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The Hydrological Cycle

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Cycling occurs from one compartment to another. Hydrological cycle is a biogeochemical cycle. ... Volcanic Ash, Soil Dust, Smoke,Sea Salts, Particulate Matter ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Hydrological Cycle


1
The Hydrological Cycle
  • Martina Magee
  • Thursday 16th June 2005

2
CONTENT
  • Concept of System and Cycles
  • Water Balance
  • Reservoirs
  • Pathways
  • Turnover Time
  • Importance of Hydrological Cycle
  • Impact humans have on the cycle
  • Recycling of Earths Finite Resources

3
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEIntroduction
  • The earth is a closed system.
  • Cycling occurs from one compartment to another.
  • Hydrological cycle is a biogeochemical cycle.
  • Compartments are
  • Biotic
  • Abiotic
  • Water Balance
  • Precipitation (P) Evaporation (e) Runoff (D)
    Storage (S)

4
Hydrological Cycle
5
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEReservoirs
  • Reservoirs
  • Ocean is the main reservoir
  • Other reservoirs include Atmosphere Ice and
    Land based water bodies I.e. Rivers, Lakes,
    Ground Waters and Glaciers.
  • Ocean accounts for 97 of Earths Water
  • Freshwater reservoir accounts for lt 1 of
    Earths water.
  • Humans use only 0.3 available water.
  • Why use surface water?
  • Rivers are accessible to us
  • Easier to obtain water from a lake than from
    groundwater

6
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEPathways
  • 2 main types of pathways
  • Changes in Phase
  • Precipitation
  • Condensation
  • Evaporation
  • Transpiration
  • Translocation
  • Runoff and groundwater seepage
  • Cycle is always in constant motion therefore,
    simultaneous action

7
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEChanges in Phase
8
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEChanges in Phase
  • Evaporation the net transfer of molecules from
    the liquid to the gaseous phase.
  • 80 occurs over Oceans and remainder over inland
    water and vegetation. WHY?
  • Cause Solar radiation
  • Transpiration Transfer of water from the leaves
    and stems of plants to the atmosphere.
  • Vegetated Surfaces
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Combination of Evaporation and Transpiration
  • Plants lie between 2 counterflowing movements of
    water transpiration and evaporation.

9
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEChanges in Phase
  • Precipitation Primary mechanism of transporting
    water from the atmosphere to the surface of the
    Earth.
  • Rain, Snow, Hail, Sleet and Freezing Rain and
    Dew.
  • Causes of Precipitation
  • Condensation (also a change in phase)
  • Condensation Nuclei must be present Dew Point
  • Volcanic Ash, Soil Dust, Smoke,Sea Salts,
    Particulate Matter - emitted by factories,
    vehicles.
  • More precipitation falls over water than land.
    77 over ocean, remainder falling on land. Why?
    EVAPORATION
  • Excess water returns to the oceans How?

10
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLETranslocation
  • Relates to both Run-off and Seepage.
  • Runoff
  • Movement of landwater to the oceans, mainly in
    the form of Rivers, Lakes and Streams.
  • It is run-off that has neither evaporated,
    transpired or penetrated the surface to beome
    ground water.
  • Classifications
  • Direct/Base runoff relates to the speed of
    appearance after rain/snow
  • Depending on the source it may be Surface Runoff,
    Storm Interflow or Ground Water Runoff

11
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEFactors which Affect Runoff
  • Type of Precipitation
  • Rainfall Intensity
  • Rainfall Amount
  • Rainfall Duration
  • Distribution of Rainfall
  • Meteorological Climatic Conditions
  • Physical factors
  • Land Use
  • Vegetation
  • Soil Type
  • Drainage Area
  • Elevation
  • Slope
  • Topography

12
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLETypes of Flow
  • Overland Flow Soil is either impermeable or
    saturated and the water flows on top of it.
  • Underground Flow Slow movement of water through
    the ground.
  • Groundwater Flow Sideways movement of water
    through the soil.
  • Found in two soil layers
  • Zone of Aeration
  • Zone of Saturation
  • Aquifers Water infiltrates downward through the
    soil and then flows laterally/sideways.

13
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEResidence Times
  • Dependant on the reservoir the molecule is in
  • Ocean 37,000 Years
  • Glacier 16,000 Years
  • Underground Water 300 to 4,600 Years
  • Lake 1 to 100 Years
  • River 12 to 20 Days
  • Atmosphere 9 Days

14
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEWhy is it important?
  • Sustain Human Life
  • Agriculture
  • Landscape
  • Settlement

15
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEHuman Interaction
  • Impact on Evaporation and Precipitation
  • Cloud Seeding
  • Dams
  • Clearing of Vegetation
  • Industry
  • Impact upon Interception
  • Vegetation Type
  • Deforestation

16
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLEHuman Interaction
  • Impact of Urbanisation
  • Settlement
  • Industry
  • Floods
  • Attempts to control flooding
  • Pollution
  • Acid Rain
  • Weathering

17
RECYCLING
  • Why Recycle?
  • Finite Resources
  • What are the resources used for?
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Used to make consumables
  • Used to create other forms of energy

18
RECYCLING
  • Aluminium
  • Extracted from Bauxite Ore, the process uses a
    lot of energy.
  • Used in the packaging of many consumables,
    therefore is in high demand.
  • Recycling saves 95 of the energy normally used
    to recover aluminium from ore.
  • This decreases pressure on the resources and in
    turn the environment

19
RECYCLINGOther Recyclable Resources
  • Oil
  • Improper disposal wastes resouce damages the
    environment
  • Used oil can be refined and used for industrial
    lubricant fuel
  • Water
  • Has been recycled for billions of years
  • Can be used for
  • Irrigation, use in industry, Dual Plumbing
  • Replenish groundwater supplies

20
RECYCLINGBenefits
  • Eases pressure on raw materials
  • Saves Energy
  • Reduction in Pollution
  • Responsible Management

21
SUMMARY
  • Concept of System and Cycles
  • Water Balance
  • Reservoirs
  • Pathways
  • Turnover Time
  • Importance of Hydrological Cycle
  • Impact humans have on the cycle
  • Recycling of Earths Finite Resources

22
Thank You
23
Flooding
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