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Phytochemicals Vitamins of the Future


Snack on fresh chopped carrots, celery, broccoli, cauliflower and peppers. ... Add fresh greens, carrots, celery parsley, tomatoes, and / or beans to your soups. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phytochemicals Vitamins of the Future

Phytochemicals- Vitamins of the Future?
  • Created by
  • Tricia Fleming, University of Kansas Dietetic
  • Tammy Beason, MS, RD, Nutrition Education
    Specialist, Family Nutrition Education Program
  • December 2001

Lets see what you know about phytochemicals!!!
  • Take phytochemical quiz- we will take the same
    one at the end and see if you learned anything!
  • Take a few minutes and jot down some foods you
    think might contain phytochemicals.

The American Diet
  • Americans do not eat enough fruits and
    vegetables. Surprise- Surprise!
  • Eat 5 a day campaign
  • Do we need yet another reason to eat fruits and

What are Phytochemicals?
  • Phyto- greek word for plants
  • Substances in plants that may help prevent
    diseases like cancer and heart disease.
  • So far, scientists know of 3,000 different
    phytochemicals with possible health benefits.

Phytochemical Terminology
  • Definitions you may need to know
  • Free radicals- are byproducts of metabolism. They
    are capable of causing cells to lose their
    structure, function and eventually destroying
  • Connected with the development of 50 diseases
    including heart disease and cancer.

Phytochemical Terminology
  • What are antioxidants?
  • Capable of stabilizing or deactivating free
    radicals before they attack cells.
  • Chemoprevention- using one or several compounds
    to prevent, stop or reverse the development of

Phytochemical Terminology
  • Designer Food- Processed foods that are
    supplemented with food ingredients naturally rich
    in disease-preventing substances.
  • Functional Food- any modified food or food
    ingredient that may provide a health benefit
    beyond the traditional nutrients it contains.

Phytochemical Terminology
  • Nutraceutical - specific chemical compounds in
    food, including vitamins and additives, that may
    aid in preventing disease.
  • Pharmafood- Food or nutrient that claims medical
    or health benefits, including the prevention and
    treatment of disease.

What is Cancer?
  • A disease of the bodys cells
  • Carcinogenesis is a multistage process.
  • Initiation-transformation of cell
  • Promotion- cells multiply to form a tumor
  • Progression - Leads to a malignant tumor.

What is Heart Disease?
  • Heart Disease is a general term for a list of
    diseases affecting the heart.
  • Can be caused by a variety of factors but
    atherosclerosis and hypertension play a major
  • Is the number 1 killer in the United States.

So whats so exciting about Phytochemicals?
  • Apparent ability to stop a cells conversion from
    healthy to cancerous.
  • Inhibit various hormone actions and metabolic
    pathways that are associated with the development
    of cancer and heart disease.

So whats so exciting about Phytochemicals?
  • Some phytochemicals have been found to lower LDL
  • Others have been found to help prevent blood
  • Reduce how much cholesterol the body produces and
    keep blood pressure down.

So whats so exciting about Phytochemicals?
  • Phytochemicals are also being used in cancer
    treatment in dosages.
  • Researchers still dont know a lot about
  • They do know that people who eat large quantities
    of fruits and veggies have reduced cancer risks.
    They are doing something right!!!!

Where can you find phytochemicals?
  • Highest anticancer activity can be found in
    garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root,
    and the umbelliferous vegetables.
  • Additional foods found to have cancer protective
    activity onions, flax, citrus, tumeric ,
    cruciferous veggies, tomatoes, sweet peppers and
    brown rice.

The Phytochemical Family
  • There are thousands of phytochemicals. But some
    of the basic classes of them are found in these
  • Cruciferous vegetables broccoli, cauliflower,
    cabbage, dark leafy greens.
  • Phytochemicals found are organosulfur and
    glucosinolates they may help prevent cancer.

The Phytochemical Family
  • Tomatoes and Watermelons
  • Phytochemical found Lycopene
  • Lycopene has been found to be 2 times as
    powerful as beta carotene in the destruction of
    free radicals.

The Phytochemical Family
  • Onions, Garlic, Scallions, Chives
  • Phytochemicals Found Allium compounds
  • They help to keep healthy cells in the body from
    being damaged by free radicals.

The Phytochemical Family
  • Grapes, Strawberries, Cranberries, Nuts,
    Blackberries, Raspberries
  • Phytochemicals found Ellagic Acid
  • Has been big in the news lately.
  • Appears to make blood less likely to clot
    therefore is beneficial in preventing heart

The Phytochemical Family
  • Citrus Fruits
  • Phytochemical found monoterpenes
  • May help to prevent cancer.

The Phytochemical Family
  • Soybeans
  • Phytochemicals found Isoflavones and saponins.
  • Have a wide range of benefits including lowering
    the risk for heart disease.

Phytochemicals in the News!
  • Soy has been nicknamed the Miracle Bean
  • Chinese have regular consumption of soybeans and
  • They have 1/2 the risk of cancer than Americans.

Soy- Its Whats for Dinner!
  • May also help prevent osteoporosis, and reduce
    the symptoms of menopause.
  • Exact component that is responsible for the
    positive effect is still unknown.

What are some Soy Foods?
  • Soy flours- simplest form. Can be used in baked
  • Soy isolates - used to make dairy like products.
    Usually used to add texture to meat products.
  • Tofu- rich in minerals and is an excellent source
    of protein.

What are some Soy foods?
  • Soymilk- consumed by dairy sensitive individuals
    and strict vegetarians.
  • Textured soy protein- used as a meat enhancer,
    extender and substitute.
  • Tempeh- made of whole cooked soybeans.
  • Soy recipe Tofu Pumpkin Cheesecake

Phytochemicals in the News
  • Green Tea has also made the headlines
  • Green Tea- contains high levels of flavonoids.
  • Shut off the formation of cancer cells,
  • Turn up the bodys defense system and suppress
    cancer advancement.

Phytochemicals in the News
  • Green Tea has also been indicated to lower LDL
    cholesterol and increase HDL in large quantities.
  • More Research needs to be performed!
  • Tea is not a substitute for the benefits of
    fruits and vegetables.

Pigments are more than just a color!
  • Dr. David Heber , UCLA Center for
  • Human Nutrition, Las Angeles, CA
  • What Color is Your Diet?
  • Many of the pigments found in fruits and
    vegetables are phytochemicals.
  • Dr. Heber and Susan Bowerman originated a seven
    color system organized as a color wheel.

The Color Wheel
  • Eat your colors!
  • Red - Lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, vitamin E-
  • Tomatoes, tomato sauce, vegetable juice, tomato
    soup, watermelon.
  • Green- Glucosinolates, Isothiocyanates, Indole-3
    Carbinol, and Folic Acid
  • Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Bok Choy, Cauliflower
    , Cabbage

The Color Wheel
  • Green/Yellow- Lutein, Zeaxanthin
  • Spinach, Avocado, Kale , Green Beans, Green
    Peppers, Kiwi, Collard Greens, Mustard Greens
  • Orange- Alpha and Beta Carotene
  • Carrots Pumpkins, Squash, Mangos, Apricots,

The Color Wheel!
  • Orange/Yellow- Vitamin C Flavonoids
  • Oranges, Orange Juice, Tangerines, Peaches,
    lemons, Limes, Pineapple.
  • Red-Purple Anthocyanins, Ellagic Acid,
  • Grapes and grape juice, cherries, red wine,
    strawberries, raisins

The Color Wheel!
  • White/ Green - Allyl Sulfides
  • Garlic, Onion, and Chives

Phytochemical Supplements
  • There are some available, but remember They
    will only provide selected components in a
    concentrated form but not all of the compounds
    that occur naturally in the foods.

Is there a negative side?
  • Studies on animals containing large amounts of
    phytochemicals have had negative results.
  • Optimal levels of phytochemicals have yet to be

How can you get enough Phytochemicals?
  • There are things that you can do!
  • Eating a variety of vegetables and fruits.
  • Eat more grains.
  • Dont forget herbs and spices,
  • Decrease portion size of meats.

How can you increase your phytochemical intake?
  • Keep fruits and vegetables stocked and in sight.
  • Reach for juice instead of coffee or soda.
  • Add chopped fruit to cereal, yogurt, pancakes,
    muffins, or even a milkshake.
  • Snack on fresh chopped carrots, celery, broccoli,
    cauliflower and peppers.

How can you eat more phytochemicals?
  • Add fresh greens, carrots, celery parsley,
    tomatoes, and / or beans to your soups.
  • Store dried fruit (apricots, dates, raisins, and
    more) for a quick snack at home or work.
  • Explore new foods and new recipes!

Whats next for Phytochemicals?
  • Research is KEY!
  • Research needs to answer these questions
  • What types of phytochemicals provide health
    benefits? - some research exists but need more
    definite results.
  • Establish the safety of use. - how much is too

Whats next for phytochemicals?
  • Determine an effective dosage that protects
    against disease?
  • Important to remember Nothing takes the place of
    a healthy diet and physical exercise. -

How many Phytochemicals are in this meal?
  • Using color wheel hand-out
  • Tomato Soup and crackers
  • Fruit salad ( pineapple, strawberries, peaches,
    and cherries)
  • Grilled cheese - made with low-fat cheese
  • Glass of Water

How many phytochemicals are in this meal?
  • The answer is 9!
  • Tomato Soup- lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and
    Vitamin E.
  • Pineapple and peaches - Vitamin C and Flavonoids
  • Strawberries and cherries - anthocyanins ,
    Ellagic Acid and Flavonoids.
  • Remember- This is only the main classes of
    phytochemicals, there are many more than this!

  • Phytochemicals are a complicated topic! There is
    sure to be new developments and news in this
  • Any Questions????