Cosmology: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Cosmology:

Description:

'Religion is the art and theory of the internal life of man, so far as it depends ... story, which in religion has come to mean a story that teaches ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:4753
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 13 July 2020
Slides: 123
Provided by: GarySt
Learn more at: http://pages.prodigy.net
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Cosmology:


1
  • Cosmology

From Ancient Mythology to Modern Scientific Theory
Dr. Gary A. Stilwell
Mythology
Science
Cosmology
2
Outline Cont.
  • The Futility of the Inquiry Into Ultimate Reality?
  • Myself when young did eagerly frequentDoctor and
    Saint, and heard great argumentAbout it and
    about but evermoreCame out by the same door as
    in I went.

(Khayyam, quatrain 27)
3
Outline Cont.
  • Ultimate Reality
  • Science theory/models and religious mythology
    both seek to understand reality
  • Of which science models and religious myths may
    both be Platonic cave shadows
  • They both use models to describe this reality
  • Disaster occurs when our models of reality are
    mistaken for reality itself

4
Outline Cont.
  • Planned Outline of the Class
  • plus some preview 'slides'

Some Important Definitions and Orientations (In
this Introduction) Religion, Science,
Cosmology Myth, Model, Reality Orientation in
Time and Place Comparative Mythology (In the
Next Presentation) Mesopotamian, Egyptian,
Hindu, Zoroastrian, Ancient Hebrew, Ancient
Greek, Germanic, Native American,
Early-Medieval-Modern Christian
5
Outline Cont.
  • Some Important Definitions

Science - A systematic body of knowledge which
provides a method for verifying or falsifying
propositions about the material and physical
world based on empirical evidence by observation,
deduction and repeatable experiment. Model - A
scientific device that attempts to approximate
reality in such a way as to allow for describing
present and predicting future events. Religion
- Religion is "an institution consisting of
culturally patterned interaction with culturally
postulated superhuman beings." (Melford Spiro).
Just one of many definitions...
6
Outline Cont.
  • Some Other Definitions of Religion

"Religion is the belief in Spiritual Beings."
E.B.Tylor "When I mention religion, I mean the
Christian religion and not only the Christian
religion, but the Protestant religion and not
only the Protestant religion, but the Church of
England." Parson in Fielding's Tom
Jones "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed
creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the
soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of
the people." Karl Marx "Religion is the art and
theory of the internal life of man, so far as it
depends on the man himself and on what is
permanent in the nature of things... Religion is
what the individual does with his own
solitariness." A.N. Whitehead
7
Outline Cont.
Some Important Definitions Cont.
  • Cosmology - From ko/smoj lo/goj meaning the study
    of the
  • origin, evolution and structure of the universe
    as an
  • ordered whole. Sub-topics are cosmogony and
    eschatology.
  • Reality - The sum total of all that is real.
    Here's the rub -
  • what is real? This has been debated for
    thousands of years.
  • Myth - A religious model, from the Greek mu/qoj
    meaning a
  • story, which in religion has come to mean a story
    that teaches
  • a spiritual truth and may be a true depiction of
    encounters with
  • a sacred reality. Traditional Story about
    Superhuman Beings.

8
Outline Cont.
  • Definitions Cont.
  • Mythology The Smithy's Fire a poem
    about myth . . . .

9
Outline Cont.
  • Definitions cont.

Beginnings
Endings the origin of the cosmos
the fate of the cosmos
Myths are stories that bring meaning and order to
our lives.
10
Outline Cont.
  • How Did Something Come From Nothing?

Most presuppose a chaotic substance Mesopotamian,
Hebrew (water, Gen 2) A few are considered ex
nihilo Hindu, Hebrew (Gen 1) Some allow for
creation - then a running down (entropy) - then
a re-creation Greeks, Hindu much more detail
in the presentations to come...
11
Outline Cont.
  • Cosmology

Comparative Mythology
12
Outline Cont.
  • Comparative Mythology

An Orientation in Time and Place
Ancient Places World Civilizations World
Religions
13
Outline Cont.
  • Earliest Civilizations of the World - Key
    Religious Figures or Writings

Vedas Upanishads
Enuma elish Pyramid Texts Zoroaster Genesis Hesiod
Pythagoras Plato Jesus Prose Edda Native-
American Stories
14
Outline Cont.
  • World Religions and Mythologies

Approximate
Time of Foundation Mesopotamian 3200
BCE Sumerian, Old Babylonian Egyptian
2900 BCE Hindu 3000 BCE Persian
1200 BCE Israelite/Judaism
1800-500 BCE Greek 700-300
BCE Early Christian 30-500
CE Germanic/Norse ?1000 CE Native
American ?1000 CE Medieval Christian 500-15
00 CE
15
Outline Cont.
  • Comparative Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or other texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotamia







Egyptian







Chart to be filled in as we go.
Hinduism







Zoroastrian







Judaism







Chart 1 of 2
16
Outline Cont.
  • After Comparative Mythology

We will examine Science Topics and Scientific
Cosmology Science vs. Mythology Some Contemporary
Religious Cosmological Ideas Can they be
Reconciled?
17
Outline Cont.
  • Science the Pre-Socratics to Quantum Physics
  • Evolution of Cosmological Thought
  • Ancient Grece First scientific
    investigations
  • Columbian Exploration, paradise
    removed
  • Copernican Astronomy, heliocentrism
  • Newtonian Astronomy, mechanical universe
  • Kant-Laplacean Astronomy, time
  • Huttonian Geology, chronology
  • Darwinian Evolution, biology
  • EinsteinianRelativity, space-time
  • Modern Physics Quantum cosmology,
    indeterminism
  • The Vastness of Space and Time
  • Our Place in the Universe

18
Outline Cont.
  • Modern Science and The New Physics
  • Atomic History and Theory
  • Structure of matter
  • Special and General Relativity
  • Effects of near-light speed
  • Warped space-time
  • Relativistic philosophical implications
  • Quantum Theory
  • Quantum weirdness

19
Outline Cont.
  • Cosmology

The New Physics Relativity, Atoms, Quantum Theory
20
Outline Cont.
  • The Philosophical Implications of Relativity

We will look at the philosophical
implications Relative speed Light speed wave
in what? Loss of the common sense
concepts space, time, length, mass, energy,
simultaneity
21
Outline Cont.
  • The Standard Model of the Structure of Matter

Macroscopic object Molecule Atom Nucleus Proton
and Neutron Quarks (Strings??)
22
Outline Cont.
  • Quantum Weirdness

The Uncertainty Principle It's BOTH Dead and
Alive? The paradox of Schrodinger's Cat Quantum
Wholeness and Non-locality
23
Outline Cont.
  • The Evolution of the Universe

An examination of the scientific standard model
of the Cosmos
24
Outline Cont.
  • Some Modern Issues -
  • Conflicts Between the Old and New
  • Creation Science - Intelligent Design
  • End of the World - Apocalypticism,
    Millenarianism,

  • Dispensationalism

25
Outline Cont.
  • End of Outline and Overview

On to the Comparative Mythology Lecture . . .
26
  • Cosmology

Comparative Mythology
27
  • "The Heavens Declare Thy Glory" - Cosmology

Creation myths and cosmological models are both
attempts to understand the existence of the
universe.
28
  • Common Elements in Creation / Destruction Myths

All cultures have a foundation myth of their
beginnings. Many cultures have developed myths
with the same basic elements. We all ask ultimate
questions Where did the universe come from and
where is it going? Did it have a beginning and
what happened before then? Why and how did the
universe begin? Is it limited or without
boundaries? Will it come to an end and, if so,
how and why? What is our place in the
universe? How do we relate to the universe? Why
should there be something rather than
nothing? Does the universe need a creator? If so,
then what created the creator? Or, has it always
existed?
29
Creation (Cosmogonic) Myths - Types
  • All creation mythologies posit a Separation in
    place of a Oneness.
  • One cosmogonic myth classification is
  • Supreme Being -
  • Hebrew, Mayan, Kabballah
  • Emergent Being -
  • Egypt, Vedic, Norse, Zuni Native American
  • World Parents -
  • Greek, Mesopotamia, Egypt
  • Cosmic Egg -
  • Orphic, Upanishad
  • Earth-Diver -
  • Iroquois and Many Native American


  • primarily from Charles Long.
    Alpha. 1963

30
Another Way to Look at it is With Two Major
Types Beginning vs. No Beginning
Being - Creation from something
Non-being- Creation from nothing
Mixed - something, no gods
  • Cosmogonical
  • Myth

no beginning, no end
cyclic beginnings and endings
31
  • Comparative Mythology

An Orientation in Time and Place
Ancient Places World Civilizations World
Religions
32
  • Civilizations - Prehistory to10,000 BCE
  • ca. 3500 BCE

33
  • Civilizations - 3500 to1000 BCE

year 0

34
  • The Ancient World
  • Birthplaces of the World's Religions

Hinduism Vedas Upanishads Epics Bhagavad
Gita Buddha Lao-tzu
Apsu Osiris Akhenaten Abraham Moses Zoroaster Josi
ah Pythagoras Plato Jesus Muhammad founders
35
  • World Religions and Mythologies

Approximate Time of
Foundation Mesopotamian 3200 BCE Sumerian,
Old Babylonian Egyptian 3000
BCE Hindu 3000 BCE Persian 1200
BCE Israelite/Judaism 1800-500
BCE Greek 700-300 BCE Early
Christian 30-500 CE Norse ?1000
CE Native American ?1000 CE Medieval
Christian 500-1500 CE
36
  • Earliest Civilations of the West and Their
    Creation Stories Enuma elish and Pyramid Texts

Pyramid Texts 2400 BCE
Enuma elish 2300 BCE
37
  • Mesopotamian Creation Myths

"When on high the Heaven had not been named, firm
ground had not been called by name, naught but
primordial Apsu their begetter and Mumm-Tiamat,
she who bore them all . . ."
pict...
38
  • Mesopotamian Creation Myth - Enuma elish

The Old Babylonian creation myth is written on 7
tablets. This version was written no later than
the reign of Hammurabi, ca. 1900 BCE. It
celebrates Marduk's rise to power over the
earlier Sumerian gods. It is a rewrite of a much
earlier creation story from Sumer, well before
ca. 2300 BCE. This is the earliest know creation
myth and relates the struggle between cosmic
order and chaos.
39
  • The Enuma Elish - Background and Outline

The Enuma-Elish, or Babylonian Creation Epic is
a poem divided into seven verses by being written
on seven tablets, like the seven days of Genesis
. . . The Enuma Elish, (translated "When on
High", was first discovered in Ashurbanipals (c.
650 BCE) library at Nineveh in approximately
1850. Tablet 1 Describes primordial setting
in which only Tiamat and Apsu exist. Marduk and
other gods are created, discontentment arises
between younger and older gods. Apsu decides to
destroy them and Tiamat joins his cause. Tablet
2 The embattled gods seek a warrior-champion.
Marduk steps up as the warrior, but states that
he wants the be head of the pantheon in exchange
for his services. Tablet 3 Marduks proposal
is presented to Lahmu and Lahamu, Tiamat and
Apsus oldest children. Marduk performs miracles
to garner their approval. His proposal is
accepted.
40
The Enuma Elish - cont.
  • Tablet 4 Marduk and Tiamats battle is
    described. Marduk is victorious. He splits
    Tiamats carcass into two halves and uses them
    create the cosmos (heaven and earth).
  • Tablet 5 Marduk lays out the sun, stars, moon
    and constellations in the heavens and is crowned
    king of the gods.
  • Tablet 6 Humans are created to do the gods
    bidding. Kingu, Tiamats consort and ally in the
    war, is slain and his blood is used to create
    man.
  • Tablet 7 Hymn of praise to Marduk chronicling
    his great works and accomplishments.

41
  • The Enuma Elish - cont.

When on high the Heaven had not been named, Firm
ground had not been called by name, Naught but
primordial Apsu, their begetter, and Tiamat, she
who bore them all, Their waters commingling as a
single body No reed hut had been made, no marsh
land had appeared, When no gods whatever had been
brought into being, Uncalled by name, their
destinies undetermined, Then it was that the gods
were formed within them
continue reading excerpts.....
42
  • Babylonian View of the Cosmos

Chaotic Waters Heavens Earth Arallu
(like Sheol or Hades)
43
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotam.
Indigenous
Sumer/Akad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
Anu, Ea Marduk
World Parents
None
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous
Heliopolis Memphis
3000 BCE 2400 BCE
Pyramid Texts Shbaka Stone
Atum Ptah
Emergence Supreme Being
None for Cosmos
Hinduism
Indigenous - Aryans Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 100 BCE
Vedas Upanishads Epics(BhaGita)
Varuna, Indra, Agni Brahman Trinity
Brahma, Vishnu/Krishna Shiva
Ritual Knowledge Knowledge, Action, Devotion
Vague renewal AtmanBrahman Immortality
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Middle East
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda, Ahgra Mainyu
Conduct
Savior Brings Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Abraham Moses David Josiah Post-Exile Philo
Middle East Egypt, Canaan Israel Juda Juda Alexan
dria
1800 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE 620 BCE 200 BCE 20 CE
Genesis Exodus Kings Deuteronomy Daniel Wisdom
El Shaddi Yahweh, others Yahweh,
others Yahweh Yahweh Yahweh
Ritual Ritual Ritual Ritual Conduct Conduct

Chart 1 of 2
44
  • Egyptian Creation Mythology

"There came into being as the mind and there came
into being as the logos in the form of God. The
mighty Great One is Ptah, who transmitted life to
all gods . . . through this mind . . . and
through his logos."
45
Evolution of Egyptian Religion
  • Old Kingdom (ca. 2700 - 2200 BCE)
  • Dyn III (ca, 2700 - 2640)
  • Dyn IV (ca. 2640 - 2520)
  • Dyn V (ca. 2520 - 2360)
  • Dyn VI (ca. 2360 - 2200)
  • Pyramid Texts - 2400 BCE
  • This is the the time of the major creation myths
  • Middle Kingdom (ca. 2200 - 1600 BCE)
  • Coffin Texts - 2000 BCE
  • The afterlife becomes more democratic
  • New Kingdom (ca. 1550 - 1100 BCE)
  • Book of the Dead - 1600 BCE
  • Everyone has a chance at a good afterlife
  • But there is never a cosmic eschatology

46
The Major Religious Traditions of the Egyptian
Old Kingdom
  • Heliopolis Atum (Atum-Ra)
  • Hermopolis The Ogdoad
  • Memphis Ptah
  • Thebes Amun
  • Political clout of the 4th through 6th Dynasties
    has made the tradition of Heliopolis is the best
    known of all the Egyptian theologies.
  • Also influential are the traditions of
    Hermopolis. Both influenced the Memphite
    theology.
  • In the late 5th or early 6th Dynasty (ca. 2350
    BCE), the priests of Ptah in Memphis produced a
    version of the creation myths that showed the
    city god of Memphis to be the creator - but
    without offending the priests of Heliopolis.

47
The Major Religious Traditions of the Egyptian
Old Kingdom - cont.
  • A series of myths may be seen as episodes in a
    vast cosmic drama that stretches from the
    creation of the universe to the founding of
    Kingship
  • 1) The Creation and Emergence of the High God,
  • 2) the Departure of the High God and the
    Separation of Earth and Sky,
  • 3) the Reign of Osiris and the Fall of Set,
  • 4) The Great Conflict between Horus and Set,
  • 5) the Salvation of Osiris and Kingship of Horus.
  • 1) Creation and the Emergence of the High God -
    At the beginning of all Egyptian creation myths
    there is only Nun, the primeval water of the
    universe. This can be pictured as an active void
    or a field of potential order. In this water,
    this field, the original Spirit moved.
  • Heliopolis thought of this spirit as Atum, who
    self-generated the first pair of dualities, Shu,
    moisture, and Tefnut, heat. In Hermopolis this
    was pictured as the union of the chaotic sexes to
    form the primodial mound. The sages of Memphis
    imagined this as the Original Spirit, here called
    Ptah, creating the cosmos by his word (logos).

48
The Major Religious Traditions of the Egyptian
Old Kingdom -cont.
  • The Original Spirit emerged from the primeval
    waters as a mound, or a point of stability in a
    universe of undifferentiated movement. This
    emergence was variously imagined as a flower
    opening, a serpent rearing, a pillar rising or
    even a child emerging from a lotus flower.
  • 2) Departure of the High God and the Separation
    of Earth and Sky - The High God, after a while,
    retreated from his creation. This is a key
    theological point in Egyptian mythology. The
    absence of the High God supplies a transcendent
    void in which the evolution of sentience unfolds.
  • As The High God departs, Shu and Tefnut give
    birth to Geb and Nut, the Earth and the Sky.
  • They bring order Maat out of chaos.
  • Shu separates his children, literally opens up
    space/time, and gives birth to the stars.

49
The Major Religious Traditions of the Egyptian
Old Kingdom -cont.
  • 3) The Reign of Osiris and the Fall of Set - Nut
    also gave birth to Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys.
    Osiris became the overseer of the High God, and
    taught mankind the skills of civilization. Set
    (or Seth) kills Osiris, Isis resurrects him and
    they have Horus.
  • 4) The Great Conflict between Set and Horus - As
    a young man, Horus set out to avenge his
    "father." He challenged Set to a series of great
    battles that came close to destroying the world.
    A Council of the Gods settled the dispute. Horus
    is eventually judged the victor and given the
    Kingship. Set is demoted to a being of storms.

5) The Salvation of Osiris and the Reign of Horus
- News was brought to Osiris in the Duat, the
netherworld, that Horus had avenged him and
become King. Osiris became the judge of the
afterlife, and Horus became the living God on
earth - as did all subsequent kings of Egypt.
50
The Heliopolan Theology, Dyn III-IV
  • Creation as the emanation of the Ennead, the
    first nine Gods, from whom the rest of
    Creation arises.
  • Atum is the First Principle, the Creator or
    Demiurge.
  • There are two basic variants by which Atum gives
    rise to creation
  • 1) The Primordial Hill
  • Atum is in the midst of the Nun, the primordial
    chaos (equivalent to the tohu the deep of the
    Hebrew book of Genesis). Atum begins by
    "becoming", by projecting himself into
    existence', by distinguishing himself from the
    Nun, and thereby annihilating the Nun in its
    original inert state. This is represented by the
    primordial hill, like the first mounds of dirt
    and mud that can be seen when the floodwaters of
    the Nile receed.
  • Hail Atum! Hail Khepri, he who becomes from
    himself! You culminate in this your name of
    'hill', you become in this your name of Scarab
    Khepri.
  • (Pyramid Texts, 1587)

51
The Heliopolan Theology - cont.
  • 2) His fingers...
  • In another version, "Atum gives birth to himself
    through his fingers at Heliopolis', causing 'the
    seed from the kidneys to come" (Pyramid Texts,
    1248).
  • This strange image is an attempt to explain the
    eternal question, "if God created the universe,
    who created God?" Answer, why, God of course.
    The onanism here is a metaphor of self-creation.
  • -----------------
  • Atum then brings forth the other eight elementary
    principles Shu (air) and Tefnut (fire), then Geb
    (Earth), Nut (Sky), and finally Osiris and Isis,
    Seth and Nepthys. Together with himself, make
    up the Nine, the Great Ennead of Heliopolis.
  • However, "none of these entities is separate from
    him "Atum" (PT 1655).
  • His power creates the gods who then create the
    cosmos, which then creates the four gods
    responsible for existence, birth, death and
    resurrection.

52
The Hermopolan Theology
  • From Hermopolis, city of Hermes (Thoth), comes
    the description of the Nun, the primordial
    environment.

The Nun is envisaged as a swampy mire, a seething
primal cradle in which live four couples of
serpents and frogs. The primordial Eight
together form a single entity. Rather than
regard the Nun as an initial or primal chaos, in
the Biblical mode, it should be seen as
indefinable substance, the eternal and infinite
source of the Universe. "You the Eight have
made from your seed a germ, and you have
instilled this seed in the lotus, by pouring the
seminal fluid you have deposited in the Nun,
condensed into a single form, and your inheritor
takes his radiant birth under the aspect of a
child." The Eight are called the 'fathers and
mothers of Re', for the child that comes forth
from this primordial lotus is Re, the principle
of light itself. Here then we have the
principle of Creation with no pre-existant
Creator out of chaos. Chaos, the original
Ogdoad, is the formative and nurturing principle
from which creation springs.
53
The Memphite Theology
  • The Memphis theology is based around Ptah
    "Creator" or Craftsman.
  • Ptah is the creator-god of Memphis.
  • The whole Memphite theology is preserved on a
    slab of basalt, the Shabaka Text which is perhaps
    the earliest record of theistic creation in
    existence.
  • As with all the Egyptian theologies, the Memphite
    religion was also political.
  • Ptah, the principal god of Memphis, had to be
    shown to be the great creator-god, and a new
    legend about creation was coined.
  • But it was also important to organize the new
    cosmogony so that a direct breach with the
    priests of Heliopolis might be avoided.
  • Ptah was the great creator-god, but eight other
    gods were held to be contained within him.

54
The Memphite Theology - cont.
  • The Shabaka Text enumerates Ptah's eight
    hypostases or qualities as "the Neterw who have
    come into existence in Ptah". Ptah himself
    incarnates the primordial Eight, and then the
    primordial hill.
  • "He who manifested himself as heart, he who
    manifested himself as tongue, in the likeness of
    Atum, is Ptah, the very ancient, who gave life to
    all the Neterw." Tongue means speech or logos.
    Ptah conceived the world intellectually before
    creating it 'by his own word'.
  • The Memphite theology, like the Theban religion,
    is based on a primordial triad of deities. In
    this case we have Ptah who is accompanied by his
    consort Sekhmet, the great lioness whose name
    means 'the powerful', and his son Nefertum, 'the
    accomplishment of Atum', thus making up the first
    causal triad.
  • There are also interesting parallels here with
    the Hindu trinity
  • Ptah - creator (Brahman)
  • Sehkmet - destroyer (Shiva)
  • Nefertum - preserver (Vishnu)

55
The Memphite Theology - cont.
  • The monotheistic element
  • In the Memphite Theology it is said of Ptah 'He
    who made all and created the gods.' And he is the
    one who gave birth to the gods, and from whom
    every thing came forth, foods, provisions, divine
    offerings, all good things.
  • Thus it is recognized and understood that he is
    the mightiest of the gods.
  • We have here a strongly developed monotheism,
    before Akhenaten.
  • Ptah as the divine craftsman also recalls
    Judaeo-Christian themes of God fashioning the
    world, making Adam out of clay, etc.

56
  • Egyptian View of the Cosmos -
  • Nut and Geb

Sky (Nut) Sun (Re) Air (Shu) Earth (Geb)
57
  • Creation of Man

Body Ka Khnum the potter
forms man from clay
58
  • The Ennead

A Reading Excerpt . . .
59
  • Late Egyptian Religion

60
  • Monothesim

Ca. 1400 BCE Akhenaten abruptly abolished all
worship of any god but Aten (Aton) However,
religion is very conservative - - people derive
solice from knowing truth - leaders have vested
interest in preserving the status quo Did
monthesim work?
61
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotam.
Indigenous
Sumer/Akad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
Anu, Enlil Marduk
World Paren
None
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous Indigenous Akhenaten
Heliopolis Hermopolis Memphis Akhetaten
3000 BCE 2400 BCE 1400 BCE
Pyr. Texts Pyr. Texts Shbakastone Hymns
Atum Ogdoad Ptah Aten
Emergence Emergence Sup. Being Sup. Being
None
Hinduism
Indigenous - Aryans Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 100 BCE
Vedas Upanishads Epics(BhaGita)
Varuna, Indra, Agni Brahman Trinity
Brahma, Vishnu/Krishna Shiva
Ritual Knowledge Knowledge, Action, Devotion
Vague renewal AtmanBrahman Immortality
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Middle East
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda, Ahgra Mainyu
Conduct
Savior Brings Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Abraham Moses David Josiah Post-Exile Philo
Middle East Egypt, Canaan Israel Juda Juda Alexan
dria
1800 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE 620 BCE 200 BCE 20 CE
Genesis Exodus Kings Deuteronomy Daniel Wisdom
El Shaddi Yahweh, others Yahweh,
others Yahweh Yahweh Yahweh
Ritual Ritual Ritual Ritual Conduct Conduct

Chart 1 of 2
62
  • Hinduism

"Then neither Being nor not-Being existed,
neither atmosphere, nor the firmament . . . The
One breathed windless by its own power. Nought
else but this existed then. In the beginning was
darkness swathed in darkness all this was
unmanifest water..." (Rig Veda X 129)
63
  • Ancient India

Cradle of Vedic Hinduism
64
  • Cosmological Time

The concept of time is very different in Eastern
religions West - linear, short the world was
created in 4004 BC according to Christian KJV
Bible now is the year 5763 according to
Judaism East - cyclical, long Hindu example A
Yuga (age) from 1,728,000 to 432,000 human
years A Mahayuga (great age) 4 yugas
4,320,000 years after which the 4-yuga cycle
restarts 2000 Mahayugas 1 Kalpa 8,640,000,000
years 1 day and night in the life of
Brahma Age of Brahma 100 divine years
311,040,000,000,000 yrs after which the cosmos
dissolves back into Brahma Buddhist example 1
mahakalpa has 4 stages universe arises,
continues, declines, persists in chaos 1
mahakalpa time to wear down 100 sq mile
mountain by a wing of a bird brushing it every
100 years at end of mahakalpa, the universe
starts over
65
  • The Evolution of Hinduism
  • Cosmogony and Eschatology

Vedas, c. 1200 BCE The beginning is
unknowable Upanishads, c. 700 BCE Being or
Non-being Laws of Manu, c. 200
BCE Self-existent, made manifest thru cosmic
waters - seed - egg The Epics, c. 200 BCE Shiva
dances to the rhythm of creation and destruction
66
  • The Upanishads

Key Doctrines 1 - The ultimate reality is
Braham 2 - The self (Atman) is identical to
Brahman. "Thou art that". 3 - The world
(cosmos) is illusion (maya) 4 - Life is evil in
that it obscures non-duality 5 - Never-ending
births and deaths (Samsara) are determined by
one's Karma 6 - Goal of the individual is release
(Moksha) from the endless cycle 7 - Way to
salvation is knowledge of the supreme truth which
requires ascetic discipline to attain
67
  • Late Hinduism - the Epics

68
Example Creation/Destruction Stories
  • Read exerpts...
  • Vedas, c. 1200 BCE
  • Rig Veda X, 109 1-7
  • Upanishads, c. 700 BCE
  • Chandogya Upanishad III, 19 and VI, 2
  • Laws of Manu, c. 200 BCE
  • Manu I, 5-9, 12-16, 22
  • The Epics, c. 200 BCE
  • Bhagavad-Gita 11.32 see next slide...

69
  • Hindu
  • Eschatology

If the radiance of a thousand suns Were to burst
at once into the sky That would be like the
splendor of the Mighty one ... I am become
death, The shatterer of worlds.
70
  • Vedic View of Cosmos

Heaven, Atmosphere and Earth Heaven sun, fire,
ether Atmosphere water, wind Earth a flat disk
below , holder of treasure, giver of food
71
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Eschatology








Mesopotamian
Indigenous
Sumer/Akkad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
An, Ea Marduk
World Parents
None for Cosmos
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous
Heliopolis Memphis
3000 BCE 2400 BCE
Pyramid Texts Shbaka Stone
Atum Ptah
Emergence Supreme Being
None for Cosmos
Hinduism
Indigenous Aryans Many Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 300-100 BCE 300-100 BCE
Vedas Upanishads Manu Epics
The One Brahman Brahman Brahman
Nothing Egg Egg Sup Being
None Cyclic Cyclic Cyclic
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Persia (Iran)
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda
Supreme Being
Savior Brings Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Abraham Moses David Josiah Post-Exile Philo
Middle East Egypt, Canaan Israel Juda Juda Alexan
dria
1800 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE 620 BCE 200 BCE 20 CE
Genesis Exodus Kings Deuteronomy Daniel Wisdom
El Shaddi Yahweh, others Yahweh,
others Yahweh Yahweh Yahweh
Ritual Ritual Ritual Ritual Conduct Conduct

Chart 1 of 2
72
  • Zoroastrianism

"This I ask Thee, tell me truly, Lord. Who in
the beginning, at creation, was the father of
Order? Who established the course of sun and
stars? ... Who upheld the earth ... What
craftsman created light and darkness"? (Gathas,
Yasna 44.3ff)
Theodicy - the problem of evil trilemma
73
  • Zoroastrian Cosmogony and Eschatology

The first linear cosmic eschatology The
eschatology explains the cosmogony The theodicy
explains the eschatology So, let us look at
theodicy first...
74
  • Theodicy Trilemma

God
omnipotent perfectly good
Logically, only two of the three can exist at the
same time!!
evil exists
75
  • General Solutions to the Theodicy Problem

Deny God - existence or attributes Dualism -
spirit vs. matter or good vs. bad Just
desserts - sin and free will Way to salvation -
lessons Life's duration - short with afterlife
We'll examine Christianity's solutions later
76
  • The Religion of the Persians

Founder was Zarathushtra (Zoroaster), ca. 1200
BCE. Reformed the Persian religion from
polythesim to monotheism. God is Ahura Mazda,
but he is opposed by the creator of the evil
daivas, Angra Mainyu God is the sole creator of
our spiritual and material world Doctrines Escha
tology - judgment at death Dualism - principle of
evil vs. good (see next slide) Freewill - created
humans have a choice to fight evil Cosmology -
the four ages of the world (2nd next slide)
77
  • Dualism

The first solution to the theodicy
problem "Truly there are two primal spirits,
twins renowned to be in conflict. In thought and
word, in act they are two the better and the
bad." "Neither our thoughts nor teachings nor
wills, neither our choices nor words nor acts,
nor our inner selves nor our souls agree." (In
the Avesta Gathas, Yasnas 30.3, 45.2)
78
  • Zoroastrian Cosmology

The Four Ages of the World 1. Spiritual
creation - menog (separation of the 2)
Angels - (Amesha Spentas) are the beneficent
immortals, evil starts struggle 2. Material
creation - getig (created perfect, mingling of
the 2) Six stages of creation sky, water,
earth, plants, animals, humans humans asked
to take part in battle of their own free will 3.
Struggle between good and evil - evil attacked
the good creation 4. Zoroaster appears -
proclaims the good religion Savior -
(Saoshyant) comes to usher in Frashokereti -
transfiguration, renewal of all, and the Kingdom
of God will be established on Earth - World
renewal Resurrection of the Dead Last Judgment -
all will be judged and cleansed at end times
79
  • Zoroastrian View of the Cosmos

sun
peak of Hara with river
Stone sky
plant man bull
sea
Earth
Water
80
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotam.
Indigenous
Sumer/Akad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
An, Ea Marduk
World Parents
None for Cosmos
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous
Heliopolis Memphis
3000 BCE 2400 BCE
Pyramid Texts Shbaka Stone
Atum Ptah
Emergence Supreme Being
None for Cosmos
Hinduism
Indigenous - Aryans Many Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 300-100 BCE 300-100 BCE
Vedas Upanishads Manu Epics
The One Brahman Brahman Brahman
Nothing Egg Egg Sup Being
None Cyclic Cyclic Cyclic
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Persia (Iran)
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda
Supreme Being
Savior Brings Renewal/ Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Abraham Moses David Josiah Post-Exile Philo
Middle East Egypt, Canaan Israel Juda Juda Alexan
dria
1800 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE 620 BCE 200 BCE 20 CE
Genesis Exodus Kings Deuteronomy Daniel Wisdom
El Shaddi Yahweh, others Yahweh,
others Yahweh Yahweh Yahweh
Ritual Ritual Ritual Ritual Conduct Conduct

Chart 1 of 2
81
  • Ancient Israelite Religion

"In the beginning when God created the heavens
and the earth, the earth was a formless void and
darkness covered the face of the deep, while a
wind from God swept over the face of the waters."
(Gen. 1).
82
  • Biblical Mid-East

722 BCE - Israel destroyed 586 BCE - Temple in
Judah destroyed and Exile to Babylon
83
  • Ancient Israel and Judah

Jesus
David Josiah
84
History of Judaism
  • At least two invasions of the Hebrews into
    Palestine
  • first around 1800 - 1400 BCE - Abrahamic
  • second around 1200 BCE - Mosaic
  • Two ancient sources for the personal God of
    Israel
  • El-Shaddai (god of the mountain) from northern
    Mesopotamia
  • Isra-el
  • Yahweh (I will be what I will be) from Sinai or
    Horeb from the South
  • Yehoshua (Joshua)
  • Syncretism with indigenous religion of Canaan
    (Palestine)
  • baals, asherahs (stones and poles) - nature
    worship
  • Yahweh religion won but the indigenous religion
    operated side by side until the
    reforms of Josiah (c. 600 BCE) which
  • gave birth to Jewish monothesim

85
  • Monarchical Israel

At this time, Israel still polytheistic with no
Cosmic Eschatology
86
  • The Reforms of Josiah - Deuteronomist History

The monarchy had split in 925 BCE into Israel and
Judah Israel was destroyed in 722 BCE by
Assyrians Judah was vassal to Assyria, but gained
temporary independence ca. 612 BCE Josiah
flourished as king of Judah ca. 620
BCE Centralized religious practice in
Jerusalem Discovered a new book of the Law
(Deuteronomy?) Banned religious practices belief
in other gods (YHWH only), idolatry, high
places He was killed by Necho ,aiding Assyria, in
609 at Megiddo (Armageddon - hill of
Megiddo) Babylon defeated Assyria in 612, Egypt
retreated The Exiles occurred in 597 and 587 BCE,
just14 years later
87
  • Post-Exilic Judaism

Temple cult had grown as result of Josiah's
reforms and Jeremiah arose to claim that Yahweh
would reject his people and the Temple would be
destroyed, which it was in the Exile (Babylonian
Captivity) of 586 BCE. Babylonian captivity
introduced new concepts from Zoroastrianism prin
ciple of evil (Satan) apocalyptic- last Judgment
- Last Days resurrection (1st noted in
Daniel) Post-exile (Cyrus 539) Temple rebuilt
but synagogues also Greek period (post 332 BCE)
introduced Greek ideas Plato's concept of the
soul was introduced (in Wisdom of Solomon)
Philo (c. 20 CE) attempted to reconcile
the two Sects arose mid-2nd century BCE
Pharisees - accepted last judgment,
resurrection Sadducees - did not Essenes
- rejected Hellenization and the sympathizers,
apocalyptic sect Jesus Movement - rejected
the hypocrisy of many of the Pharisees and
Sadducees. Preached the Last
Days.
88
  • The Creation Stories - readings...

Genesis 24-324 (Yahweh) (J story, written ca.
time of Solomon - 900BCE) The creation of
earth/heaven The creation of man,
then garden/trees/beasts/birds/woman The fall The
expulsion Genesis 11-23 (Elohim) (P story,
written in Babylon - 500 to 400BCE) The creation
of the Cosmos in four days light, sky, plants,
sun/moon/stars, The creation of life and people
in two days water animals/birds, land
animals/man Rest on the seventh day
89
  • Ancient Israelite View of the Cosmos

Firmament
Waters above below all around
Earth
90
  • Hebrew Bible Eschatology

The apocalyptic eschatology came late to the
Jews Ezekial (c. 600) prophesied reconstituted
nation for exiles Second Isaiah (c.540)
prophesied transformation of the world with
Yahweh as king Post-exilic verses in Isaiah claim
a supernatural order will exist "Then the wolf
shall dwell with the lamb... " (Is. 116-9) The
first true apocalypses are in Daniel (c. 165 BCE)
due to the horrors of the Maccabean War with
Syria A personal resurrection, judgment and
reward or punishment Only the Essenes made it
central to their beliefs And then, Jesus came
proclaiming the end of the age . . .
91
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotamia
Indigenous
Sumer/Akkad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
An, Ea Marduk
World Parents
None for Cosmos
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous
Heliopolis Memphis
3000 BCE 2400 BCE
PyramidTexts Shbaka Stone
Atum Ptah
Emergence Supreme Being
None for Cosmos
Hinduism
Indigenous - Aryans Many Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 300-100 BCE 300-100 BCE
Vedas Upanishads Manu Epics
The One Brahman Brahman Brahman
Nothing Egg Egg Sup Being
None Cyclic Cyclic Cyclic
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Persia (Iran)
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda
Supreme Being
Savior Brings Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Yahwists Josiah Priestly Maccabees
Juda Juda Juda Juda
900 BCE 620 BCE 400 BCE 165 BCE
Genesis 2 Deuteron Genesis 1 Daniel
Yahweh Yahweh Yahweh Yahweh
Sup Being Sup Being Sup Being Sup Being

Chart 1 of 2
92
  • Greek Religion

"First of all, the Void (Chaos) came into being,
next broad-bosomed Earth, the solid an eternal
home of all, and Eros . . . Out of the void came
Darkness and black Night, and out of Night came
Light and Day ..." (Hesiod, Theogony, 1).

93
  • Ancient Greece

Ionian Philosophers c. 600 BCE
Homer - 750 BCE Hesiod - 700 BCE Plato - 385
BCE
94
  • Greece
  • Birthplaces of the World's Religions

Vedas Upanishads Bhagavad Gita Buddha Lao-tzu
Gilgamesh Osiris Akhenaten Abraham Moses Zoroaster
Josiah Pythagoras Plato Jesus Muhammad
95
  • Evolution of the Greek Religions

Three major phases 1- Pre-conquest chthonic
religion 2- Olympian religion a syncretism
of pre-conquest and Aryan gods 3- Mystery
religions - birth of the soul
Aryan - 2000 BCE syncretized chthonic and Aryan
gods Homer - 750 Olympian gods,
fates-determinism Hesiod - 700 a
cosmogony Thales - 585 unity, oneness, of the
cosmos Pherecydes - 550 1st with immortal soul
and reincarnation Pythagoras - 540 soul,
reincarnation, cosmic spheres Orphic poetry -
550 immortality and divinity of the
soul Heraclitus - 490 all is flux -
becoming Parmenides - 480 all is One -
being Democritus - 420 atoms-determinism Plat
o - 365 soul (Myth of Er) , Forms (Allegory
of the Cave), cosmic dualism Orphic Gold
Tablets - 300 life - death - life Aristotle -
335 countered Idealism of Plato Zeno/Stoic -
310 deterministic cosmos Epicurus - 310 swerve
of atoms - indeterminism
96
  • Pythagoras' Cosmos

97
  • The Orphics

The Greek religion of individual salvation. In
the beginning time created the silver egg of the
cosmos. Out of this egg burst Phanes-Dionysus
who was the first god to appear. Being the
firstborn he was called Protogonos. He was
bi-sexual and bore within himself the seeds of
all gods and men. He created the entire
cosmos. Humans have a dual nature and contain a
spark of divinity.
Excerpts ...
98
  • Stoics, Epicureans and a Foretaste of Classical
    Science

Stoics - Determinism Built on the atomism of
Democritus, the cosmos was fated to repeat
cyclicly The world is a monistic living organism,
made of matter. All is reabsorbed
back into God at the end of a
cycle Epicureans - Indeterminism Denied the
Stoics claim
99
  • Stoic View of the Cosmos

100
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno - Stoic
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Mediterranean Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
Supreme Being
Kingdom Last Days End Times
Norse
Indigenous
Scandivaia
?100 CE
Eddas
Odin

Ragnaok
Native American
Iroquois Maya
North America Mexico
?1000 BCE
various



Medieval Christian
The Church
Western world
500 - 1500 BCE
Hebrew Bible, New Testamen esp. Revelations
God
Sup Being

Chart 2 of 2
101
  • Early Christianity

"I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the
first heaven and the first earth had vanished . .
. I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down
out of heaven from God . . . Behold! I am making
all things new"! (Rev 21 1-5)
102
  • Creation - Christian

The creation stories in Genesis were taken up by
Christianity and were to be the cosmogony until
the advent of the Copernican revolution. What
was new was the emphasis on eschatology, which
had its beginnings in the "inter-testamental"
works.
Michaelangelo - Creation
103
History of Christianity
  • Jesus of Nazareth (30 CE)
  • His message was repent for the Kingdom at hand
  • (Mark 115)
  • This was a refinement of the Messianic kingdom
    expected in late
  • Jewish apocalyptic - of Daniel, 2nd
    Isaiah
  • Background influences
  • Jewish via Persian/Greek eschatology
  • Jewish Apocalyptic due to Greek (Hellenistic)
    rule
  • Greek Mystery religions
  • At first a sect of Judaism
  • Paul opened it up to the Gentiles (Hellenistic
    World)
  • The new sect and the established Jewish
    religion separated
  • Christianity was established by the Greek
    Fathers between
  • 100 and 500 CE, further
    separating Jewish and Gentile Christianity

104
  • St. Paul

Spread the Movement to the Gentiles - the
Hellenistic World
105
  • Christian Theodicy

St. Paul - Five responses to innocent
suffering Wickedness Guilt of ancestors It is
educational The creator himself suffers It is
only temporary St. Augustine - Original Sin The
"Fall" in Eden condemned all future
humanity John Calvin - Predestination "Double
predestination" - of both the saved and the
damned Salvation only of the elect Evidence of
election - upright life, church membership,
worldly success and experience of being "born
again"
106
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno - Stoic
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Medit World Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
Sup. Being
Kingdom Last Days End Times
Norse
Indigenous
Scandivaia
?100 CE
Eddas
Odin

Ragnaok
Native American
Iroquois Maya
North America Mexico
?1000 BCE
various



Medieval Christian
The Church
Western world
500 - 1500 BCE
Hebrew Bible, New Testamen esp. Revelations
God
Sup Being
Resurrection at End Times
107
  • Norse Mythology of Creation

In the beginning nothing existed except for
Ginnungagap. Neither sand, sea, heaven or earth
had been created. After a long span... emanated
. . . Muspell . . . Niflheim Fire and Ice
108
  • Norse Cosmology -
  • The Tree

The Germanic cosmos is divided into three levels
with space separating each part. 1st level -
Asgard, Vanaheim, Alfheim 2nd level -
Midgard, Nidavellir, Svartalfheim, Jotunheim 3rd
level - Hifelheim, Hel
109
  • The Story of Creation - Cosmogony

Only Ginnungagap Muspell Niflheim Ymir Frost
Giants The Cow Buri, Bor, Bestla Odin, Vili
and Ve Creation of our world and humans
110
  • The Twilight of the Gods

Ragnarok
111
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Mediterran Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
Sup. Being
Kingdom Last Days End Times
Norse
Indigenous
Scandanavia
1000 CE
Eddas
Odin, Vili, Ve
Emergence from Chaos
Cyclic
Native American
Iroquois Maya
North America Mexico
?1000 BCE
various



Medieval Christian
The Church
Western world
500 - 1500 BCE
Hebrew Bible, New Testamen esp. Revelations
God
Sup Being

Chart 2 of 2
112
  • Native American Cosmology

113
  • Iroquois Creation Myth

Gluskap had created the Sky before this. "Long
before the world was created there was an island,
floating in the sky, upon which the Sky People
lived . . . Trouble in heaven... Water animals
to the rescue... Birth to dualism... Creation of
the world...
114
  • Aztec Creation / Destruction Myth

Omecteotl, a self-created primal diety first
created the gods Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl and
others. Then... There were four worlds prior to
the present one. 1st sun - men killed by
jaguars 2nd sun - men turned into monkeys by
wind 3rd sun - men killed by fire 4th sun - men
killed by flood Present, 5th sun, men created by
Quetzacoatl it is doomed to dissapear in a
tremendous earthquake This world is very
unstable and needs constant human sacrifice to
sustain it
115
  • Mayan Creation Myth

Before the world had a true form, there were two
gods, ... Maker and Spirit... (Tepeu and
Gucumatz)(They were sons of primal dieties E Alom
and E Quaholom) Creation by thought... Created
life to get worship... animals first race of
men second race of men the flood third race of
men Too perfect ... darkened their
vision... Made women
116
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Mediterran Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
Supreme Being
Kingdom Last Days End Times
Norse
Indigenous
Scandanavia
?1000 CE
Eddas
Odin, Vili, Ve
Emergence from Chaos
Cyclic
Native American
Iroquois Aztec Mayan
N. America Mexico Mexico
?1000 BCE ?750 CE ?300 CE
various various Popol Vuh
Gluskap Omecteotl E Quaholom
Earth Diver Sup. Being World Parent
None Cyclic Cyclic
Medieval Christian
The Church
Western world
500 - 1500 BCE
Hebrew Bible, New Testamen esp. Revelations
God
Sup Being

Chart 2 of 2
117
  • Medieval Christianity Cosmology

118
  • Cosmology of Dante

119
  • Dante Reflects
  • Medieval View of
  • the Cosmos

Eschatology was individualised and spiritualized
via Platonic influence -vs- the NT
imminent coming of Christ to usher in the end of
history
120
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Mediterran Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
Supreme Being
Kingdom Last Days End Times
Norse
Indigenous
Scandanavia
?1000 CE
Eddas
Odin, Vili, Ve
Emergence from Chaos
Cyclic
Native American
Iroquois Aztec Mayan
N. America Mexico Mexico
?1000 CE ?750 CE ?300 CE
various various Popol Vuh
Gluskap Omecteotl E Quaholom
Earth Diver Sup. Being World Parent
None Cyclic Cyclic
Medieval Christian
The Church Fathers
Western world
500 - 1500 CE
Heb. Bible, New Test. esp. Rev.
Platonic Philosophy
God
Sup Being- ex nihlo
Spiritual End (due to immortality of soul via
Plato)
Chart 2 of 2
121
  • Chronology Based on Scripture

In the Mid-17th Century, Bishop Usser Declared
that The world began on Sunday, October 23,
4004 BC. Science, as we shall see, is not so
certain of the date, but believes it was before
then. . .
122
  • End of Comparative Mythology

On to Scientific Cosmology...
About PowerShow.com