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Abortion

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Abortion. The Supreme Court's Wisdom ' ... Induced Abortion: intentional medical or surgical termination of a pregnancy ... National abortion rate: 20/1000 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Abortion


1
Abortion
2
The Supreme Courts Wisdom
  • . . . we need not resolve the difficult
    question of when life begins. When those trained
    in the respective disciplines of medicine,
    philosophy, and theology are unable to arrive at
    any consensus, the judiciary, at this point in
    the development of mans knowledge, is not in a
    position to speculate as to the answer.

3
Early Life
  • Intercourse
  • Fertilization
  • Implantation
  • Pre-embryo
  • Embryo
  • Fetus
  • Viability
  • Birth

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Fertilization
  • complex process which takes 24 hours after
    penetration of the oocyte (egg) by the sperm
  • occurs in fallopian tube
  • complete when pronuclei (23 chromosomes) of sperm
    and oocyte fuse to form a new cell called a
    zygote (46 chromosomes)

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Stages of the pre-embryo . . .
  • Zygote one cell
  • Blastomere 2-8 cells, it takes 20 hours for the
    first cell division
  • Morula 8-16 cells. The morula travels out of
    the fallopian tube and reaches the endometrial
    cavity
  • Blastocyst multicellular mass of cells with a
    fluid filled center

9
Implantation
  • Process of blastocyst adhering to the uterine
    wall. Slow process occurring 5 - 9 days after
    the beginning of fertilization.
  • Three cell layers are formed
  • Ectoderm
  • brain, nerves, skin
  • Mesoderm
  • cartilage, muscle, blood vessels, heart, kidneys
  • Endoderm
  • digestive tract, respiratory tree, liver,
    pancreas

10
Embryo and Fetus
  • Embryo
  • 16 days after the beginning of fertilization
    until 8 weeks after after fertilization.
  • Organogenesis is complete
  • Fetus
  • Completion of organogenesis until delivery

11
Pregnancy Dating
  • Days, weeks LMP
  • Human gestation
  • Conception
  • Trimesters

12
Viability
  • Survival by Gestational age at DHMC
  • Weeks survival 22 0 23 25
    24 55 25 65 26 75 27 90
    28 92

13
Definitions
  • Abortion
  • Complete Abortion
  • Incomplete Abortion
  • Threatened Abortion
  • Inevitable Abortion
  • Missed Abortion
  • Septic Abortion
  • Induced

14
Abortion
  • Termination of pregnancy before 20 weeks
    gestation calculated from date of onset of last
    menses
  • Early Abortion before 12 weeks
  • Late Abortion from 12-20 weeks
  • Delivery of a fetus of weight less than 500 grams

15
Definitions . . .
  • Induced Abortion intentional medical or
    surgical termination of a pregnancy
  • Elective if performed for a womans desires
  • Therapeutic if performed for reasons of
    maintaining health of the mother

16
Induced abortion statistics . . .
  • 1,180,000 abortions are reported to the CDC in
    1997. This is constant since 1980
  • 305 abortions/1000 live births
  • National abortion rate 20/1000 women aged 15-44
  • 79.7 of women obtaining abortions are unmarried
  • 21 of women obtaining abortions are younger 19
    years old
  • 55.2 are younger than 24 years old

17
Statistics, continued
  • 53 of women in the United States having
    abortions have never had one before
  • 88 of women who abort are in the first trimester
    of pregnancy
  • 97 of women having first trimester abortions
    have no complications or post abortion complaints
  • 2.5 have minor complaints that are handled in a
    physicians office

18
Induced abortion safety
  • Risk of death from a legal abortion is
    0.4/100,000
  • Risk of death from a term pregnancy is 9/100,000

19
Induced Abortion safety
  • Risk of death for being an abortion provider
    20/100,000

20
Historical Perspective
  • (T)here is every indication that abortion is an
    absolutely universal phenomenon, and that it is
    impossible even to construct an imaginary social
    system in which no woman would ever feel at least
    compelled to abort Devereux G. A typological
    study of abortion in 350 primitive, ancient, and
    pre-industrial societies.

21
Historical perspective cont . . .
  • Abortion legal in US from Puritan settlement till
    mid 1800s
  • 1840 Eastman Everett Act, State of Maine
  • 1 year in jail, 1000, loss of license
  • 1846 abortion illegal nationally

22
Roe vs. Wade 1/22/73
  • We recognize the right of the individual,
    married or single, to be free from unwanted
    governmental intrusion into matters so
    fundamentally affecting a person as the decision
    whether to bear or beget a child. That right
    necessarily includes the right of a woman to
    decide whether or not to terminate her pregnancy.

23
Benefits of Legal Abortion
  • Death from illegal abortion used to be a major
    component of maternal mortality
  • Hospital wards were filled with patients
    suffering from septic spontaneous abortion
  • In 1940, 1407 died from complications of induced
    abortion
  • 1987 (last year of available data)
  • 12 deaths from spontaneous abortion
  • 6 deaths from legally induced abortion
  • 2 deaths from illegally induced abortion

24
Benefits of legal abortion
  • Global perspective
  • WHO estimates 20,000,000 illegal abortion world
    wide annually
  • 50,000-100,000 deaths annually
  • 250-500/100,000 mortality rate(0.4/100,000 in
    United States)

25
Gestational age and procedure
  • 50 of abortion performed 8 weeks or earlier
  • 12 of abortion performed past 12 weeks
  • 1.4 of abortion performed past 20 weeks

26
First Trimester Abortion
  • Early Uterine Evacuation (EUE), Minisuction,
    Menstrual Regulation
  • Suction Abortion, Vacuum Curettage
  • Medical Abortion

27
Minisuction
  • Introduced in 1972 by Karman and Potts

28
Minisuction
  • Requires early recognition of pregnancy. Performs
    abortions up to 7-8 weeks from LMP
  • Cervical dilation not required, 6 mm diameter
    cannula used
  • Simplest, safest, least expensive
  • examine aspirated tissue is essential

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30
Dilatation and curettage (DC)
  • Removal of pregnancy contents by some mechanical
    means
  • Vacuum most commonly used
  • 12-13 weeks is the upper limit of gestational age
  • Usually performed in free standing clinics

31
DC (vacuum curettage)
  • The cervix must be dilated to permit larger
    diameter suction curettes
  • Premedication with NSAID
  • Local (paracervical block), spinal, conscious
    sedation, or general anesthesia

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36
Medical Abortion
  • Mifepristone (RU486)
  • analogue of progestin norethindrone
  • strong affinity for the progesterone receptor,
    acting as an antagonist
  • a single oral dose given to women 5 weeks or less
    produces abortion in 85 of cases

37
Medical Abortion - politics
  • RU486 - Mifepristone
  • developed in 1980s
  • approved for use by French government 1988
  • one day later manufacturer withdrew it from the
    market succumbing to international boycott
  • French government ordered redistribution
  • Prohibited in US during Reagan and Bush
  • Ban lifted by Clinton, clinical trials,
    preliminary FDA approval 9/96
  • Final approval stalled secondary to inability to
    manufacture and distribute until 9/2000

38
Mifepristone protocol
  • Women less than 49 days LMP with confirmed b-hCG
  • 600mg mifepristone on day 1
  • On day three, return for prostaglandin,
    Misoprostil 400 mcg orally
  • Patient remain in clinic four hours, during which
    time expulsion of pregnancy usually occurs

39
Alternative Regimens
  • 200 mg Mifepristone
  • 800 mcg Mistoprostil vaginally

40
Medical Abortion in the US
  • Women less than 49 days LMP with confirmed
    pregnancy
  • Methotrexate 50 mg/m2 on day 1
  • Misoprostol 800mg intravaginally on day 5,6, or
    7, repeat x 1 in 48 hours if pregnancy persists
  • Abortion off site in 1-5 days. Surgical
    intervention if pregnancy persists to day 29

41
Surgical vs. Medical pro vs. conPatient
perspective
  • Private
  • More sense of autonomy
  • More natural
  • Earlier intervention unwanted pregnancy
  • Longer process with unclear endpoint
  • More pain
  • More bleeding
  • Anxiety regarding abortion off site

42
Surgical vs. Medical pro vs. conProvider
perspective
  • Less skill needed to provide
  • Methotrexate also treats ectopic pregnancy
  • Increased anxiety re off site management
  • More unscheduled care calls, ER visits
  • Need to guard against unnecessary intervention
  • Limited to 49 days LMP

43
Second Trimester Termination
  • Dilatation and evacuation (DE)
  • Intrauterine injection of abortifacients
  • Prostaglandin vaginal suppositories
  • High dose oxytocin
  • Hysterotomy

44
D E
  • Mechanical and suction removal of formed
    pregnancy after cervical dilation
  • Technically more difficult than earlier suction
    procedures
  • Associated with fewer complications than
    instillation and suppository methods
  • General anesthesia is not required

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46
  • Picture of laminaria

47
Intrauterine injection of abortifacients
  • Prostaglandin, hypertonic saline, hypertonic urea
    are introduced by amniocentesis
  • Fetus and placenta are aborted vaginally
  • Osmotic dilators are used to decrease time to
    delivery and decrease complications

48
Prostaglandin suppositories
  • 20 mg suppositories of PGE2 typically given q 3
    hours
  • mean time to induction 13.4 hours, with 90
    aborting by 24 hours
  • GI side effects 39 vomiting, 25 diarrhea
  • Fever temperature elevation of 1 degree c
  • Prostaglandin F2alpha 250 mg IM q 2 hours
  • mean time to abortion 15-17 hours, with 80
    aborting by 24 hours
  • GI side effects 83 vomiting, 71 diarrhea
  • Misoprostil (PGE1)

49
High Dose Oxytocin
  • As effective as PGE2 when used in appropriate
    doses
  • Risk of water intoxication

50
Hysterotomy
  • Surgical method to remove pregnancy abdominally
    (mini-cesarean section)
  • Other methods are preferred

51
Complications - rates
  • Varies as a function of the gestational age they
    are performed
  • Major complications
  • 0.25
  • 1
  • 2 over 12 weeks

52
Complications - immediate
  • Complications of local anesthetic
  • Cervical shock
  • Cervical lacerations
  • Uterine perforation
  • Hemorrhage
  • Post abortal syndrome

53
Complications - delayed
  • Bleeding
  • retained products
  • Infection
  • Continued pregnancy
  • ectopic
  • intrauterine
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