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Cosmology:

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Title: Cosmology:


1
  • Cosmology

From Ancient Mythology to Modern Scientific Theory
Dr. Gary A. Stilwell
Mythology
Science
Cosmology
2
Outline Cont.
  • The Futility of the Inquiry Into Ultimate Reality?

Myself when young did eagerly frequentDoctor and
Saint, and heard great argumentAbout it and
about but evermoreCame out by the same door as
in I went.
(Khayyam, quatrain 27)
3
Outline Cont.
  • Ultimate Reality

Science theory/models and religious mythology
both seek to understand reality
Of which science models and religious myths may
both be Platonic cave shadows
They both use models to describe this reality
Disaster occurs when our models of reality are
mistaken for reality itself
4
Outline Cont.
  • Planned Outline of the Class
  • plus some preview 'slides'

Some Important Definitions and Orientations
(In this Introduction) Religion, Science, Cosmo
logy Myth, Model, Reality Orientation in Time an
d Place Comparative Mythology (In the Next Pre
sentation) Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Hindu, Zoroa
strian, Ancient Hebrew, Ancient Greek, Germanic,
Native American, Early-Medieval-Modern
Christian
5
Outline Cont.
  • Some Important Definitions

Science - A systematic body of knowledge which p
rovides a method for verifying or falsifying pro
positions about the material and physical world
based on empirical evidence by observation,
deduction and repeatable experiment.
Model - A scientific device that attempts to app
roximate reality in such a way as to allow for
describing present and predicting
future events. Religion - Religion is "an insti
tution consisting of culturally patterned
interaction with culturally postulated superhuman
beings." (Melford Spiro). Just one of many
definitions...
6
Outline Cont.
  • Some Other Definitions of Religion

"Religion is the belief in Spiritual Beings."
E.B.Tylor "When I mention religion, I mean the
Christian religion and not only the Christian
religion, but the Protestant religion and not
only the Protestant religion, but the Church of
England." Parson in Fielding's Tom Jones
"Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature,
the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of
soulless conditions. It is the opium of the
people." Karl Marx "Religion is the art and th
eory of the internal life of man, so far as it
depends on the man himself and on what is
permanent in the nature of things... Religion is
what the individual does with his own
solitariness." A.N. Whitehead
7
Outline Cont.
Some Important Definitions Cont.
  • Cosmology - From ko/smoj lo/goj meaning the study
    of the
  • origin, evolution and structure of the universe
    as an
  • ordered whole. Sub-topics are cosmogony and
    eschatology.
  • Reality - The sum total of all that is real.
    Here's the rub -
  • what is real? This has been debated for
    thousands of years.
  • Myth - A religious model, from the Greek mu/qoj
    meaning a
  • story, which in religion has come to mean a story
    that teaches
  • a spiritual truth and may be a true depiction of
    encounters with
  • a sacred reality. Traditional Story about
    Superhuman Beings.

8
Outline Cont.
  • Definitions Cont.

Mythology The Smithy's Fire a poem
about myth . . . .
9
Outline Cont.
  • Definitions cont.

Beginnings
Endings the origin of the cosmos th
e fate of the cosmos
Myths are stories that bring meaning and order to
our lives.
10
Outline Cont.
  • How Did Something Come From Nothing?

Most presuppose a chaotic substance
Mesopotamian, Hebrew (water, Gen 2)
A few are considered ex nihilo Hindu, Hebrew (
Gen 1) Some allow for creation - then a running
down (entropy) - then a re-creation Greeks, H
indu much more detail in the presentations to
come...
11
Outline Cont.
  • Cosmology

Comparative Mythology
12
Outline Cont.
  • Comparative Mythology

An Orientation in Time and Place
Ancient Places World Civilizations World Rel
igions
13
Outline Cont.
  • Earliest Civilizations of the World - Key
    Religious Figures or Writings

Vedas Upanishads
Enuma elish Pyramid Texts Zoroaster Genesis He
siod Pythagoras Plato Jesus Prose Edda Nati
ve- American Stories

14
Outline Cont.
  • World Religions and Mythologies

Approximate Ti
me of Foundation Mesopotamian 3200 BCE Sum
erian, Old Babylonian Egyptian 2900 BCE
Hindu 3000 BCE Persian 1200 BCE
Israelite/Judaism 1800-500 BCE Greek
700-300 BCE Early Christian 30
-500 CE Germanic/Norse ?1000 CE Native Ameri
can ?1000 CE Medieval Christian 500-1500 C
E
15
Outline Cont.
  • Comparative Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or other texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotamia







Egyptian







Chart to be filled in as we go.
Hinduism







Zoroastrian







Judaism







Chart 1 of 2
16
Outline Cont.
  • After Comparative Mythology

We will examine Science Topics and Scientific
Cosmology Science vs. Mythology Some Contemporar
y Religious Cosmological Ideas Can they be Reco
nciled?
17
Outline Cont.
  • Science the Pre-Socratics to Quantum Physics
  • Evolution of Cosmological Thought
  • Ancient Grece First scientific
    investigations
  • Columbian Exploration, paradise
    removed
  • Copernican Astronomy, heliocentrism
  • Newtonian Astronomy, mechanical universe
  • Kant-Laplacean Astronomy, time
  • Huttonian Geology, chronology
  • Darwinian Evolution, biology
  • EinsteinianRelativity, space-time
  • Modern Physics Quantum cosmology,
    indeterminism
  • The Vastness of Space and Time
  • Our Place in the Universe

18
Outline Cont.
  • Modern Science and The New Physics
  • Atomic History and Theory
  • Structure of matter
  • Special and General Relativity
  • Effects of near-light speed
  • Warped space-time
  • Relativistic philosophical implications
  • Quantum Theory
  • Quantum weirdness

19
Outline Cont.
  • Cosmology

The New Physics Relativity, Atoms, Quantum Theory
20
Outline Cont.
  • The Philosophical Implications of Relativity

We will look at the philosophical implications
Relative speed Light speed wave in what?
Loss of the common sense concepts space, time,
length, mass, energy, simultaneity
21
Outline Cont.
  • The Standard Model of the Structure of Matter

Macroscopic object Molecule Atom Nucleus Proto
n and Neutron
Quarks (Strings??)
22
Outline Cont.
  • Quantum Weirdness

The Uncertainty Principle It's BOTH Dead an
d Alive? The paradox of Schrodinger's Cat Quan
tum Wholeness and Non-locality

23
Outline Cont.
  • The Evolution of the Universe

An examination of the scientific standard model
of the Cosmos
24
Outline Cont.
  • Some Modern Issues -
  • Conflicts Between the Old and New
  • Creation Science - Intelligent Design
  • End of the World - Apocalypticism,
    Millenarianism,

  • Dispensationalism

25
Outline Cont.
  • End of Outline and Overview

On to the Comparative Mythology Lecture . . .
26
  • Cosmology

Comparative Mythology
27
  • "The Heavens Declare Thy Glory" - Cosmology

Creation myths and cosmological models are both
attempts to understand the existence of the
universe.
28
  • Common Elements in Creation / Destruction Myths

All cultures have a foundation myth of their
beginnings. Many cultures have developed myths wi
th the same basic elements. We all ask ultimate q
uestions Where did the universe come from and wh
ere is it going? Did it have a beginning and what
happened before then? Why and how did the univer
se begin? Is it limited or without boundaries? W
ill it come to an end and, if so, how and why?
What is our place in the universe?
How do we relate to the universe?
Why should there be something rather than
nothing? Does the universe need a creator? If so
, then what created the creator?
Or, has it always existed?
29
Creation (Cosmogonic) Myths - Types
  • All creation mythologies posit a Separation in
    place of a Oneness.
  • One cosmogonic myth classification is
  • Supreme Being -
  • Hebrew, Mayan, Kabballah
  • Emergent Being -
  • Egypt, Vedic, Norse, Zuni Native American
  • World Parents -
  • Greek, Mesopotamia, Egypt
  • Cosmic Egg -
  • Orphic, Upanishad
  • Earth-Diver -
  • Iroquois and Many Native American


  • primarily from Charles Long.
    Alpha. 1963

30
Another Way to Look at it is With Two Major
Types Beginning vs. No Beginning
Being - Creation from something
Non-being- Creation from nothing
Mixed - something, no gods
  • Cosmogonical
  • Myth

no beginning, no end
cyclic beginnings and endings
31
  • Comparative Mythology

An Orientation in Time and Place
Ancient Places World Civilizations World Rel
igions
32
  • Civilizations - Prehistory to10,000 BCE

ca. 3500 BCE
33
  • Civilizations - 3500 to1000 BCE

year 0

34
  • The Ancient World
  • Birthplaces of the World's Religions

Hinduism Vedas Upanishads Epics Bhagavad Git
a
Buddha Lao-tzu
Apsu Osiris Akhenaten Abraham Moses Zoroaster
Josiah Pythagoras Plato Jesus Muhammad
founders
35
  • World Religions and Mythologies

Approximate Time of
Foundation Mesopotamian 3200 BCE Sumerian,
Old Babylonian Egyptian 3000 BCE Hindu
3000 BCE Persian 1200 BCE Isr
aelite/Judaism 1800-500 BCE
Greek 700-300 BCE Early Christian
30-500 CE Norse ?1000 CE Native Ame
rican ?1000 CE Medieval Christian 500-1500
CE
36
  • Earliest Civilations of the West and Their
    Creation Stories Enuma elish and Pyramid Texts

Pyramid Texts 2400 BCE
Enuma elish 2300 BCE
37
  • Mesopotamian Creation Myths

"When on high the Heaven had not been named, firm
ground had not been called by name, naught but
primordial Apsu their begetter and Mumm-Tiamat,
she who bore them all . . ."
pict...
38
  • Mesopotamian Creation Myth - Enuma elish

The Old Babylonian creation myth is written on 7
tablets. This version was written no later than
the reign of Hammurabi, ca. 1900 BCE. It celeb
rates Marduk's rise to power over the earlier Sum
erian gods. It is a rewrite of a much earlier c
reation story from Sumer, well before ca. 2300 B
CE. This is the earliest know creation myth and
relates the struggle between cosmic order and ch
aos.
39
  • The Enuma Elish - Background and Outline

The Enuma-Elish, or Babylonian Creation Epic is
a poem divided into seven verses by being written
on seven tablets, like the seven days of Genesis
. . . The Enuma Elish, (translated "When on
High", was first discovered in Ashurbanipals (c.
650 BCE) library at Nineveh in approximately
1850. Tablet 1 Describes primordial setti
ng in which only Tiamat and Apsu exist. Marduk
and other gods are created, discontentment arises
between younger and older gods. Apsu decides to
destroy them and Tiamat joins his cause.
Tablet 2 The embattled gods seek a warrior-cha
mpion. Marduk steps up as the warrior, but states
that he wants the be head of the pantheon in
exchange for his services. Tablet 3 Marduks
proposal is presented to Lahmu and Lahamu,
Tiamat and Apsus oldest children. Marduk
performs miracles to garner their approval. His
proposal is accepted.
40
The Enuma Elish - cont.
  • Tablet 4 Marduk and Tiamats battle is
    described. Marduk is victorious. He splits
    Tiamats carcass into two halves and uses them
    create the cosmos (heaven and earth).
  • Tablet 5 Marduk lays out the sun, stars, moon
    and constellations in the heavens and is crowned
    king of the gods.
  • Tablet 6 Humans are created to do the gods
    bidding. Kingu, Tiamats consort and ally in the
    war, is slain and his blood is used to create
    man.
  • Tablet 7 Hymn of praise to Marduk chronicling
    his great works and accomplishments.

41
  • The Enuma Elish - cont.

When on high the Heaven had not been named,
Firm ground had not been called by name,
Naught but primordial Apsu, their begetter,
and Tiamat, she who bore them all,
Their waters commingling as a single body
No reed hut had been made, no marsh land had
appeared, When no gods whatever had been brought
into being, Uncalled by name, their destinies un
determined, Then it was that the gods were formed
within them
continue reading excerpts.....
42
  • Babylonian View of the Cosmos

Chaotic Waters Heavens Earth
Arallu (like
Sheol or Hades)
43
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotam.
Indigenous
Sumer/Akad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
Anu, Ea Marduk
World Parents
None
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous
Heliopolis Memphis
3000 BCE 2400 BCE
Pyramid Texts Shbaka Stone
Atum Ptah
Emergence Supreme Being
None for Cosmos
Hinduism
Indigenous - Aryans Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 100 BCE
Vedas Upanishads Epics(BhaGita)
Varuna, Indra, Agni Brahman Trinity Brahma, V
ishnu/Krishna
Shiva
Ritual Knowledge Knowledge, Action, Devotion
Vague renewal AtmanBrahman Immortality
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Middle East
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda, Ahgra Mainyu
Conduct
Savior Brings Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Abraham Moses David Josiah Post-Exile Philo
Middle East Egypt, Canaan Israel Juda Juda
Alexandria
1800 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE 620 BCE 200 BCE
20 CE
Genesis Exodus Kings Deuteronomy Daniel Wis
dom
El Shaddi Yahweh, others Yahweh, others Yahweh
Yahweh Yahweh
Ritual Ritual Ritual Ritual Conduct Conduct

Chart 1 of 2
44
  • Egyptian Creation Mythology

"There came into being as the mind and there came
into being as the logos in the form of God. The
mighty Great One is Ptah, who transmitted life to
all gods . . . through this mind . . . and
through his logos."
45
Evolution of Egyptian Religion
  • Old Kingdom (ca. 2700 - 2200 BCE)
  • Dyn III (ca, 2700 - 2640)
  • Dyn IV (ca. 2640 - 2520)
  • Dyn V (ca. 2520 - 2360)
  • Dyn VI (ca. 2360 - 2200)
  • Pyramid Texts - 2400 BCE
  • This is the the time of the major creation
    myths
  • Middle Kingdom (ca. 2200 - 1600 BCE)
  • Coffin Texts - 2000 BCE
  • The afterlife becomes more democratic
  • New Kingdom (ca. 1550 - 1100 BCE)
  • Book of the Dead - 1600 BCE
  • Everyone has a chance at a good afterlife
  • But there is never a cosmic eschatology

46
The Major Religious Traditions of the Egyptian
Old Kingdom
  • Heliopolis Atum (Atum-Ra)
  • Hermopolis The Ogdoad
  • Memphis Ptah
  • Thebes Amun
  • Political clout of the 4th through 6th Dynasties
    has made the tradition of Heliopolis is the best
    known of all the Egyptian theologies.
  • Also influential are the traditions of
    Hermopolis. Both influenced the Memphite
    theology.
  • In the late 5th or early 6th Dynasty (ca. 2350
    BCE), the priests of Ptah in Memphis produced a
    version of the creation myths that showed the
    city god of Memphis to be the creator - but
    without offending the priests of Heliopolis.

47
The Major Religious Traditions of the Egyptian
Old Kingdom - cont.
  • A series of myths may be seen as episodes in a
    vast cosmic drama that stretches from the
    creation of the universe to the founding of
    Kingship
  • 1) The Creation and Emergence of the High God,
  • 2) the Departure of the High God and the
    Separation of Earth and Sky,
  • 3) the Reign of Osiris and the Fall of Set,
  • 4) The Great Conflict between Horus and Set,
  • 5) the Salvation of Osiris and Kingship of
    Horus.
  • 1) Creation and the Emergence of the High God -
    At the beginning of all Egyptian creation myths
    there is only Nun, the primeval water of the
    universe. This can be pictured as an active void
    or a field of potential order. In this water,
    this field, the original Spirit moved.
  • Heliopolis thought of this spirit as Atum, who
    self-generated the first pair of dualities, Shu,
    moisture, and Tefnut, heat. In Hermopolis this
    was pictured as the union of the chaotic sexes to
    form the primodial mound. The sages of Memphis
    imagined this as the Original Spirit, here called
    Ptah, creating the cosmos by his word (logos).

48
The Major Religious Traditions of the Egyptian
Old Kingdom -cont.
  • The Original Spirit emerged from the primeval
    waters as a mound, or a point of stability in a
    universe of undifferentiated movement. This
    emergence was variously imagined as a flower
    opening, a serpent rearing, a pillar rising or
    even a child emerging from a lotus flower.
  • 2) Departure of the High God and the Separation
    of Earth and Sky - The High God, after a while,
    retreated from his creation. This is a key
    theological point in Egyptian mythology. The
    absence of the High God supplies a transcendent
    void in which the evolution of sentience unfolds.
  • As The High God departs, Shu and Tefnut give
    birth to Geb and Nut, the Earth and the Sky.
  • They bring order Maat out of chaos.
  • Shu separates his children, literally opens up
    space/time, and gives birth to the stars.

49
The Major Religious Traditions of the Egyptian
Old Kingdom -cont.
  • 3) The Reign of Osiris and the Fall of Set - Nut
    also gave birth to Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys.
    Osiris became the overseer of the High God, and
    taught mankind the skills of civilization. Set
    (or Seth) kills Osiris, Isis resurrects him and
    they have Horus.
  • 4) The Great Conflict between Set and Horus - As
    a young man, Horus set out to avenge his
    "father." He challenged Set to a series of great
    battles that came close to destroying the world.
    A Council of the Gods settled the dispute. Horus
    is eventually judged the victor and given the
    Kingship. Set is demoted to a being of storms.

5) The Salvation of Osiris and the Reign of Horus
- News was brought to Osiris in the Duat, the
netherworld, that Horus had avenged him and
become King. Osiris became the judge of the afte
rlife, and Horus became the living God on earth -
as did all subsequent kings of Egypt.
50
The Heliopolan Theology, Dyn III-IV
  • Creation as the emanation of the Ennead, the
    first nine Gods, from whom the rest of
    Creation arises.
  • Atum is the First Principle, the Creator or
    Demiurge.
  • There are two basic variants by which Atum gives
    rise to creation
  • 1) The Primordial Hill
  • Atum is in the midst of the Nun, the primordial
    chaos (equivalent to the tohu the deep of the
    Hebrew book of Genesis). Atum begins by
    "becoming", by projecting himself into
    existence', by distinguishing himself from the
    Nun, and thereby annihilating the Nun in its
    original inert state. This is represented by the
    primordial hill, like the first mounds of dirt
    and mud that can be seen when the floodwaters of
    the Nile receed.
  • Hail Atum! Hail Khepri, he who becomes from
    himself! You culminate in this your name of
    'hill', you become in this your name of Scarab
    Khepri.
  • (Pyramid Texts, 1587)

51
The Heliopolan Theology - cont.
  • 2) His fingers...
  • In another version, "Atum gives birth to himself
    through his fingers at Heliopolis', causing 'the
    seed from the kidneys to come" (Pyramid Texts,
    1248).
  • This strange image is an attempt to explain the
    eternal question, "if God created the universe,
    who created God?" Answer, why, God of course.
    The onanism here is a metaphor of self-creation.
  • -----------------
  • Atum then brings forth the other eight elementary
    principles Shu (air) and Tefnut (fire), then Geb
    (Earth), Nut (Sky), and finally Osiris and Isis,
    Seth and Nepthys. Together with himself, make
    up the Nine, the Great Ennead of Heliopolis.
  • However, "none of these entities is separate from
    him "Atum" (PT 1655).
  • His power creates the gods who then create the
    cosmos, which then creates the four gods
    responsible for existence, birth, death and
    resurrection.

52
The Hermopolan Theology
  • From Hermopolis, city of Hermes (Thoth), comes
    the description of the Nun, the primordial
    environment.

The Nun is envisaged as a swampy mire, a seething
primal cradle in which live four couples of
serpents and frogs. The primordial Eight
together form a single entity.
Rather than regard the Nun as an initial or
primal chaos, in the Biblical mode, it should be
seen as indefinable substance, the eternal and
infinite source of the Universe.
"You the Eight have made from your seed a ge
rm, and you have instilled this seed in the
lotus, by pouring the seminal fluid you have
deposited in the Nun, condensed into a single
form, and your inheritor takes his radiant birth
under the aspect of a child."
The Eight are called the 'fathers and mothers of
Re', for the child that comes forth from this
primordial lotus is Re, the principle of light
itself. Here then we have the principle of Cre
ation with no pre-existant Creator out of
chaos. Chaos, the original Ogdoad, is the
formative and nurturing principle from which
creation springs.
53
The Memphite Theology
  • The Memphis theology is based around Ptah
    "Creator" or Craftsman.
  • Ptah is the creator-god of Memphis.
  • The whole Memphite theology is preserved on a
    slab of basalt, the Shabaka Text which is perhaps
    the earliest record of theistic creation in
    existence.
  • As with all the Egyptian theologies, the Memphite
    religion was also political.
  • Ptah, the principal god of Memphis, had to be
    shown to be the great creator-god, and a new
    legend about creation was coined.
  • But it was also important to organize the new
    cosmogony so that a direct breach with the
    priests of Heliopolis might be avoided.
  • Ptah was the great creator-god, but eight other
    gods were held to be contained within him.

54
The Memphite Theology - cont.
  • The Shabaka Text enumerates Ptah's eight
    hypostases or qualities as "the Neterw who have
    come into existence in Ptah". Ptah himself
    incarnates the primordial Eight, and then the
    primordial hill.
  • "He who manifested himself as heart, he who
    manifested himself as tongue, in the likeness of
    Atum, is Ptah, the very ancient, who gave life to
    all the Neterw." Tongue means speech or logos.
    Ptah conceived the world intellectually before
    creating it 'by his own word'.
  • The Memphite theology, like the Theban religion,
    is based on a primordial triad of deities. In
    this case we have Ptah who is accompanied by his
    consort Sekhmet, the great lioness whose name
    means 'the powerful', and his son Nefertum, 'the
    accomplishment of Atum', thus making up the first
    causal triad.
  • There are also interesting parallels here with
    the Hindu trinity
  • Ptah - creator (Brahman)
  • Sehkmet - destroyer (Shiva)
  • Nefertum - preserver (Vishnu)

55
The Memphite Theology - cont.
  • The monotheistic element
  • In the Memphite Theology it is said of Ptah 'He
    who made all and created the gods.' And he is the
    one who gave birth to the gods, and from whom
    every thing came forth, foods, provisions, divine
    offerings, all good things.
  • Thus it is recognized and understood that he is
    the mightiest of the gods.
  • We have here a strongly developed monotheism,
    before Akhenaten.
  • Ptah as the divine craftsman also recalls
    Judaeo-Christian themes of God fashioning the
    world, making Adam out of clay, etc.

56
  • Egyptian View of the Cosmos -
  • Nut and Geb

Sky (Nut) Sun (Re) Air (Shu)
Earth (Geb)
57
  • Creation of Man

Body Ka Khnum the potter
forms man from clay
58
  • The Ennead

A Reading Excerpt . . .
59
  • Late Egyptian Religion

60
  • Monothesim

Ca. 1400 BCE Akhenaten abruptly abolished all w
orship of any god but Aten (Aton) However,
religion is very conservative -
- people derive solice from knowing truth
- leaders have vested interest in preserving the
status quo Did monthesim work?
61
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotam.
Indigenous
Sumer/Akad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
Anu, Enlil Marduk
World Paren
None
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous Indigenous Akhenaten
Heliopolis Hermopolis Memphis Akhetaten
3000 BCE 2400 BCE 1400 BCE
Pyr. Texts Pyr. Texts Shbakastone Hymns
Atum Ogdoad Ptah Aten
Emergence Emergence Sup. Being Sup. Being
None
Hinduism
Indigenous - Aryans Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 100 BCE
Vedas Upanishads Epics(BhaGita)
Varuna, Indra, Agni Brahman Trinity Brahma, V
ishnu/Krishna
Shiva
Ritual Knowledge Knowledge, Action, Devotion
Vague renewal AtmanBrahman Immortality
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Middle East
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda, Ahgra Mainyu
Conduct
Savior Brings Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Abraham Moses David Josiah Post-Exile Philo
Middle East Egypt, Canaan Israel Juda Juda
Alexandria
1800 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE 620 BCE 200 BCE
20 CE
Genesis Exodus Kings Deuteronomy Daniel Wis
dom
El Shaddi Yahweh, others Yahweh, others Yahweh
Yahweh Yahweh
Ritual Ritual Ritual Ritual Conduct Conduct

Chart 1 of 2
62
  • Hinduism

"Then neither Being nor not-Being existed, neit
her atmosphere, nor the firmament . . . The One
breathed windless by its own power. Nought else
but this existed then. In the beginning was
darkness swathed in darkness all this was
unmanifest water..." (Rig Veda X 129)
63
  • Ancient India

Cradle of Vedic Hinduism
64
  • Cosmological Time

The concept of time is very different in Eastern
religions West - linear, short the world was
created in 4004 BC according to Christian KJV
Bible now is the year 5763 according to Judaism
East - cyclical, long Hindu example A Yuga
(age) from 1,728,000 to 432,000 human years
A Mahayuga (great age) 4 yugas 4,320,000
years after which the 4-yuga cycle restarts 200
0 Mahayugas 1 Kalpa 8,640,000,000 years 1
day and night in the life of Brahma Age of
Brahma 100 divine years 311,040,000,000,000
yrs after which the cosmos dissolves back into Br
ahma Buddhist example 1 mahakalpa has 4 sta
ges universe arises, continues, declines,
persists in chaos 1 mahakalpa time to wear dow
n 100 sq mile mountain by a wing of a bird
brushing it every 100 years at end of mahakalpa,
the universe starts over
65
  • The Evolution of Hinduism
  • Cosmogony and Eschatology

Vedas, c. 1200 BCE The beginning is unknowable
Upanishads, c. 700 BCE Being or Non-being La
ws of Manu, c. 200 BCE Self-existent, made manife
st thru cosmic waters - seed - egg The Epics
, c. 200 BCE Shiva dances to the rhythm of creati
on and destruction
66
  • The Upanishads

Key Doctrines 1 - The ultimate reality is Braham
2 - The self (Atman) is identical to Brahman.
"Thou art that". 3 - The world (cosmos) is i
llusion (maya) 4 - Life is evil in that it obscur
es non-duality 5 - Never-ending births and deaths
(Samsara) are determined by one's Karma 6 - Goa
l of the individual is release (Moksha) from
the endless cycle 7 - Way to salvation is knowled
ge of the supreme truth which requires ascetic di
scipline to attain
67
  • Late Hinduism - the Epics

68
Example Creation/Destruction Stories
  • Read exerpts...
  • Vedas, c. 1200 BCE
  • Rig Veda X, 109 1-7
  • Upanishads, c. 700 BCE
  • Chandogya Upanishad III, 19 and VI, 2
  • Laws of Manu, c. 200 BCE
  • Manu I, 5-9, 12-16, 22
  • The Epics, c. 200 BCE
  • Bhagavad-Gita 11.32 see next slide...

69
  • Hindu
  • Eschatology

If the radiance of a thousand suns
Were to burst at once into the sky
That would be like the splendor
of the Mighty one ... I am become death,
The shatterer of worlds.
70
  • Vedic View of Cosmos

Heaven, Atmosphere and Earth Heaven sun, fire
, ether Atmosphere water, wind Earth a flat d
isk below , holder of treasure, giver of food

71
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Eschatology








Mesopotamian
Indigenous
Sumer/Akkad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
An, Ea Marduk
World Parents
None for Cosmos
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous
Heliopolis Memphis
3000 BCE 2400 BCE
Pyramid Texts Shbaka Stone
Atum Ptah
Emergence Supreme Being
None for Cosmos
Hinduism
Indigenous Aryans Many Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 300-100 BCE 300-100 BC
E
Vedas Upanishads Manu Epics
The One Brahman Brahman Brahman
Nothing Egg Egg Sup Being
None Cyclic Cyclic Cyclic
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Persia (Iran)
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda
Supreme Being
Savior Brings Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Abraham Moses David Josiah Post-Exile Philo
Middle East Egypt, Canaan Israel Juda Juda
Alexandria
1800 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE 620 BCE 200 BCE
20 CE
Genesis Exodus Kings Deuteronomy Daniel Wis
dom
El Shaddi Yahweh, others Yahweh, others Yahweh
Yahweh Yahweh
Ritual Ritual Ritual Ritual Conduct Conduct

Chart 1 of 2
72
  • Zoroastrianism

"This I ask Thee, tell me truly, Lord. Who in
the beginning, at creation, was the father of
Order? Who established the course of sun and
stars? ... Who upheld the earth ... What
craftsman created light and darkness"? (Gathas,
Yasna 44.3ff)
Theodicy - the problem of evil trilemma
73
  • Zoroastrian Cosmogony and Eschatology

The first linear cosmic eschatology
The eschatology explains the cosmogony Th
e theodicy explains the eschatology
So, let us look at theodicy first...
74
  • Theodicy Trilemma

God
omnipotent perfectly good
Logically, only two of the three can exist at th
e same time!!
evil exists
75
  • General Solutions to the Theodicy Problem

Deny God - existence or attributes
Dualism - spirit vs. matter or good vs. bad
Just desserts - sin and free will Way to salv
ation - lessons Life's duration - short with af
terlife We'll examine Christianity's solutions
later
76
  • The Religion of the Persians

Founder was Zarathushtra (Zoroaster), ca. 1200
BCE. Reformed the Persian religion from polythesi
m to monotheism. God is Ahura Mazda, but he
is opposed by the creator of the evil daivas,
Angra Mainyu God is the sole creator of our spiri
tual and material world Doctrines Eschatology
- judgment at death Dualism - principle of evil
vs. good (see next slide) Freewill - created huma
ns have a choice to fight evil
Cosmology - the four ages of the world (2nd next
slide)
77
  • Dualism

The first solution to the theodicy problem
"Truly there are two primal spirits, twins renow
ned to be in conflict. In thought and word, in ac
t they are two the better and the bad."
"Neither our thoughts nor teachings nor wills,
neither our choices nor words nor acts, nor our
inner selves nor our souls agree."
(In the Avesta Gathas, Yasnas 30.3, 45.2)
78
  • Zoroastrian Cosmology

The Four Ages of the World 1. Spiritual creati
on - menog (separation of the 2)
Angels - (Amesha Spentas) are the
beneficent immortals, evil starts struggle
2. Material creation - getig (created perfect,
mingling of the 2) Six stages of creation sky
, water, earth, plants, animals, humans
humans asked to take part in battle of their
own free will 3. Struggle between good and evil
- evil attacked the good creation
4. Zoroaster appears - proclaims the good
religion Savior - (Saoshyant) comes to usher
in Frashokereti - transfiguration, renewal of a
ll, and the Kingdom of God will be establish
ed on Earth - World renewal Resurrection of the D
ead Last Judgment - all will be judged and cleans
ed at end times
79
  • Zoroastrian View of the Cosmos

sun
peak of Hara with river
Stone sky
plant man bull
sea
Earth
Water
80
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotam.
Indigenous
Sumer/Akad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
An, Ea Marduk
World Parents
None for Cosmos
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous
Heliopolis Memphis
3000 BCE 2400 BCE
Pyramid Texts Shbaka Stone
Atum Ptah
Emergence Supreme Being
None for Cosmos
Hinduism
Indigenous - Aryans Many Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 300-100 BCE 300-100 BC
E
Vedas Upanishads Manu Epics
The One Brahman Brahman Brahman
Nothing Egg Egg Sup Being
None Cyclic Cyclic Cyclic
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Persia (Iran)
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda
Supreme Being
Savior Brings Renewal/ Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Abraham Moses David Josiah Post-Exile Philo
Middle East Egypt, Canaan Israel Juda Juda
Alexandria
1800 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE 620 BCE 200 BCE
20 CE
Genesis Exodus Kings Deuteronomy Daniel Wis
dom
El Shaddi Yahweh, others Yahweh, others Yahweh
Yahweh Yahweh
Ritual Ritual Ritual Ritual Conduct Conduct

Chart 1 of 2
81
  • Ancient Israelite Religion

"In the beginning when God created the heavens
and the earth, the earth was a formless void and
darkness covered the face of the deep, while a
wind from God swept over the face of the waters."
(Gen. 1).
82
  • Biblical Mid-East

722 BCE - Israel destroyed 586 BCE - Temple i
n
Judah destroyed and Exile to Babylon
83
  • Ancient Israel and Judah

Jesus
David Josiah
84
History of Judaism
  • At least two invasions of the Hebrews into
    Palestine
  • first around 1800 - 1400 BCE - Abrahamic
  • second around 1200 BCE - Mosaic
  • Two ancient sources for the personal God of
    Israel
  • El-Shaddai (god of the mountain) from northern
    Mesopotamia
  • Isra-el
  • Yahweh (I will be what I will be) from Sinai or
    Horeb from the South
  • Yehoshua (Joshua)
  • Syncretism with indigenous religion of Canaan
    (Palestine)
  • baals, asherahs (stones and poles) - nature
    worship
  • Yahweh religion won but the indigenous religion
    operated side by side until the
    reforms of Josiah (c. 600 BCE) which
  • gave birth to Jewish monothesim

85
  • Monarchical Israel

At this time, Israel still polytheistic with no
Cosmic Eschatology
86
  • The Reforms of Josiah - Deuteronomist History

The monarchy had split in 925 BCE into Israel and
Judah Israel was destroyed in 722 BCE by Assyrian
s Judah was vassal to Assyria, but gained tempora
ry independence ca. 612 BCE Josiah flour
ished as king of Judah ca. 620 BCE
Centralized religious practice in Jerusalem
Discovered a new book of the Law (Deuteronomy?)
Banned religious practices belief in other gods
(YHWH only), idolatry, high places He was killed
by Necho ,aiding Assyria, in 609 at Megiddo
(Armageddon - hill of Megiddo)
Babylon defeated Assyria in 612, Egypt retreated
The Exiles occurred in 597 and 587 BCE, just14 y
ears later
87
  • Post-Exilic Judaism

Temple cult had grown as result of Josiah's
reforms and Jeremiah arose to claim that Yahweh
would reject his people and the Temple would be
destroyed, which it was in the Exile (Babylonian
Captivity) of 586 BCE. Babylonian captivity i
ntroduced new concepts from Zoroastrianism
principle of evil (Satan) apocalyptic- last Jud
gment - Last Days resurrection (1st noted in Dan
iel) Post-exile (Cyrus 539) Temple rebuilt but
synagogues also Greek period (post 332 BCE) int
roduced Greek ideas Plato's concept of the sou
l was introduced (in Wisdom of Solomon)
Philo (c. 20 CE) attempted to
reconcile the two Sects arose mid-2nd century
BCE Pharisees - accepted last judgment, res
urrection Sadducees - did not Essenes -
rejected Hellenization and the sympathizers,
apocalyptic sect Jesus Movement - rejected th
e hypocrisy of many of the Pharisees and
Sadducees. Preached
the Last Days.
88
  • The Creation Stories - readings...

Genesis 24-324 (Yahweh) (J story, written ca.
time of Solomon - 900BCE) The creation of earth/h
eaven The creation of man, then garden/trees/bea
sts/birds/woman The fall The expulsion Genesi
s 11-23 (Elohim) (P story, written in Babylon
- 500 to 400BCE) The creation of the Cosmos in fo
ur days light, sky, plants, sun/moon/stars, The
creation of life and people in two days
water animals/birds, land animals/man
Rest on the seventh day
89
  • Ancient Israelite View of the Cosmos

Firmament
Waters above below all around
Earth
90
  • Hebrew Bible Eschatology

The apocalyptic eschatology came late to the
Jews Ezekial (c. 600) prophesied reconstituted na
tion for exiles Second Isaiah (c.540) prophesied
transformation of the world with Yahweh as king
Post-exilic verses in Isaiah claim a supernatural
order will exist "Then the wolf shall dwell with
the lamb... " (Is. 116-9) The first true ap
ocalypses are in Daniel (c. 165 BCE) due to the
horrors of the Maccabean War with Syria
A personal resurrection, judgment and reward or
punishment Only the Essenes made it central to
their beliefs And then, Jesus came proclaiming
the end of the age . . .
91
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Mesopotamia
Indigenous
Sumer/Akkad Babylon
3000 BCE 1700 BCE
Enuma elish
An, Ea Marduk
World Parents
None for Cosmos
Egyptian
Indigenous Indigenous
Heliopolis Memphis
3000 BCE 2400 BCE
PyramidTexts Shbaka Stone
Atum Ptah
Emergence Supreme Being
None for Cosmos
Hinduism
Indigenous - Aryans Many Many Many
India
3000-800 BCE 900-500 BCE 300-100 BCE 300-100 BC
E
Vedas Upanishads Manu Epics
The One Brahman Brahman Brahman
Nothing Egg Egg Sup Being
None Cyclic Cyclic Cyclic
Zoroastrian
Zarathustra
Persia (Iran)
1200 BCE
Avestas
Ahura Mazda
Supreme Being
Savior Brings Resurrection at End Times
Judaism
Yahwists Josiah Priestly Maccabees
Juda Juda Juda Juda
900 BCE 620 BCE 400 BCE 165 BCE
Genesis 2 Deuteron Genesis 1 Daniel
Yahweh Yahweh Yahweh Yahweh
Sup Being Sup Being Sup Being Sup Being

Chart 1 of 2
92
  • Greek Religion

"First of all, the Void (Chaos) came into being,
next broad-bosomed Earth, the solid an eternal
home of all, and Eros . . . Out of the void came
Darkness and black Night, and out of Night came
Light and Day ..." (Hesiod, Theogony, 1).

93
  • Ancient Greece

Ionian Philosophers c. 600 BCE
Homer - 750 BCE Hesiod - 700 BCE Plato - 385
BCE
94
  • Greece
  • Birthplaces of the World's Religions

Vedas Upanishads Bhagavad Gita Buddha Lao-tzu
Gilgamesh Osiris Akhenaten Abraham Moses Zoro
aster Josiah Pythagoras Plato Jesus Muhammad

95
  • Evolution of the Greek Religions

Three major phases 1- Pre-conquest chthonic re
ligion 2- Olympian religion a syncretism
of pre-conquest and Aryan gods
3- Mystery religions - birth of the soul
Aryan - 2000 BCE syncretized chthonic and Aryan
gods Homer - 750 Olympian gods, fates-determi
nism Hesiod - 700 a cosmogony Thales - 585
unity, oneness, of the cosmos Pherecydes - 550 1
st with immortal soul and reincarnation
Pythagoras - 540 soul, reincarnation, cosmic
spheres Orphic poetry - 550 immortality and divi
nity of the soul Heraclitus - 490 all is flux -
becoming Parmenides - 480 all is One - being
Democritus - 420 atoms-determinism
Plato - 365 soul (Myth of Er) , Forms
(Allegory of the Cave), cosmic dualism
Orphic Gold Tablets - 300 life - death - life
Aristotle - 335 countered Idealism of Plato
Zeno/Stoic - 310 deterministic cosmos
Epicurus - 310 swerve of atoms - indeterminism
96
  • Pythagoras' Cosmos

97
  • The Orphics

The Greek religion of individual salvation.
In the beginning time created the silver egg of
the cosmos. Out of this egg burst Phanes-Dionysu
s who was the first god to appear.
Being the firstborn he was called Protogonos. He
was bi-sexual and bore within himself the seeds
of all gods and men. He created the entire cosm
os. Humans have a dual nature and contain a spark
of divinity.
Excerpts ...
98
  • Stoics, Epicureans and a Foretaste of Classical
    Science

Stoics - Determinism Built on the atomism of Demo
critus, the cosmos was fated to repeat
cyclicly The world is a monistic living organism,
made of matter. All is reabsorbed
back into God at the end of a cycle Epicur
eans - Indeterminism Denied the Stoics claim
99
  • Stoic View of the Cosmos

100
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno - Stoic
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Mediterranean Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
Supreme Being
Kingdom Last Days End Times
Norse
Indigenous
Scandivaia
?100 CE
Eddas
Odin

Ragnaok
Native American
Iroquois Maya
North America Mexico
?1000 BCE
various



Medieval Christian
The Church
Western world
500 - 1500 BCE
Hebrew Bible, New Testamen esp. Revelations
God
Sup Being

Chart 2 of 2
101
  • Early Christianity

"I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the
first heaven and the first earth had vanished . .
. I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down
out of heaven from God . . . Behold! I am making
all things new"! (Rev 21 1-5)
102
  • Creation - Christian

The creation stories in Genesis were taken up by
Christianity and were to be the cosmogony until t
he advent of the Copernican revolution. What w
as new was the emphasis on eschatology, which
had its beginnings in the "inter-testamental" wor
ks.
Michaelangelo - Creation
103
History of Christianity
  • Jesus of Nazareth (30 CE)
  • His message was repent for the Kingdom at hand

  • (Mark 115)
  • This was a refinement of the Messianic kingdom
    expected in late
  • Jewish apocalyptic - of Daniel, 2nd
    Isaiah
  • Background influences
  • Jewish via Persian/Greek eschatology
  • Jewish Apocalyptic due to Greek (Hellenistic)
    rule
  • Greek Mystery religions
  • At first a sect of Judaism
  • Paul opened it up to the Gentiles (Hellenistic
    World)
  • The new sect and the established Jewish
    religion separated
  • Christianity was established by the Greek
    Fathers between
  • 100 and 500 CE, further
    separating Jewish and Gentile Christianity

104
  • St. Paul


Spread the Movement to the Gentiles - the Helle
nistic World
105
  • Christian Theodicy

St. Paul - Five responses to innocent suffering
Wickedness Guilt of ancestors It is educational
The creator himself suffers It is only
temporary St. Augustine - Original Sin The "Fa
ll" in Eden condemned all future humanity
John Calvin - Predestination "Double predestina
tion" - of both the saved and the damned
Salvation only of the elect Evidence of election
- upright life, church membership,
worldly success and experience of being "born
again"
106
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno - Stoic
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Medit World Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
Sup. Being
Kingdom Last Days End Times
Norse
Indigenous
Scandivaia
?100 CE
Eddas
Odin

Ragnaok
Native American
Iroquois Maya
North America Mexico
?1000 BCE
various



Medieval Christian
The Church
Western world
500 - 1500 BCE
Hebrew Bible, New Testamen esp. Revelations
God
Sup Being
Resurrection at End Times
107
  • Norse Mythology of Creation

In the beginning nothing existed except for
Ginnungagap. Neither sand, sea, heaven or earth
had been created. After a long span...
emanated . . . Muspell . . . Niflheim Fire and
Ice
108
  • Norse Cosmology -
  • The Tree

The Germanic cosmos is divided into three levels
with space separating each part. 1st level -
Asgard, Vanaheim, Alfheim 2nd level - Midgard
, Nidavellir, Svartalfheim, Jotunheim 3rd lev
el - Hifelheim, Hel
109
  • The Story of Creation - Cosmogony

Only Ginnungagap Muspell Niflheim Ymir F
rost Giants The Cow Buri, Bor, Bestla Odi
n, Vili and Ve
Creation of our world and humans
110
  • The Twilight of the Gods

Ragnarok
111
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Mediterran Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
Sup. Being
Kingdom Last Days End Times
Norse
Indigenous
Scandanavia
1000 CE
Eddas
Odin, Vili, Ve
Emergence from Chaos
Cyclic
Native American
Iroquois Maya
North America Mexico
?1000 BCE
various



Medieval Christian
The Church
Western world
500 - 1500 BCE
Hebrew Bible, New Testamen esp. Revelations
God
Sup Being

Chart 2 of 2
112
  • Native American Cosmology

113
  • Iroquois Creation Myth

Gluskap had created the Sky before this.
"Long before the world was created there was an
island, floating in the sky, upon which the Sky
People lived . . . Trouble in heaven... Water
animals to the rescue... Birth to dualism... Cre
ation of the world...
114
  • Aztec Creation / Destruction Myth

Omecteotl, a self-created primal diety first
created the gods Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl and o
thers. Then... There were four worlds prior to
the present one. 1st sun - men killed by jaguars
2nd sun - men turned into monkeys by wind 3rd s
un - men killed by fire 4th sun - men killed by f
lood Present, 5th sun, men created by Quetzacoa
tl it is doomed to dissapear in a tremendous eart
hquake This world is very unstable and needs co
nstant human sacrifice to sustain it
115
  • Mayan Creation Myth

Before the world had a true form, there were two
gods, ... Maker and Spirit... (Tepeu and Gucumat
z)(They were sons of primal dieties E Alom and E
Quaholom) Creation by thought... Created lif
e to get worship... animals first race of men s
econd race of men the flood third race of men
Too perfect ... darkened their vision... Made
women
116
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Mediterran Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
Supreme Being
Kingdom Last Days End Times
Norse
Indigenous
Scandanavia
?1000 CE
Eddas
Odin, Vili, Ve
Emergence from Chaos
Cyclic
Native American
Iroquois Aztec Mayan
N. America Mexico Mexico
?1000 BCE ?750 CE ?300 CE
various various Popol Vuh
Gluskap Omecteotl E Quaholom
Earth Diver Sup. Being World Parent
None Cyclic Cyclic
Medieval Christian
The Church
Western world
500 - 1500 BCE
Hebrew Bible, New Testamen esp. Revelations
God
Sup Being

Chart 2 of 2
117
  • Medieval Christianity Cosmology

118
  • Cosmology of Dante

119
  • Dante Reflects
  • Medieval View of
  • the Cosmos

Eschatology was individualised and spiritualiz
ed via Platonic influence -vs- the NT imminent
coming of Christ to usher in the end of histor
y
120
  • Comparative Cosmogonic Mythology

Religious Mythologies
Founder(s)
Place
Date
Scriptures or Other Texts
Creator Deit(ies)
Cosmogony
Cosmic Eschatology








Greek
Hesiod Orphic Zeno
Greece
700 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE
Theogony Tablets Stoic lit.
Zeus Phanes One God
Nothing Egg Sup. Being
None Cyclic
Early Christian
Jesus Paul Fathers
Juda Mediterran Greek world
30 CE 50 BCE 100-500 CE
Gospels Epistles Writings
Yahweh Yahweh God
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