    ones world, one does not develop a photographic
    image of exactly what is out there.
  • A person views, selects, simplifies, compares,
    completes, combins and places into context the
    objects of ones experience.

12
Behavioristic Linear Alternating Reaction
  • Linear Alternating Reaction begins with a
    reaction of a person or organism to a stimulus.
  • When one receives a stimulus, one responds in
    accordance with both the innate and the
    conditioned behaviors that are called into play.
  • When one reacts, one is likely to change ones
    physical or social environment in some way

13
Cognitive-Field Simultaneous Mutual
Interaction-SMI
  • Interaction refers to a relationship between a
    person and ones psychological environment.
  • Psychological behavior may be
  • An overt purposive act
  • An attitudinal shift
  • A change in the perceived value of an object or
    activity
  • A new relationship being established between two
    or more events.

14
Cognitive-Field Simultaneous Mutual
Interaction-SMI, cont.,
  • The psychological concept person is much broader
    than the biological concepept organism
  • SMI - A simultaneous mutual relation of a person
    and a persons psychological environment.

15
Cognitive-Field Simultaneous Mutual Interaction -
SMI, cont.,
  • Perception is a cognitive experimental process
    within which a person simultaneously reaches out
    to ones environment, encounters some aspects of
    it, brings those aspects into relationship with
    oneself, makes something of those aspects, acts
    in relation to what one makes of them, and
    realizes the consequences of the entire process.

16
Experience An Insightful Process
  • Experience is a psychological event that involves
    a person acting purposefully with anticipation of
    the probable or possible consequences of such
    action.

17
How do Cognitive-Field Interactionists Apply the
Life Space Concept to Teaching-Learning
Situations?
  • Teachers us life space to describe various
    situations that people find themselves in and
    peoples tendencies to behave in certain ways
    because of how they size up matters.
  • With-in a situation-life space-a person engages
    in those motor, verbal, and ideational activities
    that point toward either continuation or
    reestablishment of equilibrium through a
    moderation or blance of tension.

18
What Psychological Processes Characterize Ones
Life spaces?
  • Four Concurrent Psychological Process
  • Interaction, within each life space, of a person
    and that persons psychological environment
  • Continuity of succeeding life spaces
  • Differentiation in the persons perspective
  • Changes in the concrete-imaginative levels of
    reality

19
What Does Interaction within Each Life Space Mean?
  • Ones person consists of what ones makes of
    oneself, and ones psychological environment
    consists of what one makes of that which seems to
    surround one.

20
What does Continuity of Succeeding Life Spaces
Mean?
  • Each life space covers only a limited expanse of
    time, an individual lives through a continuous
    series of overlapping life spaces that have much
    in common but seldom are identical.

21
What is Differentiation in a Persons Time
Perspective?
  • Everyone lives in the present a person cannot
    really live in either the physical past or
    future.
  • The past is past-present, the future is
    future-present, and the present is
    present-present.
  • The past-present consists of memories and the
    future-present consists of what we ordinarily
    call anticipations or expectations.

22
What are changes in concrete-imaginative levels
of reality?
  • When a child grows older, the child tends to make
    an even sharper distinction between concrete and
    imaginative reality.
  • Adults generally are better able to distinguish
    imaginative processes from concrete experiences.

23
Who are concrete-imaginative levels related to
time dimensions of life space?
  • Two salient characteristics of life space at any
    given time
  • The level of concrete-imaginative reality at
    which the person is operating
  • The degree to which the individuals life space
    encompasses a psychological past and future

24
For Cognitive-Field Interactionists, What is
Learning?
  • Learning is a process within which a person
    attains new insights or cognitive structures or
    changes old ones
  • Ones learning is a process of cognitively
    reconstruction, reorganizing, and enhancing one
    life space.
  • Insights are defined a a basic sense of or
    feeling for relationships.

25
How is Learning a Change in Insights or Cognitive
Structures?
  • Learning is a dynamic process whereby through
    interactive experience, insights or cognitive
    structures of life spaces are changed so as to
    become more serviceable for future guidance.
  • Changes in cognitive structures includes changes
    in perceptual knowledge, motivation, group
    belongingness and ideology.
  • Changes in perceptual knowledge are focused upon
    the topological or structural aspects of a
    situation, changes in motivation are focused upon
    its vectorial or dynamic aspects.

26
How may the Cognitive Structures of Life Spaces
Change?
  • A person changes the cognitive structure of ones
    life space through perceptual differential,
    cognitive generalization, and cognitive
    restructurization of its respective regions or
    aspects.

27
What is Cognitive or Perceptual Differentiation?
  • Cognitive differentiation is the process within
    which regions of a life space are subdivided into
    smaller regions
  • Differentiation means discerning more and more
    specific aspects of ones environment an oneself
  • Differentiation proceeds at different rates at
    different times, and during crisis periods, such
    as adolescence, its speed rapidly fluctuates.

28
What is Cognitive or Perceptual
Differentiation? Cont.,
  • As a person grows, that person differentiates
  • A self or person from the persons environment
  • Different aspects of ones person and environment
    from one another
  • A psychological past and future from the
    psychological present
  • Imaginative reality levels from the concrete
    reality level of the persons life spaces.

29
What is Cognitive Generalization?
  • Cognitive generalization is a process whereby one
    formulates a generalized idea or concept through
    discerning some common characteristics of a
    number of individual cases and identifying the
    cases as a class or ideas or objects.

30
What is Cognitive Restructurization?
  • Cognitive restructurization of a persons life
    space means that persons making more or
    different sense of oneself and ones world.
  • Within the process of restructurization, a person
    defines and redefines direction in ones life
    space the person learns what actions will lead
    to what result

31
How is Intelligence Related to Learning?
  • Intelligence is defined as the ability to respond
    in present situations on the basis of cogent
    anticipation of possible consequences and with a
    view to controlling those consequences that
    ensue.
  • Leaning is the enhancement of ones intelligence.

32
How does Intelligent Behavior Differ from
Nonintelligent Behavior
  • An intelligent behaving person is one who acts as
    if he or she is pursuing a purpose and has some
    foresights as to how it is to be achieved.
  • Nonintelligent behavior arises when a person is
    pushed or pulled about as an inert, nonliving
    object.

33
What is Habit?
  • Habit is fluid, effective action arising through
    a person operating on the basis of the insights
    that one possesses.
  • Habit is goal-related
  • Habit enables one to behave intelligently without
    thinking.

34
What is the Meaning of Cognitive-Field Psychology
for Teaching Learning Situations?
  • To understand the behavior of a student, a
    teacher must determine the psychological position
    of the students person in reference to the
    regions.
  • Teachers should bear in mind that a self or
    person is in the making constantly as a student
    develops new insights changes old one, and forms
    new habits.

35
What is the Meaning of Cognitive-Field Psychology
for Teaching Learning Situations?
  • Teachers who are committed to the application of
    cognitive-field psychology in their teaching may
    encourage students to memorize certain items that
    seem to be worth knowing verbatim, but they will
    strive to teach as much as possible on an
    exploratory-understanding level.
About PowerShow.com