THE%20IMPACT%20OF%20CLIMATE%20WARMING%20ON%20THE%20HYDROLOGY%20OF%20GLACIER%20AND%20SNOW%20MELTING%20IN%20THE%20HIMALAYAS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE%20IMPACT%20OF%20CLIMATE%20WARMING%20ON%20THE%20HYDROLOGY%20OF%20GLACIER%20AND%20SNOW%20MELTING%20IN%20THE%20HIMALAYAS

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Title: THE%20IMPACT%20OF%20CLIMATE%20WARMING%20ON%20THE%20HYDROLOGY%20OF%20GLACIER%20AND%20SNOW%20MELTING%20IN%20THE%20HIMALAYAS


1
THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE HYDROLOGY OF
GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE HIMALAYAS
  • Andy Chan
  • Geo 387H
  • Physical Climatology
  • Fall 2007

2
Glacier Related Excerpts fromIPCC Assessment
Report 2007
  • More than 1/6 of world population depend on
    snowmelt- or glacier-fed rivers
  • Glaciers continue to melt as temperature continue
    rises
  • Some glaciers will be depleted in a few decades,
    some within this century
  • Reduce water availability for irrigation and
    agriculture

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
3
Why Himalayas?
http//www.enchantedlearning.com/asia/riveroutline
mapanswers
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
4
Why is it important?
  • Himalayas is nicknamed Water Tower of Asia
  • Largest body of glaciers outside of polar
    regions, occupy 17 of mountain area
  • Glaciers supply freshwater to 500 million people
    in Himalaya-Hindu-Kush region and 250 million
    people in China (IPCC)

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
5
Why is it important?
IPCC Assessment Report 2007 Figure 10.4
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
6
Literature Reviewed
  • Reviews in Nature
  • Barnett, Adam, Lettenmaier (2005)
  • Modeling
  • Singh and Kumar (1997)
  • Singh and Bengtsson (2004)
  • Singh, Arora, Goel (2006)
  • Rees and Collins (2006)

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
7
Singh and Kumar (1997)
  • 10071 km2
  • Elevation 2900 to 7000 m
  • Most area under 6000 m
  • 2.5 covered by glaciers
  • 45 runoff from snow and glacier melt

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
8
Singh and Kumar (1997)Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
9
Singh and Kumar (1997)Snowmelt Runoff
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
10
Singh and Kumar (1997)Glacier Melt Runoff
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
11
Singh and Kumar (1997)Total Streamflow Runoff
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
12
Singh and Kumar (1997)Keypoints
  • Snowmelt and glacier melt increases linearly with
    temperature rise
  • Snowmelt runoff, glacier melt runoff, and total
    streamflow increased 4-18, 33-38, and 6-12
    respectively in 2C scenario
  • Higher streamflow in the spring

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
13
Singh and Bengtsson (2004)
  • 22275 km2
  • Elevation 500 to 7000 m
  • Most area under 6000 m
  • 11 covered by glaciers
  • 60 runoff from snow and glacier melt

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
14
Singh and Bengtsson (2004)Monthly Snowmelt Runoff
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
15
Singh and Bengtsson (2004)Snowmelt Seasonal
Change
  • Spring 12.1
  • Summer -10.4
  • Annual -6.1

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
16
Singh and Bengtsson (2004)Monthly Streamflow
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
17
Singh and Bengtsson (2004)Counterbalance
  • Spring 4 to 10
  • Summer -6 to -11
  • Annual -4 to -6
  • (due to predicted decrease in rainfall)

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
18
Singh and Bengtsson (2004)Streamflow Seasonal
Change
  • Reduced contribution of snowmelt from lower part
    of the basin is counterbalanced by the increased
    glacier melt from upper part of the basin

2
3
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
19
Singh and Bengtsson (2004)Keypoints
  • In a large basin with a wide range of elevation,
    spring runoff increases and summer runoff
    decreases
  • Both caused by early snowmelt
  • Snowmelt reduction in the lower zone
    counterbalanced by increased glacier melt from
    the higher zone
  • Annual snowmelt decreases by 4-6 (2C ) due to
    basin-wide deduction in snowmelt and rainfall

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
20
Singh, Arora, Goel (2006)
  • 16.13 km2
  • Elevation 3950 to 5800 m
  • 60 covered by snow and ice
  • 83 runoff from glacier melt
  • 17 runoff from rainfall

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
21
Singh, Arora, Goel (2006)Change in Basin Runoff
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
22
Singh, Arora, Goel (2006)Change in Basin Runoff
in the Summer
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
23
Singh Arora, Goel (2006)Keypoint
  • In a basin with 87 glacier melt as total runoff,
    2C increases summer streamflow by 28

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
24
Rees and Collins (2006)
  • Two Conceptual basins
  • SE Himalayas Monsoon rain
  • NW Himalayas Westerly precipitation
  • 5000 km2 each
  • 50 km2 of glacier
  • Elevation 4000 to
  • 6000 m

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
25
Rees and Collins (2006)Hypothetical Catchment
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
26
Rees and Collins (2006)Ice Cover Area in 150
Years
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
27
Rees and Collins (2006)Discharge in Future 150
Years
Western Catchment
Eastern Catchment
Baseline Condition
Warming Condition
ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
28
Rees and Collins (2006)Keypoint
  • Discharge increases by 150-170 before dropping
    by 33 and 4-18 in the Western and Eastern
    catchment respectively

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
29
Wrapping up
  • Short term
  • Temperature rise causes streamflow to increase in
    spring and decrease in summer
  • Water demand is highest during summer
  • Reduced contribution of snowmelt from lower
    elevation is counteracted by increased glacier
    melt from higher elevation
  • Long term
  • Streamflow initially increases as glaciers melt,
    then decreases when glaciers are depleted

ANDY CHAN - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE WARMING ON THE
HYDROLOGY OF GLACIER AND SNOW MELTING IN THE
HIMALAYAS - PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY - GEO387H
30
  • Questions?
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