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Measuring Weather Issues for Pesticide Applicators Part 2

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Title: Measuring Weather Issues for Pesticide Applicators Part 2


1
Measuring Weather Issues for Pesticide
Applicators Part 2
  • by Linda S. Wiles
  • Penn State Extension Educator

2
Using Climate Predictions
  • Long-term (seasonal)
  • to schedule crop species, cultivars
  • Short-term (8-14 day, 6-10 day, 3-7 day)
  • to schedule irrigation, maintenance, pesticide
    applications
  • See NOAA
  • www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/forecasts

3
Using NOAA Predictions
  • 6-10 Day Forecast
  • To schedule irrigation, fertilization, and
    chemical application
  • Recommended by Hu and Hubbard from University of
    Nebraska

4
NOAA Weather Conversions
  • Temperature
  • 77?Fahrenheit 25?Celsius 298.15?Kelvin
  • Wind Speed
  • 9 mph 7.82 kt 4.02 m/s 14.48 km/h
    13.2 ft/s
  • 3 Beaufort
  • Pressure
  • 29 inch mercury 982.05 milllibars 0.97
    atmospheres
  • 98205.25 pascals 982.05 hectopascals
    1001.41 gm/sq.cm.
  • 736.6 mm mercury 14.24 lb/sq.in

5
Order of Weather Measurements
  • 1st - Wind Direction
  • 2nd - Wind Speed

6
Wind Direction Recording Tips
  • Use compass to find magnetic direction
  • - where wind comes from
  • Avoid steel objects while measuring - they may
    cause false readings
  • Use compass reading in degrees
  • - not just N, S, etc.

7
Compass Wind Direction Reading
  • Face the wind
  • Measure in degrees
  • Automatic calculation

8
Wind Direction by Degrees
0? TO 90?
270? TO 360?
90? TO 180?
180? TO 270?
9
Wind Speed Recording Tips
  • Hold unit so that it faces the wind
  • Measure for several seconds
  • Record at estimated height of spray (if possible)
  • Wind speeds increase with higher altitudes

10
Compass Care
  • Check accuracy prior to field use
  • Protect from excess heat or cold (dont leave in
    a vehicle)
  • Keep away from magnetic fields
  • - belt buckles, knives, magnets, etc.

11
Hand-held Wind Speed Reading
Maximum
Average
Current
  • Current check for gusts
  • Average evens out gusts calm time based
  • Maximum highlights problems - time based

12
Temperature
  • Measure temperature at time of application
  • Avoid spraying in hot temperatures
  • Esp. in high humidity
  • If you must, use larger spray droplet size and
    lower equipment pressure

13
Hand-held Temperature Reading
  • ?F air temperature
  • in shade
  • Height of unit
  • Some include min/max

14
Humidity
  • Relative
  • Absolute
  • RealFeel Temperature?
  • patented Accuweather.com? index

15
Hand-held Humidity RH Reading
  • moisture of air
  • in shade
  • At high temperatures, air can hold more moisture
  • RELATIVE measure

16
NOAA Calculators - RH
  • Enter T and Dew Point in ?F or ?C
  • 72?F and 69?F Dew Point
  • ?
  • 90.31 RH

17
Combination Data
  • Wind Speed Temperature Humidity
  • ?
  • Wind Chill
  • Heat Index
  • Dew Point

18
Hand-held Wind Chill Reading
  • Measured in ?F
  • temperature
  • 45?F
  • Defined by
  • US National Weather Service

19
Wind Chill
  • Define combines temperature wind
  • Where
  • T air temperature in ?F,
  • V wind speed in mph
  • data at 5 ft. height, clear night

20
NOAA Calculators Wind Chill
  • How to calculate
  • Formula for WC (?F)
  • 35.74 0.6215T 35.75 (V0.16) 0.4275T
    (V0.16)
  • includes modern heat transfer theory

21
Wind Chill
  • Why important
  • Personal - Frostbite
  • Plants - Frost Pockets

22
Frostbite
  • In 30 minutes
  • with calm wind at -5?F
  • In 10 minutes
  • with 35 mph wind at 0 to -5?F
  • In 5 minutes
  • with 45 mph wind at -15?F

23
Frost Pockets
  • Close to ground level, cold air trapped in low
    areas possible 15F lower than higher ground
  • Hand-held meters can track winter air inversions
  • Cold weather protections can be implemented
  • Reduced damage to fruit and landscape plants
  • Caplan, 1988

24
Hand-held Heat Index Reading
  • ?F air temperature
  • in shade
  • air temperature
  • Human comfort measure

25
Heat Index
  • Define combines temperature humidity
  • Where
  • T in ?F ambient dry bulb temperature
  • R RH
  • Canadas Humidex uses dew point in ?K

26
NOAA Calculators Heat Index
  • How to calculate
  • Formula for HI (?F)
  • -42.379 2.04901523T 10.14333127R
    0.22475541TR 6.83783 x 10-3T2 5.481717 x
    10-2R2 1.22874 x 10-3TR 8.5282 x 10-4TR2
    1.99 x 10-4T2R2
  • Multiple Regression Formula with 1.3?F R.G.
    Steadman, 1979

27
Heat Index
  • Why important
  • Personal Heat Disorders
  • Plants Increased Phytotoxicity

28
Heat Disorders
  • Heat Index Physical Response
  • 80-90 ?F Lethargy
  • 90-105 ?F Sunstroke, Heat Cramps, Heat
    Exhaustion
  • 105-130 ?F Above, possible Heat Stroke
  • 130 ?F Above, likely Heat Stroke
  • If DIRECT SUN, add 15 ?F to HI

29
Likelihood of Heat Disorders - NOAA
  • Caution -T 80 ?F any RH
  • Extreme Caution -T 82 ?F 90 RH
  • -T 90 ?F 40 RH
  • Danger -T 86 ?F 90 RH
  • -T 98 ?F 40 RH
  • Extreme Danger -T 90 ?F 95 RH

30
Hand-held Dew Point Reading
  • ?F air temperature in shade
  • DP T humid
  • DP T dew forms
  • DP T
  • frost forms

31
Dew Point
  • Define combines temperature humidity
  • Where
  • T in ?F ambient dry bulb temperature
  • R RH
  • Canadas Humidex uses dew point in ?K

32
NOAA Calculators Dew Point
  • How to calculate
  • Formula for TD (?F)
  • Set x (1 0.01 RH) where RH is expressed as a
    number from 1 to 100.
  • Set T as temperature in ?C
  • DPD is the difference between the temperature
    and dew point in ?C
  • TD is the dew point temperature
  • DPD (14.55 0.114T)x ((2.5 0.007T)x) to
    the third power (15.9 0.117T)x to the 14th
    power TD ?C T DPD.
  • TD ?F (TD ?C 9/5) 32
  • Formula from Bill Murrell, Meteorologist,
    http//www.srh.noaa.gov/shv/Past_Questions_THREE.h
    tm

33
Dew Point
  • Why important
  • Personal more accurate estimate of human
    comfort than RH
  • Plants indicator for dew still present,
    disease issues

34
Spray Equipment Selection
  • IF full-coverage needed, as for
  • contact herbicides, fungicides or non-systemic
    fungicides,
  • THEN drift-resistant fan nozzles are not
    suitable.

35
Inversion Conditions
  • 25-30F or more night/day temperature difference
  • Clear skies Calm winds previous night
  • Seasonally common spring and fall,
  • possible year-round
  • MA Dept Ag, 2003

36
Record Conditions
  • Weather conditions
  • at the time of application
  • should be listed
  • on the pesticide application records.

37
June 5 Weather Data
38
July 6 Weather Data
39
July 16 Weather Data
40
Maximum wind for spraying
  • 9 mph
  • 15-16 mph
  • 25 mph

41
Spray Pattern
  • 3 Major Nozzle Patterns
  • Hollow or Full Cone Spray
  • Flat Fan Spray
  • Solid Stream Spray

42
Hollow Cone Spray
0 mph
5 mph
0 mph post-app
  • Highly diffuse spray pattern at 0 mph
  • High potential for spray drift

43
Hollow Cone Spray
0 mph
5 mph
0 mph
5 mph
9 mph
9 mph
13 mph
44
Hollow Cone Spray Guidelines
  • Use for shrubs bushes
  • Rounded ring pattern
  • Finely atomized spray
  • Post-emergent herbicides, contact fungicides and
    insecticides

45
Full Cone Spray Guidelines
  • Full Cone makes a filled in circle pattern
  • Primarily for broadcast spraying
  • Some banded applications

46
Flat Fan Spray
0 mph
0 mph
5 mph
13 mph
9 mph
9 mph
0 mph post-app
5 mph post-app
47
Flat Fan Spray Post Application
0 mph
0 mph
5 mph
0 mph
5 mph
13 mph
9 mph
9 mph
13 mph
9 mph
48
Flat Fan Spray Guidelines
  • Use for row treatment, systemic applications
  • Pattern is elliptical inverted V
  • Variations
  • Extended range use for more pressures
  • Flooding uses larger droplets
  • Even non-tapered for band application

49
Solid Stream Spray
0 mph
5 mph
0 mph
5 mph
9 mph
13 mph
50
Solid Stream Spray
0 mph
5 mph
0 mph
5 mph
9 mph
13 mph
9 mph
13 mph
51
Solid Stream Spray Guidelines
  • Use for spot and long range
  • Common for application of liquid fertilizer

52
Wind Spray Drift Problems
  • Diverts chemical from target
  • ? Reduces effectiveness
  • Deposits pesticide where not needed or wanted
  • ? Injury to susceptible vegetation
  • ? Harm to wildlife
  • ? Deposition of illegal residues on crops
  • ? Contamination of water supplies

53
Spray and Vapor Drift
Vapor Drift
Vapor Drift
Vapor Drift
Vapor Drift
54
Reducing Drift/Volatilization
  • Incorporate chemicals into the soil
  • If very hot, select pesticide with strong
    sorption and low vapor pressure
  • Irrigation to buffer weather effects

Joern Lohman, Purdue
55
Vapor Drift
  • INVISIBLE!!
  • Can predict likelihood for specific pesticides
  • higher vapor pressure numbers
  • (MSDS sheet)
  • higher volatility
  • vapor drift

56
Vapor Drift Control
  • Use larger spray droplets
  • Fine to medium soil
  • Wet soil

57
Range of spray and vapor drift
  • How far from application site
  • If windy
  • If extreme heat
  • If extreme humidity
  • Other

58
Runoff and Leaching
  • Both affected by irrigation or rainfall
  • amount timing
  • relative to pesticide application.
  • Avoidable by monitoring weather

59
Weather Monitoring
During
After
  • Record weather conditions DURING application
  • Record weather conditions AFTER application

60
Weather Conditions
61
GOALS
  • Minimize pesticide in non-target areas
  • Minimize pesticide loss
  • Minimize exposure to operators or bystanders

62
GOALS
  • Minimize pesticide in non-target areas
  • ?
  • Reduce possible injury to wildlife
  • Reduce possible injury to sensitive crops
  • from contaminated water

63
GOALS
  • 2. Minimize pesticide loss
  • ?
  • To ? pest control
  • To ? costs

64
GOALS
  • 3. Minimize exposure to operators or bystanders
  • ?
  • Health problems ?
  • ? Liability issues

65
GOALS
  • 4. Minimize damage to beneficial insects
  • ?
  • organic/natural control maintained
  • ?
  • ? Fewer pesticide applications needed

66
Past - 25 Year Old Study
  • Studies have shown that the equipment and its
    operation are responsible for 68-90 of the
    physical drift problems, while weather accounts
    for 10-32.
  • quote from D.B. Smith 1982,
  • Fate of Pesticides in the Environment, in
    What Happens to the Pesticides We Apply?,
    Commercial Pesticide Applicator Exam
    Preparation Class, Laura Pottorff, Colorado
    State University, Adams County

67
Current - Vegetation Climate
  • Temperature and precipitation
  • Plants are affected
  • Plants can alter these

Noah Diffenbaugh, Purdue University, May 2005,
Geophysical Research Letters (Live Science)
68
Possible Now Improved Local Weather Forecasts
  • Weather Forecast Model
  • Photosynthesis/Transpiration Vegetation Model
  • Improved soil moisture mapping
  • Temperature, Humidity and Thunderstorm
    Predictions
  • Yields 5 to 50 greater accuracy
  • Dev Niyogi, Purdue University, March 2006
    (Live Science)

69
Future - Fine-Tuning Effects of Solar Radiation
  • Effects
  • physical properties of pesticides
  • biophysical processes of organisms
  • Controlled by
  • suns angle
  • day length
  • cloudiness

Rozenzweig, et al
70
Weather Monitoring - Local
  • Hand-held Devices (6 -700)
  • ?
  • ?
  • ?
  • Sophisticated Computerized Logging Devices (160
    - 1,500)

71
References
  • Climate Change and U.S. Agriculture The Impacts
    of Warming and Extreme Weather Events on
    Productivity, Plant Diseases and Pests, by
    Cynthia Rosenzweig, et. al, Harvard Medical
    School Center for Health and the Global
    Environment
  • Climate Predictions How to Interpret and Use
    Them, by Q. Steven Hu and Kevin Hubbard,
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension
  • Noah Diffenbaugh, Purdue University, May 2005,
    Geophysical Research Letters (Live Science)
  • Effects of Cold Weather on Horticultural Plants
    in Indiana, Larry A. Caplan, Vanderburgh County
    Horticulture Agent, December 1988
  • Fate of Pesticides in the Environment, in What
    Happens to the Pesticides We Apply?, Commercial
    Pesticide Applicator Exam Preparation Class,
    Laura Pottorff, Colorado State University, Adams
    County
  • Instrumentation to Document Environmental
    Conditions during Pesticide Applications, by
    Robert Wolf and Patricia A. Hipkins, Kansas State
    and Virginia Tech
  • Dev Niyogi, Purdue University, March 2006 (Live
    Science)
  • Pesticides and the Environment, Brad Joern and
    Becky Lohman, Purdue Pesticide Programs
  • Predicted Effects of Climate Change on
    Agriculture A Comparison of Temperate and
    Tropical Regions, by Cynthia Rosenzweig and Diane
    Liverman
  • Predicting the Weather, United States Search
    and Rescue Task Force
  • Thermal Inversions, MA Dept. of Ag Resources,
    Pesticide Bureau Technical Information Bulletin,
    May 2003 Version
  • What happens to the Pesticides We Apply?,
    Commercial Pesticide Applicator Exam Preparation
    Class, Laura Pottorff, Colorado State University,
    Adams County
  • Beaufort Wind Scale http//www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/to
    rnado/beaufort.html
  • Brunton A,B,C,D Compass System Instructions
  • EPA In Case of Pesticide Poisoning
  • EXTOXNET http//extoxnet.orst.edu/pips/ghindex.ht
    ml
  • Kestrel? 3000 Pocket Weather Meter instructions
    www.nkhome.com
  • NOAA National Climactic Data Center
    http//www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html
  • NOAA Calculators http//www.crh.noaa.gov/gid/?nwx
    calc

72
Credits
  • Grant support for program development
  • from Penn State Pesticide Education
  • Assistance by Michael Wiles
  • Review by Karen Wilkins, Jeanne Dunstane,
    Katharine Kresge
  • Concept, PowerPoint text, charts, diagrams,
    photos and design
  • by Linda Wiles, July 31, 2007
  • Where trade names appear, no discrimination is
    intended,
  • and no endorsement by Penn State Cooperative
    Extension is implied.
  • Penn State is committed to affirmative action,
  • equal opportunity, and the diversity
  • of its workforce.

73
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