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Simple Zero Energy Houses

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Title: Simple Zero Energy Houses


1
Simple Zero Energy Houses
  • Jeff Christian, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Third U.S. Conference on Peak Oil and Community
    Solutions
  • September 23, 2006

2
A few thoughts to start with
  • Seek simple, decent, and sufficient house plan
  • Maximum energy efficiency (50)
  • Little bit of solar (2kW)
  • Friendly electric utility (Green Power)
  • Offer educational opportunity to your community
    (National Solar Tour October 7, 2006)

3
Habitat for Humanity Loudon County TN Harmony
Heights
  • ZEH2
  • ZEH3
  • ZEH4

3800 HDD_at_65 oF
  • ZEH1
  • Base House

South
ZEH5 finished Sept. 2005
4
Grid connected PV and Tennessee Valley Authority
Green Power Partner
  • Residential retail rate 0.07/kWh
  • Sells green power for0.10/kWh)
  • Buys solar at 0.15/kWh for 10 years

5
First four houses to sell solar power to largest
public electric utility in U.S.
  •  
  • Annual measured heating cost ZEH1 100, ZEH3
    39
  • Cooling ZEH1 80, ZEH4 69
  • Domestic hot water ZEH1 100, ZEH2 65
  • Space heating and cooling energy 0.40 to 0.50/
    day
  • Solar credits 0.82 to 0.93 / day
  • Net off site total energy 0.75 to 1.00 / day

ZEH1 built in 2002
6
August 2004 total energy bill 14.52
7
Natural Air Change per Hour
8
Total VOC measurement results for nZEH and
conventional houses
9
All 5 houses constructed with SIPS
10
Consider geothermal Heat Pump
  • ZEH1- Carrier SEER 13, DC fan
  • ZEH2- Carrier 2 speed compressor, 14 SEER, DC fan
  • ZEH3- American Geothermal DX, DC fan
  • ZEH4- Lennox 17 SEER, two speed compressor, DC
    fan
  • ZEH5- Water Furnace Geothermal water loop, DC fan

11
Ducts inside conditioned space (35 energy
savings)
12
1100-2600 ft2 Efficient Floor Plans with kitchen,
bath and laundry clustered
Rescor
13
Hot Water distribution losses average 20
gallons/day, that is a 30 savings in hot water
energy and water usage
14
ZEH4 all premanufactured panels
15
ZEH4 Performance
  • This all electric house used 27 kWhr/day
  • Other loads averaged 15 kwhr/day
  • Solar AC generation 7.2 kWhr/day
  • On site power 27 of total energy
  • If you cut other loads in half on-site power - 37

16
(No Transcript)
17
ZEH4 measured energy use, August 2004 through
July 2005
18
To get to zero work with your electric utility to
find their ZEH benefits, like peak load savings,
off peak revenue
  • Total annual energy usage 9837 kWh, -669.
  • Total solar AC produced 2627 kWh, _at_0.15, 394
  • If Utility incentive was 0.255/solar kWh 669
  • Than net energy cost 0

19
ZEH reduces Winter Peak Load by 50
20
ZEH reduces summer peak loads by 40
21
ZEH 3
22
(No Transcript)
23
ZEH3 measured energy use, March 2004 through
February 2005
24
Using geothermal heat on ZEH4
  • ZEH3 used only 569 kWh
  • ZEH4 used 1711 kWh
  • Savings with geothermal 1142 kWh
  • Reduces total load from 9837 to 8695
  • 8695 X 0.068 2627 X (Utility green power buy)
  • Than if utility green power buy back 0.22/kWh,
  • Homeowner net energy cost 0.00
  • Zero net energy cost a big marketing feature and
    a huge stepping stone toward true net zero energy
    housing

25
ZEH4 Other load goes to Sufficient Load (cut
in half) plus geothermal
  • If other load cut in half -2649 kWh
  • Now total load 6047 kWh
  • of on-site generation 43
  • 6047 kWh X 0.068/kWh 2627 solar kWh X (Utility
    green power buy)
  • With utility green power buyback 0.15.6/kWh,
    net homeowner energy cost 0

26
Construction cost of test houses 15 and the base
frame house
27
ZEH5 an unoccupied test house for two year period
  • Fiberglass board exterior insulation on
    foundation
  • Geothermal
  • 6 in SIP walls, R-36 roof
  • Rescor
  • Dehumidifing HPWH

in construction Sept 05
28
Geothermal loop utilized existing excavations
Sewer trench
Water trench
29
ZEH5 a ZEH Research Facility ready for
partnerships
30
Partnering to find best components and mass
purchase for this house
31
Summary
  • Build a small high performance - all electric -
    building science designed driven house
  • SIPS with housewrap and drainage plane or
    equivalent
  • High Performance Windows (U-value 0.34, SHGF
    0.35)
  • Air tight
  • Ducts inside
  • Raised metal seam roof (no roof penetrations)
  • Heat Pump Water Heater
  • Geothermal (horizontal coil in existing open
    ditches)
  • Exterior Foundation insulation
  • Rescor wall
  • ASHRAE 62.2 mechanical ventilation
  • 2 kW PV Solar system

32
Add
  • An electric utility that offers a Green Power
    Program which buys and sells solar kwh (peak load
    savings, increase off peak revenue)
  • Work with low income housing provider to keep
    construction cost down
  • Link house with Educational opportunities

33
Existing House ZEH retrofit Stratgies
  • Assess what you have, do an energy audit,
    consider a HERS
  • Generate a prioritized list of all the energy
    saving opportunities, use an auditing software
    program
  • Add solar water heating and gridtie solar PV to
    your prioritized list
  • Determine your budget and work down your list

34
The Weatherization Assistant(WA)
  • Developed by Michael Gettings
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory

35
The Weatherization Assistant
  • Started in 1976 to assist low-income families
    afford energy expenses
  • From 1973 to 1976 oil prices increased from
    13/barrel to 21/barrel
  • Todays price is 60-70/barrel
  • Generates customized prioritized list of retrofit
    measures

36
Weatherization Assistant is used in
  • all 50 states through approximately 900 local
    agencies
  • 105,000 homes in 2006

37
The Weatherization Assistant
  • Developed for the DOE Weatherization Assistance
    Program
  • Computer-based energy efficiency measure
    selection tools for single-family and
    manufactured homes
  • Attributed with saving 70 million over
    life-time of single years retrofits

38
Whole House Approach energy system with
interdependent parts
  • Consider interaction between envelope, equipment,
    distribution and other factors
  • Recognize that features of one component can
    affect others
  • Measures ranked based on economic criteria using
    interacted savings

39
Whole House Approach
40
Percent of Total Energy Costs by End-Use in
Households up to 150 Poverty
The Energy Usage and Needs of Low-Income
Households
Economic Opportunity Research Institute
41
Percent of Heating/Cooling Loads by Source
Cooling Load
Heating Load
Sensible Infiltration 4
Infiltration Humidity 25
Ceilings 15
Infiltration 39
Ceilings 21
Walls 15
Internal Humidity 13
Walls 12
Doors 2
Windows 23
Windows 23
Floors 9
Doors 3
Resource and Energy Efficient Construction
Southface Energy Institute
42
Standard Insulation Measures
  • Attics
  • Level of insulation (R-level, cavities)
  • Type of insulation (fiberglass, cellulose,
    board)
  • Finished attics (gables, dormers, etc.)
  • Wall mode of installation (drill and plug, from
    inside, etc.)
  • Foundation
  • Floors
  • Walls
  • Rim Joist

43
Percent of Heating/Cooling Loads by Source
Cooling Load
Heating Load
Sensible Infiltration 4
Infiltration Humidity 25
Ceilings 15
Infiltration 39
Ceilings 21
Walls 15
Internal Humidity 13
Walls 12
Doors 2
Windows 23
Windows 23
Floors 9
Doors 3
Resource and Energy Efficient Construction
Southface Energy Institute
44
Window Treatments
Each approach may have a different effect on
  • Infiltration
  • Conduction
  • Solar
  • Comfort
  • Value added to home

45
Shading / Solar Measures
  • Windows
  • Shade screens
  • Films
  • Awnings
  • Interior shading (blinds, drapes, etc.)
  • Roofs
  • White roof coating (manufactured homes)
  • Factors
  • Effect on heating and cooling loads opposite
  • Time of use
  • Occupant dependent

46
Window Treatments
What is the most cost effective approach?
  • Caulk and weatherstrip
  • Is window repairable?
  • Will repairs persist?
  • Add storm
  • What is the effect on the primary window?
  • Are there egress codes to satisfy?
  • Replace
  • Should low-e / multi-paned window be used?

47
Window Treatments
  • Potential Impacts of treatments estimated using
    laboratory experiments
  • Used actual windows cut from existing homes
  • Measured change of conduction and air leakage
    before and after treatments
  • Results used in NEAT to guide auditors in window
    retrofit decisions

48
Percent of Heating/Cooling Loads by Source
Cooling Load
Heating Load
Sensible Infiltration 4
Infiltration Humidity 25
Ceilings 15
Infiltration 39
Ceilings 21
Walls 15
Internal Humidity 13
Walls 12
Doors 2
Windows 23
Windows 23
Floors 9
Doors 3
Resource and Energy Efficient Construction
Southface Energy Institute
49
Infiltration Reduction
  • WA evaluates success of blower-door directed
    infiltration reduction efforts

50
Duct Sealing
  • Typically ducts are only 50 - 75 efficient
  • Blower-door / duct blower procedures for testing
    exist
  • ASHRAE Draft Standard 152P used to translate
    measured duct leakage into duct delivery
    efficiency

51
Duct Sealing
52
Duct Leakage Measurements
53
Weatherization AssistantDuct Input
54
Equipment Efficiency Measures
  • Furnace / AC replacement
  • Standard / High efficiency
  • System tune-up
  • Setback thermostats

55
Percent of Total Energy Costs by End-Use in
Households up to 150 Poverty
The Energy Usage and Needs of Low-Income
Households
Economic Opportunity Research Institute
56
Appliances
Refrigerator Replacement
  • Direct replacement of older models cost-effective
  • Older units can consume up to 2100 kWh/yr
  • New units consuming 450 kWh/yr easy to find
    costing 400
  • Units consuming 350 kWh/yr under design
  • Economics improve if replacing at end of older
    units lifetime

57
Appliance Metering
58
Refrigerator Data Base (AHAM)
59
Refrigerator Data Base (AHAM)
60
Where Does the Hot Water Go?
Source Rocky Mountain Institute Website
61
Water Heating Measures Evaluated
  • Gas / electric / propane water heater wrap
  • Pipe insulation
  • Low-flow showerheads
  • Water heater replacement
  • Heat pump water heater replacing electric unit

62
Appliances
High-Efficiency Clothes Washers
  • Use 50 (65) less energy
  • Require 30 (40) less water
  • Seventeen states now have high-efficiency clothes
    washer programs
  • Most well known manufacturers produce models
  • Still need utility/manufacturer rebates to obtain
    cost-effectiveness from energy alone

63
Lighting
Compact Fluorescent Lamps
  • Considered cost-effective if replacing
    incandescent lamps on 4 or more hours per day
  • Fluorescent lamps have 10 times the life
    expectancy of incandescent lamps
  • Must match lighting level provided by
    incandescents replaced

64
Sample NEAT Output
65
Sample NEAT Output
66
Thank you!
  • Jeff Christian
  • ChristianJE_at_ORNL.gov
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