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Environmental Assessment of BREW Case Study Products

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The future impacts and benefits of bio-based chemicals: Energy and emissions ... UU for ECN (& CPB, ECN, Novem and RIVM), 2003/2004. Breakthrough technologies in chem. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Assessment of BREW Case Study Products


1

The future impacts and benefits of bio-based
chemicals Energy and emissions analyses with
market projections

WUN lecture series Green Chemistry Videoseminar,
26 May 2005 Barbara Hermann, Manuela Crank,
Veronika Dornburg, Martin Patel Utrecht
University, Department of Science, Technology and
Society (STS) / Copernicus Institute, Utrecht,
Netherlands Tel. 31 30 253-7634, Fax 31 30
253-7601, m.patel_at_chem.uu.nl
2


COPERNICUS Institute for Sustainable Development
and Innovation at Utrecht University Department
of Science, Technology and Society
(STS) Research cluster Energy and Materials
Demand and Efficiency (EME)

3


EME - Research areas

Material flow analysis, emission
inventories Bio-based materials Short
long-term energy and materials efficiency
  • Techno-economic analysis
  • Policy analysis
  • Innovation analysis

4
Selected projects - Techno-economic analysis (1/2)


  • CO2 emissions from hydrocarbon feedstocks in
    chemical industry
  • NEU-CO2-II, -III UU, ECN and 20 network
    partners for DG Research, 1999-2003,
    2004-2005
  • NEAT-NL UU and ECN for MinVROM and NOVEM,
    2002-2003
  • NEAT-DE UU for Umweltbundesamt (UBA), Berlin,
    2004

Material flow analysis, emission
inventories Short long-term energy and
materials efficiency
(http//www-n.chem.uu.nl/nws/www/nenergy/ )
  • PIE-I, -II Process Industries - Inventory of
    Energy Use. UU for ECN via UCE, 2002-2004
  • FYSI Physical indicators as a basis for
    estimating energy savings in industry. UU for
    ECN ( CPB, ECN, Novem and RIVM), 2003/2004
  • Breakthrough technologies in chem. ind. Ph.D.
    position, Tao Ren, ECN/UCE, 2002-2006

5
Selected projects - Techno-economic analysis (2/2)



Bio-based materials
  • Review of LCA studies on bio-based materials
  • E.g. Patel, M. Bastioli, C. Marini, L.
    Würdinger, E. Life-cycle assessment of bio-based
    polymers and natural fibres. Chapter in the
    encyclopaedia Biopolymers, Vol. 10, Wiley-VCH,
    2003, pp.409-452
  • PRO-BIP Techno-economic Feasibility of
    Large-scale Production of Bio-based Polymers in
    Europe. With Fraunhofer-ISI for the European
    Commissions Institute for Prospective
    Technological Studies (IPTS), Seville, Spain
  • BREW Medium and long-term opportunities and
    risks of the biotechnological production of bulk
    chemicals from renewable resources. UU and 16
    partners for the ECs GROWTH Programme, 2003-2004

6

The BREW Project (http//www.chem.uu.nl/brew/
) Medium and long-term opportunities and risks
of the biotechnological production of bulk
chemicals from renewable resources
   



CERISS
We gratefully acknowledge support from the
European Commissions Directorate General for
Research (GROWTH Programme Award No.
G5MA-CT-2002-00014).
7
Scope of the BREW project
  • White Biotechnology (fermentation and enzymatic
    conversions)
  • Feedstocks from renewable resources
  • Bulk products
  • State-of-the-art today
  • Technology development in the next 2-3 decades

8

The BREW Project (http//www.chem.uu.nl/brew/
) Medium and long-term opportunities and risks
of the biotechnological production of bulk
chemicals from renewable resources
   


WP 1 Overview of biotechnological processes WP
2 Technical economic characteristics WP
3 Environmental economic assessment WP 4
Risk assessment WP 5 Public perception WP
6 Market potentials WP 7 Scenario
calculations WP 6 Conclusions

9

Contents
  • A. Environmental and Economic assessment
  • Methodology
  • Environment
  • Economics
  • Results
  • B. Market projections
  • Methodology
  • Results

10
Approach
  • Environmental assessment
  • Life cycle assessment approach (cradle-to-factory
    gate and cradle-to-grave)
  • Environmental indicators Non-renewable energy
    use (NREU), renewable energy, GHG emissions and
    land use
  • Economic assessment
  • Standard business economics
  • Benchmark
  • Equivalent petrochemical product

11

Key features of BREWtool (1/2)
  • Model-based assessment tool
  • Consistent and comparable environmental and
    economic assessment
  • Uniform background data about feedstocks, fuels
    power, auxiliaries, personnel, depreciation etc.
  • Database on energy use, emissions and market
    prices (or product values) for petrochemical
    counterparts
  • Confidential data provided by the companies and
    research institutes
  • Generic Approach based on conceptual process
    design

12
Key features of BREWtool (2/2)
BREW\Meetings\Plenary_6_(May2005)\Modules_1.xls
13
Generic Approach in BREWtool
  • Technology (bioprocesses)
  • Current
  • Future
  • Concentration, yield and productivity
  • Product separation and purification
  • Investment estimate
  • DSM

14
Principle assumptions of Generic Approach
  • TODAY
  • Data from literature, companies and institutes
  • FUTURE
  • Yield 90 mol- of theoretical
  • Productivity max. 20 g/l/h (aer.), max. 100
    g/l/h (anaer.)
  • Moderate/no increases in concentration
  • Substantial progress in workup
  • BOTH
  • Scale WB products 100 kt (sensitivity larger)
  • Petrochem. products Product value (market price)

15
WB products studied with BREWtool
  • Acetic acid
  • Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol
  • Acrylamide
  • Acrylic acid
  • Adipic acid
  • Caprolactam
  • Citric acid
  • Ethanol
  • Lactic acid
  • Lysine
  • Mono-/Diglycerides
  • Oleyl oleate
  • Polyglycerol monoester
  • Polyhydroxyalkanoates
  • 1,3-Propanediol
  • Succinic acid

16

Adipic acid from corn starch versus petrochemicals
Petchem.
BREWtool\Adipic.xls ResChartsPRES
17

Adipic acid from corn starch versus petrochemicals
Petchem.
BREWtool\PDO.xls ResChartsPRES
18

Adipic acid from corn starch versus petrochemicals
Petchem.
BREWtool\PDO.xls ResChartsPRES
19

White Biotechnology - Environmental attractiveness
All products from corn starch Non-renewable
energy use (NREU, cradle-to-factory gate)
BREW\WPs\WP3(Envir)\BrewTool\Tool\BREWTool_9\BREWR
es-savings_CORN_STARCH.xls Overview
20

Sensitivity Fermentable sugar feedstocks (1/2)
Adipic acid Non-renewable energy use (NREU,
cradle-to-factory gate)
GA-FUTURE-electrodialysis
-         BREW\WPs\WP3(Envir)\BrewTool\Tool\BrewTo
ol_9\Feedstock_sensi_3.xls
21

Sensitivity Fermentable sugar feedstocks (2/2)
Non-renewable energy use (NREU, cradle-to-factory
gate)

BREW\WPs\WP3(Envir)\BrewTool\Tool\BREWTool_9\BREWR
es-savings_CORN_SUGAR_CANE.xls Overview
22
Production cost and Product value calculations
23

Economics of Adipic Acid for a sugar price level
of EUR 135/t
Petchem.
BREWtool\PDO.xls ResChartsPRES
24
Overview of economically attractive products per
fermentable sugar price level
25
Conclusions (1/2) Environmental and Economic
assessment
  • BREWtool for consistent comparison across
    products and processes
  • Generic Approach for assessing processes TODAY
    and FUTURE
  • Most WB products studied offer substantial
    reductions in NREU and GHG emissions
  • - Corn starch as feedstock mostly savings
    TODAY AND TOMORROW, somewhat less frequently
    only TOMORROW. - Lignocellulosics further
    relative reduction of energy use by another 25
    compared to the petrochemical process
    expected - Additional improvements from
    fermentable sugar from sugar cane
  • No general statements by category of chemical
    compounds, individual analyses are hence needed.
  • Future feedstocks for Europe RD on
    lignocellulosics
  • Rather limited contribution of WB to higher land
    use efficiency (ha/t product) (is no major
    limitation for the next decades)
  • High salt loads in wastewater from bioprocesses
    can and must be avoided.

26
Conclusions (2/2) Environmental and Economic
assessment
  • Economic analysis (for current energy
    prices) - _at_ 75 and _at_135 EUR/t fermentable
    sugar About one third of products studied
    economically viable with TODAYs techn.
    Practically all viable with FUTURE technology
    (exception acrylic acid). - _at_ 200-400 EUR/t
    fermentable sugar Number of opportunities
    decreases drastically Rather robust PDO,
    PTT, lysine and succinic acid
  • ? Transition to WB products is primarily economic
    challenge which can be mastered if progress is
    made in industrial biotechnology and sugar is
    available at low prices.

27

Contents
  • A. Environmental and Economic assessment
  • Methodology
  • Environment
  • Economics
  • Results
  • B. Market projections
  • Methodology
  • Results

28
Three scenarios
29
Fossil fuel price developments - data used for
scenario analysis
  • Basis IPPC - Special Report Emission scenarios
    gt(GDP, population)
  • Base price 25 US/barrel

30
Market demand of petrochemicals in Europe in the
three scenarios Approach used in analysis -
simplified with annual growth rates of 0, 1.5,
3
31
Fermentable sugar costs
Three level of sugar prices used in the
scenarios 70 /t, 200 /t , 400 /t
Current price of fermentable sugar in Europe ca.
300 Eur/t
32
Calculation of market potentials
Steps to calculate the market potential of each
bio bulk chemical
33
Market potentials of biobased chemicals
19
10
33
34
Conclusions Market projections (studied by Dr.
Veronika Dornburg)
  • Market potentials of bio-based, biotech chemicals
  • HIGH 68 million tonnes in 2050 or 33 of demand
  • LOW 5 million tonnes in 2050 or 10 of demand
  • Green premiums (i.e. use of bio chemicals at
    higher costs) account for about 3 to 12 million
    tonnes of the market potential.
  • Several of the studied bio chemicals have good
    economics compared to petrochemicals 3-HPA,
    n-Butanol, PLA, PDO/PTT, Succinic acid
  • Delay of adoption due to diffusion can be
    significant (e.g., in high scenario economic
    potential is 130 million t, while market
    potential is 68 million t or 52)
  • .

35

The future impacts and benefits of bio-based
chemicals Energy and emissions analyses with
market projections

WUN lecture series Green Chemistry Videoseminar,
26 May 2005 Barbara Hermann, Manuela Crank,
Veronika Dornburg, Martin Patel Utrecht
University, Department of Science, Technology and
Society (STS) / Copernicus Institute, Utrecht,
Netherlands Tel. 31 30 253-7634, Fax 31 30
253-7601, m.patel_at_chem.uu.nl
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