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Project ENHANCE: Enhancing the Participation of Women Scientists and Engineers in the Chemical Indus

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Title: Project ENHANCE: Enhancing the Participation of Women Scientists and Engineers in the Chemical Indus


1
Project ENHANCE Enhancing the Participation
of Women Scientists and Engineers in the Chemical
Industry Introduction and Overview
  • Ruth E. Fassinger, Ph.D.
  • Project ENHANCE Team
  • University of Maryland
  • Supported by the National Science Foundation
  • Program in Research on Gender in Science
  • and Engineering HRD0228007

2
Why study women in industrial chemistry?Need for
the Project
  • Women and minorities represent greatest increases
    in U.S. workforce participation but
    under-represented in science and engineering
    (SE) fields
  • Women are 47 of college-degreed workforce but
    only 24 of SE workforce (of which only 1/5
    ethnic minority women)
  • Chemical industry is leading employer of
    scientists and engineers in the U.S., but women
    also under-represented and disadvantaged in
    industrial settings, particularly at upper levels
  • Women only 4 upper management in top U.S.
    chemical companies
  • Most research on women in SE fields focused on
    academe very little known about experiences of
    SE-trained women working in industry

3
Project Goals
  • Investigate the career experiences of women
    formally trained in science and engineering
    working in the chemical industry (from point of
    view of both women and management)
  • Identify factors that impede or facilitate career
    success
  • Identify corporate practices that contribute to
    positive industrial workplaces for women
    scientists and engineers

4
Project Personnel
  • Principal Investigators were
  • Ruth Fassinger, Psychologist, professor with
    expertise in vocational psychology of women
  • Judith Giordan, Chemist, consultant, former
    executive in several major chemical and consumer
    products companies
  • Sandra Greer, Chemist, professor in academic
    chemistry
  • Research team composed of nine doctoral students
    in psychology at University of Maryland
  • Advisory Board of experienced leaders in
    industrial chemistry provided consultation and
    feedback throughout the project
  • ACC assisted with company access WCC, AWIS,
    AIChE assisted with participant recruitment

5
Project Methods
  • Used mixed-method approach
  • Quantitative Web-based surveys
  • Qualitative In-depth telephone interviews
  • Used sampling procedures common in social
    sciences
  • Voluntary, confidential participation
  • Appropriate sample sizes
  • Used social science measurement approaches
  • Rating scales, listing, open-ended questions,
    yes/no responses, narratives
  • Valid and reliable measures
  • Used analysis procedures common in social
    sciences
  • Tested for differences (e.g., diverse
    populations)
  • Tested for relationships
  • Predicted outcomes using combinations of
    variables
  • Statistically significant results reported,
    error/uncertainty addressed, most conservative
    significance levels used
  • Coded narrative data, identified themes and
    patterns

6
Project Components
  • Management
  • Quantitative web-based survey of male and female
    managers perceptions of womens experiences
  • In-depth interviews with selected managers
  • Women
  • Quantitative web-based survey of womens
    self-reported experiences
  • In-depth interviews with selected women
  • Compilation and dissemination of best practices

7
Womens Study
  • Quantitative Study
  • Extensive web-based survey of 1725 women from 25
    Fortune 1000 U.S.-based chemical companies (15
    formally participated)
  • Emphasis on womens personal experiences in
    workplace
  • Survey included variables important in vocational
    psychology of women
  • Job satisfaction
  • Workplace climate
  • Interpersonal and company support
  • Mentoring
  • Self-efficacy/confidence
  • Career success and advancement
  • Stress and coping
  • Work-home interface
  • Workplace initiatives to support women

8
Womens Study (cont.)
  • Qualitative Study
  • 26 telephone follow-up interviews with selected
    sub-sample of women who completed survey
  • Emphasis on personal experiences in the workplace
  • Questions covered current position, career path,
    challenges encountered, facilitative factors
    experienced, current workplace climate, sources
    of professional support, home-work interface,
    aspirations and advancement, and ideas for
    workplace/industry improvements

9
Demographics of Survey Sample (Women)
  • Total N 1725
  • Age range 21-65
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • African American/Black 5.2
  • Arab/Middle Eastern American 0.5
  • Asian American/Pacific Islander 6.2
  • Caucasian/European American 82.5
  • Hispanic/Latina 3.5
  • Native American/American Indian 0.1
  • Multiracial 0.8
  • Other and Unknown 1.2
  • Documented disability 1.5
  • Sexual minority 3.1
  • Education
  • BA/BS 54.7
  • MA/MS/MBA 27.8
  • PhD/PostDoc 15.4
  • Other 2.2
  • Dependent children

10
Demographics of Survey Sample (Women)
  • Functional area
  • Technology 47.1
  • Manufacturing 19.2
  • EHS 8.6
  • Other 8.6
  • Genl Mgmnt w/o PL 3.7
  • Sales 3.3
  • Marketing 2.7
  • Genl Mgmnt w/ PL 2.4
  • Purchasing 1.3
  • Commercial Dev 1
  • Legal .7
  • Finance .6
  • HR .5
  • Govt Rels .2
  • Salary
  • 51k-100k 67

11
Demographics of Survey Sample (Women)
  • Position
  • Number of Supervisees
  • None 63
  • 1-10 26.8
  • 11-50 7
  • 51-100 1.7
  • 100 1.6

12
Management Study
  • Quantitative Study
  • Extensive web-based survey of 264 male and female
    managers from 25 Fortune 1000 U.S.-based chemical
    companies (15 formally participated) were VP or
    Director level and above
  • Emphasis on perceptions regarding experiences of
    female employees
  • Survey included same/parallel variables in
    womens survey
  • Workplace climate
  • Interpersonal and company support
  • Mentoring
  • Womens self-efficacy/confidence
  • Womens career advancement
  • Stress and coping
  • Work-home interface
  • Workplace initiatives to support women

13
Management Study (cont.)
  • Qualitative Study
  • 12 telephone follow-up interviews with selected
    sub-sample of male and female managers who
    completed survey
  • Emphasis on perceptions regarding experiences of
    female employees
  • Questions covered perceptions of challenges
    encountered by female employees, facilitative
    factors experienced, current workplace climate,
    sources of professional support, home-work
    interface, aspirations and advancement, and ideas
    for workplace/industry improvement

14
Demographics of Survey Sample (Managers)
  • Total N 264
  • Age range 31-65
  • Gender
  • Male 75.3
  • Female 24.7
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • African American/Black 3.5
  • Arab/Middle Eastern American
    .4
  • Asian American/Pacific Islander 3.1
  • Caucasian/European American
    90.0
  • Hispanic/Latina 1.9
  • Native American/American Indian .8
  • Other and Unknown .4
  • Documented disability .8
  • Sexual minority 2.0
  • Education
  • BA/BS 29.2
  • MA/MS/MBA 40.4
  • PhD 24.9

15
Demographics of Survey Sample (Managers)
  • Salary
  • 101k-200k 59.3
  • 201k-350k 33.5
  • 351k-500k 4.2
  • 500k 1.9
  • Supervisees
  • Direct Reports
  • None 6.8
  • 1-10 68.8
  • 11-50 20.2
  • 51-100 1.1
  • 100 3.1
  • Indirect Reports
  • None 11
  • 1-10 19.7
  • 11-50 31.1
  • 51-100 13.6

16
Demographics of Survey Sample (Managers)
  • Functional area
  • Technology 26.8
  • Manufacturing 12.3
  • Genl Mgmnt w/ PL 10.3
  • Other 8.4
  • Marketing 8.4
  • Genl Mgmnt w/o PL 8.0
  • HR 5.7
  • Finance 4.6
  • EHS 4.2
  • Legal 3.4
  • Sales 3.4
  • Purchasing 2.3
  • Govt Rels 1.1
  • Commercial Dev .8

17
Overview of Presentations
  • All include data from women and management
  • Emphasis on quantitative/survey results
    (qualitative data under analysis)
  • Results should be seen as preliminary, more
    detailed analyses in progress
  • Presentations cover
  • Success and advancement
  • Home-work interface
  • Initiatives to support women (particularly
    mentoring)
  • Will end with brief summary and implications of
    results
  • Will take questions at end copies of slides
    available as handouts
  • More information on Project ENHANCE website
  • http//enhance.technopsychology.com

18
Success and Advancement of Women in Industrial
Chemistry Stress, Support, and Satisfaction
  • Vanessa Downing
  • Project ENHANCE Team

19
Why study the success and advancement of women in
industrial chemistry?
  • Women under-represented throughout ranks of
    chemical industry, particularly in managerial
    roles
  • Women under-researched population in industry
    dearth of information on how to succeed and
    advance
  • Strong links between success and important
    corporate outcomes (e.g., turnover, retention,
    commitment, satisfaction)
  • Important to understand both womens and
    managers perspectives

20
Presentation Overview
  • Success for women in industrial chemistry is
  • linked to individual/internal factors (e.g.
  • willingness to undertake tasks associated with
  • advancement) and environmental/external
  • factors (e.g. company support)

21
Variables of Interest
  • Success defined by
  • Standard indicators (position, salary, number of
    supervisees)
  • Job satisfaction
  • Individual/Internal Factors
  • Willingness to engage in advancement tasks
  • Confidence to engage in advancement tasks
  • Beliefs about career advancement
  • Environmental/External Factors
  • Company support
  • Interpersonal support (supervisor, coworker)
  • Workplace climate
  • Mentoring (extent and adequacy)

22
Measuring Variables of Interest
  • Standard Indicators single-item measures
  • Job satisfaction 4-item, 5-point scale
  • Overall, how satisfied are you with your current
    job/position?
  • Willingness and Confidence 14-item, 5-point
    scales
  • Address unpopular personnel issues to enhance
    success of organization.
  • Beliefs About Career Advancement 20-item,
    5-point scale
  • Getting ahead in your job requires continuous
    upgrading of skills.

23
Measuring Variables of Interest (cont.)
  • Company support 25-item, 5-point scale
  • My company values my job-related opinions.
  • Interpersonal support 10-item, 5-point scale
  • My coworkers listen to my work-related problems.
  • Workplace Climate 20-item, 5-point scale
  • My company adheres to stated policies against
    discrimination.
  • I have never heard racist remarks at work.
  • Mentoring Extent and Mentoring Adequacy
  • 14-item scales, 5-point (extent) and yes/no
    (adequacy)
  • My mentor advocates for me inside the company.

24
Standard Indicators of Success
  • Salary 67 reported annual salaries of 50-100k
    25 reported 101-200k
  • Position 69 were scientists in non-supervisory
    (individual contributor) positions 11 were
    supervisors/team leaders 20 were upper-level
    managers
  • Number of supervisees 63 of women had no
    supervisees/reports 27 had 1-10
    supervisees/reports

25
Links Between Links Between Success (Job
Satisfaction) and Internal and External Factors
Types of Success
  • Significant relationships found between job
    satisfaction and
  • Each of the standard indicators of success (total
    compensation, number of current supervisees,
    position title)
  • Workplace climate
  • Mentoring extent and adequacy
  • Company, coworker, and supervisor support
  • Overall job satisfaction moderate
  • M 3.68, s.d. .78

26
Links Between Success (Standard Indicators) and
Internal and External Factors
  • More advanced positions are linked to
  • Higher salary number of supervisees
  • Job satisfaction
  • Willingness and confidence in performing
    advancement tasks
  • Higher salary is linked to
  • Position number of supervisees
  • Job satisfaction
  • Willingness and confidence in performing
    advancement tasks
  • Number of supervisees is linked to
  • Position salary
  • Job satisfaction
  • Willingness and confidence in performing
    advancement tasks
  • Current company support

27
Diversity and Success
  • White women reported higher salary and greater
    number of supervisees than racial/ethnic minority
    women (African American, Asian American, Latina)
  • Racial/ethnic minority women reported greater
    extent of mentoring experiences and slightly
    higher willingness to carry out advancement tasks
    than did White women
  • No differences in confidence to advance, support
    (company, supervisor, coworker), workplace
    climate, adequacy of mentoring, job satisfaction,
    position
  • No differences between heterosexual and sexual
    minority women on SIS, job satisfaction, support,
    workplace climate, mentoring
  • Sexual minority sample in this study may have
    been too small (n52) to detect differences

28
Comparing Managers and Womens Willingness
Female managers perceived women to be more
willing to engage in advancement tasks than did
male managers or women themselves
29
Comparing Managers and Womens Confidence
No significant differences found in womens
(perceived) confidence to engage in advancement
tasks
30
Comparing Managers and Womens Beliefs About
Career Advancement
  • Agreement between women and managers on 3 of
    top-ranked 5 beliefs
  • Getting ahead in ones job requires continuous
    upgrading of ones skills
  • Having executive presence and ability to talk
    to senior leadership is a critical element to
    career advancement
  • To get ahead, it is important to be on highly
    visible projects where contributions can be
    recognized and rewarded

31
Comparing Managers and Womens Beliefs About
Career Advancement (cont.)
  • Disagreement between women and managers on
    remaining 2 beliefs
  • Endorsed by women
  • How you look and fit into the company culture is
    key for career advancement
  • Advancing in your career is primarily your
    responsibility
  • Endorsed by managers
  • Being able to relocate is an important factor to
    career advancement
  • To get ahead, one has to be willing to take
    risks, e.g., accepting a promotion even if one
    does not feel fully prepared to take the job

32
Comparing Male and Female Managers Beliefs
About Career Advancement
  • Disagreement between male and female managers
  • Endorsed by male managers
  • Being able to relocate is an important factor to
    career advancement
  • Endorsed by female managers
  • Women, more than men, are held back from job
    advancement and reward because of
    responsibilities outside the workplace (e.g.,
    household and child care)

33
Summary
  • Womens Success
  • Overall, women working in chemical industry
    appear moderately successful and satisfied
  • Significant relationships were found among
    standard success indicators, job satisfaction,
    company and supervisor support, workplace
    climate, mentoring, and willingness and
    confidence to engage in advancement tasks
  • Female managers perceived women to be more
    willing to engage in advancement tasks than did
    male managers or women themselves
  • Diversity and Success
  • Few differences were found between experiences of
    majority and minority women
  • Beliefs about Success
  • Differences were found between male and female
    managers in beliefs about importance of
    relocating, women being held back because of
    responsibilities outside of workplace, e.g. home
    and family
  • Differences were found between women and managers
    in beliefs about importance of relocating,
    risk-taking, responsibility for advancement,
    fitting into company culture
  • Implications
  • Communication gaps between women and management
    about advancement expectations

34
Home-Work Interface for Women in Industrial
Chemistry Womens Experiences, Managers
Perspectives
  • Tracey Potter
  • Project ENHANCE Team

35
Why study the home-work interface?
  • Work and home life are central components in
    peoples lives demand responsibility for
    managing multiple roles
  • Home commonly defined as spouse and children,
    but includes non-married or same-sex partners,
    extended family, friends, communities
  • Multiple roles are healthy for women and men
    linked to psychological well-being, life
    satisfaction

36
Why study the home-work interface? (cont.)
  • But
  • Responsibility for managing multiple roles
    disproportionately falls to women
  • Managing work and home roles is difficult because
    of attitudinal and structural barriers (e.g.,
    gender roles in family, lack of workplace
    supports)
  • Presence of marriage and children is strongest
    determinant of womens career trajectories
  • Focus of this presentation is on home-work
    conflict (particularly related to presence of
    children)

37
Home-Work Conflict
  • Home-work conflict defined as form of friction
    in which role pressures from work and family
    domains are mutually incompatible in some
    respects (Cinamon Rich, 2002)
  • Home-work conflict is result of strain created by
    incompatible roles has been linked to negative
    outcomes (e.g., decreased satisfaction, increased
    stress)

38
Variables of Interest
  • Womens Data
  • Degree of home-work conflict
  • Confidence in managing home-work conflict
  • Number of supervisees
  • Role and responsibilities in company
  • Salary
  • Top 2 work-related stressors
  • Managers Data
  • Perceptions of womens top 2 work-related
    stressors
  • Company support for management of home-work
    interface

39
Measuring Aspects of Home-Work Conflict
  • Degree
  • 14-item, 5-point scale (1- Strongly disagree to
    5- Strongly agree)
  • My work keeps me from personal/family activities
    more than I would like.
  • Due to stress in my personal life, I am often
    preoccupied with family/personal matters at
    work.
  • Confidence to manage
  • 15-item, 5-point scale (1- No confidence to 5-
    Complete confidence)
  • Re-prioritize and better organize my day when
    both work and family obligations expand.
  • Balance professional goals with parenting
    responsibilities.

40
Degree of Home-Work Conflict
Women with children reported significantly more
(though moderate) home-work conflict than women
without children
41
Confidence in Managing Home-Work Conflict
Women with children reported significantly more
confidence in ability to manage home-work
conflict than women without children (though all
moderate)
42
Diversity and Home-Work Conflict
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • No differences found across racial/ethnic groups
    in womens experience of home-work conflict
    (degree or confidence in managing)
  • Dependent Children
  • Significant relationship found between degree of
    home-work conflict and number of dependent
    children living at home.

43
Home-Work Conflict and Job Status
  • Employment Status
  • No differences found in degree of work-family
    conflict based on employment status (i.e.,
    full-time vs. part-time)
  • Number of Supervisees
  • No differences found based on number of
    supervisees

44
Home-Work Conflict and Company Role
Project Team Leaders and Supervisors/managers
reported more home-work conflict than individual
contributors (though all low to moderate)
45
Home-Work Conflict and Salary
Women earning 101k-200k and 201-350k reported
more home-work conflict than those earning
51k-100k (though all low to moderate)
46
Home-Work Conflict and Job Satisfaction
  • No relationship found between home-work conflict
    and job satisfaction
  • Understanding this finding
  • Inconsistent with literature
  • Likely due to statistical range restriction in
    variables (predominantly moderate levels of
    satisfaction and low to moderate levels of
    home-work conflict) detecting significant
    relationship requires variability
  • Large number of women without children

47
Stress and the Home-Work Interface
  • 63 (988 of 1,556 women) report balancing work
    and family responsibilities in top 2 work-related
    stressors
  • Examples of stressors indicated by women
  • Not spending enough time with family/children
  • Commuting to work
  • Aging parents
  • Personal health issues

48
Managers Perceptions of Home-Work Interface
Stress for Women
  • 91 (235 of 259 managers) believe balancing work
    and family responsibilities in top 2 stressors
    for women.
  • Examples of stressors indicated by managers
  • Managing work-home balance
  • Child care and parenting responsibilities
  • Limited availability to travel or relocate
  • Need to be away from family to travel on weekends

49
Managers Perceptions of Company Support for
Managing the Work-Home Interface
  • Overall, managers reported moderate levels of
    company support for managing the work-home
    interface
  • Measured on 6-item, 5-point scale (1- Strongly
    disagree to 5- Strongly agree)
  • Examples
  • My company makes allowances for employees who are
    managing home-related difficulties. (Mean 3.59)
  • My company offers tangible supports to women for
    managing for work-home interface (e.g. flextime,
    on-site child-care, eldercare). (Mean 3.39)
  • My company provides opportunities for
    partner/family involvement in company sponsored
    recreational activities. (Mean 3.22)

50
Summary
  • Home-Work Conflict and Children
  • Overall levels of home-work conflict were
    moderate
  • Home-work conflict increases with presence and
    number of children
  • Home-Work Conflict and Company Role
  • Women managers/supervisors reported higher levels
    of home-work conflict than individual
    contributors
  • Home-Work Conflict and Stress
  • Women and managers differed in perceptions of
    home-work conflict as stressor (greater
    percentage of managers than women perceived it as
    top stressor)
  • Implications
  • Personal decisions regarding advancement and the
    home-work interface
  • Role of management perceptions of home-work
    interface in evaluation, recognition, promotion

51
Programs and Initiatives to Support Women in
Industrial ChemistryWhat Works?
  • Julie Arseneau
  • Project ENHANCE Team

52
Why inquire about programs and initiatives?
  • Assumption that women are disadvantaged in
    workplace (supported by research)
  • Company management expends time and money trying
    to address problems
  • But
  • Little is known about these efforts
  • What programs are being implemented
  • How successful they are (as viewed by women and
    management)
  • What is most desired/needed by women employees

53
Identifying Initiatives
  • Women and managers asked to identify programs or
    initiatives undertaken by their companies to
    support womens career success
  • Women provided more than 2000 responses
  • Managers provided more than 400 responses
  • Perceived success of each initiative rated on a
    5-point scale from (1) No success to (5) Complete
    success
  • Women and managers asked to identify initiatives
    they would like to see implemented

54
Evaluation of Present Initiatives
  • Initiatives cited fell into 15 broad categories.
    Among the most frequently cited

55
Evaluation of Present Initiatives (cont.)
  • Women and managers reported similar initiatives
  • Managers rated initiatives as more successful
    than did women
  • More than 30 of initiatives cited by women were
    groups specifically for women but these rated
    least successful
  • Childcare programs were rated as successful by
    both women and managers but were only 2 of
    identified initiatives in place
  • 106 women (6) indicated no initiatives in place
    or unaware of any initiatives

56
Desired Initiatives Women
  • Programs/initiatives most frequently desired by
    women
  • Flexible workplace programs
  • 9/80 work schedule
  • Telecommuting
  • Childcare initiatives
  • Assistance in locating, financing child care
  • Programs re hiring and promotion of women
  • Technical as well as management roles
  • Visible minority women
  • Mentoring
  • More needed
  • Active promoting of formal mentoring programs

57
Mentoring
  • Definition
  • Interpersonal process in which a more experienced
    colleague provides professional guidance,
    instruction, and support to a less experienced
    individual (Kram, 1985)
  • Mentoring is associated with income, advancement,
    job satisfaction, self-esteem, and creativity
    lack of mentoring is key barrier to womens
    advancement in the workplace
  • Demographic matching produces favorable results
    but not possible in most work settings where
    majority of senior level personnel are White men
  • Formal mentoring programs becoming more common in
    corporate efforts to advance women

58
Mentoring Variables in this Study
  • Womens experiences with mentoring
  • Managers perceptions about mentoring within
    their companies
  • Relationship between mentoring and important
    workplace outcomes for women (e.g., success,
    satisfaction)
  • Effects of mentor gender

59
Womens Experiences with Mentoring
  • Do you have one or more mentors in your current
    company/workplace?
  • Yes 47.1
  • No 52.9
  • Gender of current mentor(s)
  • Female 30.3
  • Male 69.7
  • If you do not have or have never had a mentor,
    do you wish you had one?
  • Yes 83.5
  • No 16.5

60
Diversity and Mentoring Experiences
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • Racial/ethnic minority women as likely to have a
    mentor as White women
  • Disability
  • Women with disabilities as likely to have a
    mentor as non-disabled women
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Sexual minority women as likely to have a mentor
    as heterosexual women

61
Managers Perceptions of Mentoring
  • In your company, are mentors viewed as a
    valuable resource for career advancement?
  • Yes 76.2
  • No 23.8
  • Do you believe that most women in your company
    would like to have a mentor?
  • Yes 91.5
  • No 8.5
  • Do you believe that women in your company have
    access to one or more mentors?
  • Yes 62.3
  • No 37.7

62
Perceptions of Mentoring Quality
  • Frequency
  • 14-item measure indicating frequency of mentoring
    behaviors (Rarely 1, Always 5)
  • Advises me about company politics
  • Adequacy
  • Indicated for each mentoring behavior (Yes or No)
  • Findings
  • Overall, women appear satisfied with mentoring
    quality
  • Frequency varied appropriately with specific
    mentoring behaviors
  • Adequacy found across mentoring behaviors

63
Outcomes of Mentoring
  • SALARY
  • Women with mentors have higher salaries
  • ADVANCEMENT
  • Women with mentors have more advanced positions
  • Women with mentors are more willing to advance
  • Women with mentors have greater confidence in
    their own ability to advance
  • JOB SATISFACTION AND SUPPORT
  • Women with mentors have higher levels of job
    satisfaction
  • Women with mentors view their companies as more
    supportive

64
Effects of Mentor Gender
  • Mentoring Frequency
  • Womens perceptions of mentoring frequency did
    not differ by mentor gender
  • Mentoring Adequacy
  • Womens perceptions of mentoring adequacy did not
    differ by mentor gender
  • Mentoring Outcomes
  • Women with male mentors had significantly higher
    salaries than those with female mentors

65
Summary
  • Initiatives and Programs
  • Women and managers judge program success
    differently
  • Many women need and desire corporate help with
    childcare but it seldom exists
  • Mentoring
  • Mentoring is associated with success
  • Mentoring is valued, needed, desired but less
    than half of women report having a mentor
  • Implications
  • Accountability Although policies/programs exist,
    they may not be implemented well, fairly, or at
    all
  • Role of company vs. responsibility of women in
    addressing childcare, advancement, support,
    mentoring

66
Overall Summary and Implications
  • SE-trained women working in chemical industry
    are moderately successful and satisfied overall
  • Differences exist between the experiences of
    minority and majority women
  • Differences exist between the experiences of
    women in managerial and individual contributor
    roles
  • Women with children struggle with home-work
    conflict corporate support for managing
    home-work interface is wanted
  • Women want and need more mentoring
  • Women and management perceive workplace issues
    differently
  • There appears to be a gap between existence and
    implementation of workplace initiatives that
    support women

67
Where do we go from here?
  • More detailed analyses
  • Explore differences between women and managers
  • Disaggregate managers and women in womens sample
    and re-analyze
  • Complete analysis of qualitative data
  • Compile data on initiatives/programs into
    best-practices booklet for distribution in hard
    copy and web-based forms
  • Consider future study of SE-trained women in
    other scientific disciplines (e.g., biologists)
    and in other settings (e.g., govt. labs)

68
Acknowledgements
  • National Science Foundation
  • Henry Blount, Ruta Sevo
  • American Chemistry Council
  • Martha Moore, Angela Spicer
  • Project ENHANCE Advisory Board
  • Lissa Dulaney, Sharon Feng, Larry Friedman,
    Elaine Harris, Ned Polan, Pamela Roach, Susan
    Stanton, Jennifer Weinberg, Frankie Wood-Black
  • Women Chemists Committee, ACS
  • Amber Hinkle, Jody Kocsis, Carolyn Ribes
  • Formally-Participating Companies
  • Albermarle, Atofina, BASF, Bayer, Corning, Dow,
    Dow-Corning, DuPont, WR Grace, Honeywell,
    NovaChem, PPG, Rhodia, Rohm Haas, 3M

69
Project ENHANCE Team
  • Julie Arseneau, Ed.M., University of Maryland
  • Penelope Asay, M.A., University of Maryland
  • Vanessa Downing, B.A., University of Maryland
  • Ruth Fassinger, Ph.D., University of Maryland
  • Susanna Gallor, M.A., University of Maryland
  • Judith Giordan, Ph.D., Aileron Partners
  • Sandra Greer, Ph.D., University of Maryland
  • Kelly Hennessy, M.A., University of Maryland
  • Sheetal Patel, M.A., University of Maryland
  • Tracey Potter, B.A., University of Maryland
  • Melissa Roffman, M.A., University of Maryland
  • Heather Walton, M.A., University of Maryland
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