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Stimulating beverages

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Each fruit contains 2 seeds = beans, mostly endosperm. ... Water - green beans are percolated with water that contains all water-soluble ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stimulating beverages


1
Plant Secondary Metabolism (aka, natural products
chemistry)
Definition of secondary (2o) products/metabolism
-not essential not found in all plants -primary
functions of 2o products- -defense against
herbivores pathogens -attraction of pollinator
seed/fruit dispersers (through scent, sight,
and taste)   -important to humans in medicine,
industry, food agriculture -most crop plants
have been selected to make low levels of 2o cmpds
2
-three major categories of 2o cmpds
  • Isoprenoids (or terpenes)
  • Phenolics
  • Nitrogen-containing compounds

3
(1) terpenes (aka, isoprenoids) -largest
category -built from 2C (acetyl CoA) 5C
(isoprene) compounds -isoprene subunits used to
build larger molecules -some terpenes are primary
metabolites (e.g., pigments, hormones) -2o cmpds
often localized to trichomes or resin
ducts -examples -monoterpenes (10C)-
pyrethroids oils (e.g., pine oil, lemon oil,
menthol) -sesquiterpenes (15C)-
gossypol -diterpenes (20C)- resins (e.g., in
pines and euphorbs) -triterpenes (30C)-
phytoecdysones (insect molting hormones),
limonoids (in citrus rind), cardenolides
(glycosidic triterpenes e.g., digitalis
those in milkweeds) -polyterpenes (40C)-
natural rubber latex
4
(2) phenolics -produced via shikimic acid
pathway in plants, fungi, bacteria, but not in
animals (which is why animals can't make
tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine) -examples
-lignin (complex polymer built mostly from 3
kinds of phenolic-alchohol subunits) -flavon
oids -anthocyanins (pigments) -flavonols
(eg, UV-absorbing cmpds found in flowers,
UV-screening cmpds found in epidermal cells
these cmpds don't absorb 400-to- 700-nm
light) -isoflavonoids (e.g., phytoalexins...anti
-microbial cmpds) -tannins (several different
categories...big and small general
toxins) -others (e.g., salicylic acid
coumarins) -others (e.g., salicyclic acid,
coumarins)
5
(3) N-containing cmpds -many different
kinds -examples -alkaloids (N-containing ring,
often basic) -glycosides -mustard
glycosides -cyanogenic glycosides -non-protein
amino acids oligopeptides (e.g., defensins,
thionins) -proteins e.g., proteinase
inhibitors, lectins ((CH2O)n-binding proteins,
a.k.a. agglutinins), cytochrome P450
monooxygenases, etc.
6
Stimulating beverages
  • Coffee, tea, cocoa

7
History of coffee
  • Native to E. Africa used first in Ethiopia.
  • Arabs were first to brew coffee (ca. 1300 AD) and
    use spread from Arabia to Egypt and then to
    Europe (ca. 1600).
  • Arabic origin mocha, kava, coffee
  • Coffee was particularly popular in England.
  • Arabs monopolized trade by boiling seeds to kill
    them, but Dutch and French were able to obtain
    seeds and grow the trees themselves.
  • Brazil and Columbia currently lead the world in
    coffee production.
  • Second to oil, coffee is the most widely traded
    commodity.

8
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9
Rust epidemic in coffee
  • In 1868, Ceylon was the leading coffee producer
    (export of 100 million lbs) by 1890, no coffee
    could be exported
  • leaf disease caused by a fungus, Hemileia
    vastatrix
  • Java 1876 East Africa 1894 Brazil 1970
  • made worse by limited diversity highly variable
    pathogen
  • controlled by fungicides -- uneconomical in many
    regions, except where optimal climate
  • genetic resistance C. canephora (Robusta) lower
    quality used in cheap blends and instant coffee
  • replace by other crops e.g., tea

10
Views of coffee change through history
  • hailed as a medicinal cure-all
  • others condemned it as the devil's brew
  • usually for political or religious reasons
  • mid 1900s research discovered caffeine its
    relation to human health
  • in moderation, coffee consumption is usually not
    a health risk
  • can indeed confer some health benefits

11
Botanically
  • Small evergreen tree or shrub with shiny, simple
    leaves.
  • Traditionally a shade tree.
  • Fruit berry (cherry).
  • Each fruit contains 2 seeds beans, mostly
    endosperm.
  • Coffee is best grown in tropical and subtropical
    high-land cool climates, with fertile soils and
    60-100" rainfall, but requires dry season for
    flower development. Frost sensitive.
  • Trees begin producing at 3 years and produce for
    40 years.

12
Coffee species (of ca. 60 in genus)
  • Coffea arabica - 90 of world's production
  • Only kind grown in Latin America, ca. 1 caffeine
    (on DW basis), milder than other species
  • C. canephora -9 - Robusta coffee
  • Grown in Africa Asia
  • C. liberica - 1 - Liberian coffee
  • Grown in Africa
  • The last two are hardier plants than C. arabica,
    and C. canephora produces more fruits, but C.
    arabica still predominates.
  • C. arabica is a self-compatible polyploid, other
    are self-incompatibile diploids with a more
    bitter flavor.

13
Processing coffee
  • Seeds are separated from fruit, fermented and
    roasted
  • Light roast-to-Dark Roasts (stronger flavor due
    to roasting at higher temperature beans are
    oily-appearing because high temperature brings
    oils to surface). Most coffees sold in U.S. are
    light- and medium-roasted.

14
Famous coffee types
  • Light roast
  • Pronounced nut-like flavor, high coffee acidity
  • Medium roast
  • Pronounced caramel like flavor, full coffee
    flavor, with some loss of acidity
  • Full roast
  • Full coffee flavor, good balance of acidity and
    sugar
  • Vienna
  • Dark roast flavor
  • French Roast
  • Bitter, smoky taste and pungent aroma
  • Espresso Dark
  • Burnt flavor that is strong and sweet
  • Kona Coffee
  • the only coffee found in the Hawaiian Islands
  • Full coffee flavor, balance of acidity and sugar

15
Coffee preparation
  • Expresso
  • Pressurized hot water quickly forced through
    finely, ground densely packed, dark roasted
    arabica beans
  • Latte
  • Expresso with steamed milk
  • Mocha
  • Latte with less steamed milk, but with chocolate
    syrup added
  • Cappuccino
  • Expresso with less steamed milk than a latte, but
    with large cap of foamed milk

16
Secondary processing
  • Instant coffee
  • ground beans brewed under pressure, dehydrate
    brew by freezing or spraying
  • Decaffeination
  • before roasting, when beans are still 'green',
  • removing about 97-98
  • Solvent - methylene chloride or ethyl acetate is
    used to remove caffeine, solvent is removed
    (hopefully) during roasting. Caffeine is removed
    from solvent with water and crystallized.
  • Water - green beans are percolated with water
    that contains all water-soluble compounds found
    in coffee with exception of caffeine, which
    diffuses out more expensive than solvent
    extraction.

17
caffeine
  • Chemical name, 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine an
    alkaloid
  • dimethylxanthine derivatives, theophylline and
    theobromine, are also found in a variety of
    plants
  • occurs naturally in the leaves, seeds, or fruit
    of more than 60 plant species coffee beans are
    ca. 1-2 caffeine by weight
  • discourages grazing animals
  • 75 of purified caffeine (2 million pounds) is
    used in soft drinks, rest in headache and cold
    medicines

18
Caffeine continued
  • readily absorbed into the blood and body tissues
  • half-life of approximately four hours (1-10)
  • rapidly metabolized and excreted
  • smokers break down caffeine more quickly than
    non-smokers
  • contraceptive pill pregnancy slow the rate of
    caffeine metabolism

19
Stimulant
  • Effects range from mild alertness to heightened
    anxiety and body tension.
  • Medically, caffeine is useful as a cardiac
    stimulant, and also as a mild diuretic.
  • Recreationally, it is used to provide a "boost of
    energy" or a feeling of heightened alertness.
  • Temporary increase in the metabolic rate and the
    rate of fat breakdown (lipolysis).

20
Diuretic
  • minor diuretic under normal consumption
  • beverages containing caffeine should not be used
    to promote fluid replacement during prolonged
    exercise

21
Habituation
  • Caffeine's effects are more mild than
    amphetamines, cocaine, and heroin, but it is
    manipulating many of the same channels.
  • Some regular users who stop consuming caffeine
    may experience withdrawal symptoms, including
    drowsiness, headaches, irritability, nausea and
    vomiting, and depression.

22
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23
Caffeine related stimulants Alkaloid
methylxanthines
24
printed labels from a Japanese Tea Box (antique
mall in Grand Island, Nebraska)
25
The Cup of Tea.  Mary Cassatt, 1880, oil on
canvas. American.   Impressionist.
26
The Tea Cup.  Jackson Pollock, 1946, oil on
canvas. American.  Abstract Expressionist
27
Tea
  • Worlds most popular beverage, next to water
  • Every day, 800 million cups or glasses of tea are
    consumed globally.
  • Camellia sinensis - native to China/India/Tibet/Bu
    rma area cultivation and use of tea originated
    in Asia (China or India, probably 4-5000 years
    ago).
  • Portuguese Dutch introduced tea to Europe inca.
    1600 tea was important trade item in Europe by
    1700.
  • Colonial Americans were fond of tea and were
    angered by tea tax imposed by British, which
    resulted in the Boston Tea Party.

28
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29
Botanically
  • Cultivation has not been grown very successfully
    in New World, except Argentina most tea is grown
    in Asia.
  • Plants are small evergreen trees, which prefer
    abundant rainfall and warm-to-cool temperatures
    (but no frost).
  • Trees are pruned to force bush-like growth.
  • Picking is by hand, youngest leaves and terminal
    bud only are picked plants can be picked once a
    week. Tips are orange pekoe larger leaves are
    souchong and pekoe.
  • Tea bags were initially used as samples.

30
Fermentation additives affects color, flavor
and aroma
  • Non-fermented e.g., Green Tea, Lungching
    (Dragonwell), Pilochun, Chencha
  • Semi-fermented Oolong
  • Light Chinchua, White tea
  • Flowers Jasmine tea
  • Bergamot oil Earl Gray
  • Fully-fermented Black or red tea
  • 95 of tea consumed in US

31
Essential oils and tannins
  • Essential oil theol
  • Tannin
  • Discourage herbivores
  • Used as stains, dyes, inks, tanning agents

32
Benefits of drinking tea?
  • Improving immune system and preventing cancers
  • Slowing down aging process
  • Preventing loss of bone calcium
  • Alleviating blood lipoid, cholesterol, blood
    pressure, and arteriosclerosis
  • Helping sterilization and reinforcing teeth and
    intestine
  • Reducing urine hyperacidity and gout
  • Eliminate body fat
  • Preventing sunburn and resisting UV

33
Charleston, SC Tea Plantation
http//www.charlestonteagardens.com/
34
Some other plants used for tea
  • Sassafras albidum - aromatic bark used to make
    medicinal tea may be carcinogenic.
  • Herb teas - made from a huge variety of fragrant
    plants (chamomile, chicory, etc.)
  • Ginseng - Panax quinquefolium - use roots roots
    to make tea, straight tea does not taste very
    good so is usually used with honey or herb tea.
    Thought to have many positive affects, especially
    by Asians.
  • Ephedra species Mormon tea

35
Chocolate
  • The Food of the Gods?

36
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38
Cacao
  • Theobroma cacao - chocolate and cacao
  • New World origin in eastern Andes, "Food of the
    Gods" to Mayans, Mayan drink included cacao, red
    pepper, vanilla and other spices.
  • Sweet hot chocolate became very popular in Europe
    by 1650 (introduced ca. 1500). Spanish, then
    Dutch, then Germans, became involved in
    establishment of cacao plantations.
  • W. Africa and Brazil are now world's largest
    producers.

39
Botanically
  • Cacoa plants are small trees grown in shade, in
    warm wet tropical climates.
  • The pods contain 20-50 seeds, are broken open and
    cleaned by hand.
  • Seeds are fermented, which changes their white
    color to purple. Seeds are very bitter at this
    point. Seeds are then roasted, cracked to remove
    seed coats to yield nibs (cotyledons), nibs are
    ground, making enough heat to melt fat and
    produce chocolate liquor which can be molded into
    baking chocolate.

40
Processing
  • Cocoa is made by pressing out fat (cocoa butter),
    dry powder is treated with alkali to produce
    Dutch cocoa. Milk chocolate is produced by
    continuous stirring of a mixture of chocolate
    liquor cocoa butter sugar condensed milk.

41
Processing of Chocolate http//www.fmnh.org/Chocol
ate/manufacture_interactive/manufacture.html
  • Growth
  • Harvest
  • Ferment
  • Dry
  • Ship
  • Roast
  • Crack, fan, winnow
  • Grind
  • Mix
  • Refine
  • Conch
  • Temper

42
What chemicals does chocolate contain?
  • Caffeine and theobromine are both considered
    alkaloids (or methylxanthines).
  • Phenylethylamine is an anti-depressive and
    anti-stress agent.
  • Serotonin is a hormone which is also produced
    naturally by the brain.
  • Various flavonoids

43
different types of chocolate
  • Unsweetened or Baking
  • chocolate liquor that has been cooled and
    hardened.
  • Dark or Bittersweet Chocolate
  • must contain a minimum of 34 percent cacao
    solids.
  • Semi-sweet Chocolate
  • chocolate with extra cocoa butter and sugar
    added.
  • German Chocolate
  • sweeter and richer than semi-sweet chocolate, and
    is a special blend of chocolate, sugar and cocoa
    butter.
  •  Milk
  • creamy sweet chocolate that has extra cocoa
    butter, sugar, milk, and vanilla.

44
  • Cocoa
  • chocolate liquor with the cocoa butter having
    been removed, creating a fine bitter tasting
    powder.
  • Dutch Process Cocoa
  • special process used to neutralize the natural
    acids in cocoa powder.
  • White chocolate
  • cocoa butter without the cocoa, and is therefore
    not considered chocolate.
  • cheap imitations that substitute vegetable oil
    for cocoa butter.
  • Decorators or Confectioners Chocolate
  • a chocolate flavored candy.

45
Chocolate factory tours
http//www.hersheys.com/discover/chocolate.asp
46
Other beverages Coca-Cola
  • Kola tree- Cola nitida - relative of cacao
    native to W. Africa.
  • original Coca Cola had seeds cleaned and allowed
    to ferment, then dried and pulverized to a
    powder.
  • seeds contain caffeine and kolanin (heart
    stimulant) and appetite suppressant.
  • Since 1903, the cocaine has been removed before
    the coca extracts are added.

47
Other beverages, cont.
  • Root beer - carbonated, sweetened beverage
    flavored by extracts (caramel, sarsaparilla,
    wintergreen).
  • Teas (e.g., mate) made from various species with
    caffeine (e.g., Ilex species) are common in S.
    C. America.
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