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Women and Leadership

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Can Women be leaders? Do female and male leaders differ in their behavior and. effectiveness? ... Women and Leadership Approach Description ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Women and Leadership


1
Women and Leadership
Leadership Theory and Practice, 3/e Peter G.
Northouse, Ph.D.
2
Overview
  • Women and Leadership Perspective
  • Overview of Research Trends
  • Can Women be leaders?
  • Do female and male leaders differ in their
    behavior and
  • effectiveness?
  • Why do so few women reach the top?
  • How Does the Women and Leadership Approach
    Work?

3
Women and Leadership Approach Description
Perspective
The Gendered Workplace
  • Gender (learned beliefs) - Has significant
    impact on the degree to which males and females
    are expected to
  • Behave differently
  • Be treated differently
  • Be valued differently
  • Implications of a two-category (male/female) set
  • Cognitive distortions arise
  • Implies those within each category are identical
  • One category valued as superior to the other
  • Gender affects assignment of organizational
    responsibilities and most decisions regarding
  • Career progress
  • Resources
  • Salaries
  • Power
  • Authority
  • Appropriate work behavior

4
Overview of Research TrendsCan Women Be Leaders?
5
Overview of Research TrendsCan Women be Leaders?
6
Overview of Research TrendsCan Women be Leaders?
Government Leadership Positions
14
86
13
87
12
88
7
Overview of Research TrendsCan Women be Leaders?
Women of Differing Racial Ethnic Backgrounds
Holding Top Management Positions
8
Overview of Research TrendsCan Women be Leaders?
2001
Fortune 1000 Corporate Board Positions
18.1
2 178 positions
74
17
8.4
Source Catalyst, 2002
  • Primary Organizational Benefits in Developing and
    Promoting Women
  • Enhanced Productivity
  • Competitive Advantage
  • Financial Performance

9
Overview of Research TrendsDo Female and Male
Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and
Effectiveness?
Meta-Analyses/Literature Review Results Over a
15-Year Period
  • 160 Studies of sex-related differences in
    leadership (Eagly Johnson, 1990)
  • Women use a more participative or democratic
    style and a less autocratic or directive style
    than men
  • Both men and women emphasized task accomplishment
    when organization dominated numerically by
    members of their own sex or leadership role is
    viewed as gender congruent
  • 82 Studies measuring leader effectiveness (Eagly,
    Karau, Makhijani, 1995)
  • No difference in overall effectiveness between
    male and female leaders

10
Overview of Research TrendsDo Female and Male
Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and
Effectiveness?
Meta-Analyses/Literature Review Results Over a
15-Year Period
  • Male and female leaders evaluated differently
    (e.g., Eagly, Makhijani, Klonsky, 1992 Dreher
    Cox, 1996)
  • Impacts
  • Management training
  • Assignments
  • Mentors
  • Promotion
  • Female and male leaders evaluated favorably when
    they used a democratic leadership style
    (stereotypically feminine)
  • Females evaluated unfavorably when they used a
    directive or autocratic style (stereotypically
    male)
  • Women were devalued when they worked in
    male-dominated environments and when the
    evaluators were men
  • 82 Studies measuring leader effectiveness (Eagly,
    Karau, Makhijani, 1995)
  • No difference in overall effectiveness between
    male and female leaders

11
Overview of Research TrendsDo Female and Male
Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and
Effectiveness?
Meta-Analyses/Literature Review Results Over a
15-Year Period
  • Conditions of effectiveness (Eagly et al., 1995)
  • While overall effectiveness did not differ for
    male and female leaders, comparisons of leader
    effectiveness favored men more under three
    conditions
  • In a male-dominated setting (particularly the
    military)
  • When a high percentage of subordinates were male
  • When the role was viewed as more congenial to men
    in terms of
  • Self-assessed competence
  • Interest
  • Low requirements for cooperation with high
    requirements for control
  • Effectiveness comparisons favored women to the
    extent these conditions were reversed
  • With the exception of the military, womens
    effectiveness increased as they moved up the
    hierarchy and as cooperation rather than control
    was required

12
Overview of Research TrendsDo Female and Male
Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and
Effectiveness?
Meta-Analyses/Literature Review Results Over a
15-Year Period
  • Patterns of women leaders effectiveness (Micco,
    1996 Women May, 1997)
  • Advanced Teamware, Inc., study of 915
    middle-senior level managers
  • In 31 areas examined, women outperformed men in
    28 (i.e., conflict resolution, work quality,
    adaptation to change, productivity, idea
    generation, motivation of others)
  • Men handled their frustration and coped with
    pressure better both groups scored equally on
    delegating authority
  • Saville Holdworth study of 3,000 managers
  • Women emphasized planning and organizing work and
    an empathic approach
  • Women placed less emphasis on winning at all
    cost

13
Overview of Research TrendsDo Female and Male
Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and
Effectiveness?
Meta-Analyses/Literature Review
Results CONCLUSIONS
  • Women leaders are apt to be more participative
    and less autocratic, a pattern that is well
    suited to 21-century global organizations
  • The range of behavior viewed as appropriate for
    women leaders is more restricted because of mens
    negative evaluation of women demonstrating
    stereotypically masculine behaviors
  • Outside of the military, women were seen as more
    effective in middle management positions and in
    settings requiring cooperation with a balance of
    men and women

14
Overview of Research TrendsWhy Do so Few Women
Reach the Top?
CEO Explanations
  • Pipeline Theory - Women have not been in
    managerial positions long enough for natural
    career progression to occur (Heilman, 1997
    Ragins et al., 1998)
  • Women lack general management or line experience
    (Ragins et al., 1998)
  • Women themselves are the issue they are less
    suited to executive demands than men (Heilman,
    1997)
  • Women are unavailable to fill executive positions
    because few are sufficiently qualified (Morrison,
    1992)
  • Women lack self-confidence (Morris, 1998)

15
Common Barriers to Womens Advancement The Glass
Ceiling
Organizational Barriers
  • Higher standards of performance and effort
  • Inhospitable corporate culture
  • Promotion decisions based on homophily (gender
    similarity)
  • Ignorance/inaction by male CEOs and silent
    majority male peers
  • Imbalance of adequate recognition support with
    excessive difficulties
  • Lack of definitive development opportunities

16
Common Barriers to Womens Advancement The Glass
Ceiling
Interpersonal Barriers
Personal Barriers
  • Male prejudice, stereotyping, preconceptions
  • Lack of emotional and interpersonal support
  • Exclusion from informal networks
  • Lack of white male mentors
  • Lack of political savvy
  • Work-home conflict

17
How Does the Women and Leadership Approach Work?
  • Strengths
  • Criticisms
  • Application

18
Strengths
  • Understanding gender dynamics in leadership and
    uncovering and recognizing unconscious patterns
    and beliefs will foster workplace and societal
    improvements
  • Considering the sex of leaders and employees can
    yield insights within the major leadership
    theoretical frameworks (e.g., contingency theory)
  • Research on gender dynamics in leadership has
    contributed to broader conversations regarding
    what values are most important and what the good
    life really means in the U.S. society

19
Criticisms
  • A disadvantage of a singular focus on
    individuals sex is that it can become the only
    or primary attribute identifying them, rather
    than one of a myriad of attributes that influence
    their worldview and experience
  • Research on sex and gender differences has
    fostered an implicit assumption that members of
    each category are identical in race, sexual
    orientation, age, etc.

20
Application
  • The research findings on women and leadership can
    be applied to a number of organizational issues
  • Retention of talented women
  • Developing effective leaders
  • Barriers to womens advancement
  • The findings on womens effectiveness and the
    choices required for advancement can inform women
    of what they need to do to develop as leaders
  • The findings on gender dynamics in leadership can
    inform men of the subtle patterns enacted in the
    everyday workplace that impede fairness and
    excellence
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