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Fad Diets

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Title: Fad Diets


1
Fad Diets
  • Kristen Strong, R.D.

2
According to a recent survey…
  • 26 percent of women and 19 percent of men in the
    United States said they were on a diet.
  • 60 percent of U.S. adults say "they would like to
    lose 20 pounds"
  • http//www.cnn.com/2007/HEALTH/diet.fitness/01/10/
    diets.survey.reut/index.html

3
America on the Scale
  • Overweight Adults 65 (120 million)
  • Obese Adults 31
  • Children age 6-19 who are overweight or at risk
    of becoming overweight 30
  • Overweight children with at least one overweight
    parent have an 80 chance of being overweight as
    adults
  • Average American gains 1-2 pounds a year through
    adulthood

4
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2004
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data 1519 2024 25
5
If so many want to lose weight and need to…
  • Why are we failing to do so?

6
Set Point Theory
  • Set Point is a particular weight range your body
    fights to maintain
  • Contributing Factors
  • Heredity, Age, Health, and Activity Level
  • Your body defends this set point by altering
  • Metabolism, Efficiency in burning calories, and
    Intensity of hunger

7
Set Point
  • Increases with
  • Age
  • Chronic Dieting
  • Chronic Overeating
  • Long-term Depression
  • Maintaining a weight above set-point
  • Decreases with
  • Exercise
  • Nicotine
  • Some drugs

8
The Weight Cycling Effect of Repeated Dieting
Each round of dieting is followed by a rebound
of weight to a higher level than
before. Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg
262
9
Recommendations for Healthy Weight Loss
  • No more than1 to 2 pounds a week
  • Rapid weight loss may cause serious health
    problems.
  • Nausea, headaches, and dizziness
  • Death
  • Rapid weight loss is a loss of more than 1 ½ to
    2 pounds per week or weight loss of more than 1
    percent of body weight per week after the second
    week of participation in a weight-loss program
  • It is important to consult a physician prior to
    beginning any weight-loss program.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 261

10
(No Transcript)
11
FAD DIETS Anyone who wants to believe in them
is forced to wonder how the thousands of
scientists working on obesity research over the
past century could possibly have missed such
obvious connections.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 251

12
What is a Fad Diet?
  • A fad diet is a weight loss plan or aid that
    promises dramatic results. These diets don't
    offer long-term success, and they are usually not
    very healthy. American Academy of Family
    Physicians

13
American Heart Association
  • We want to inform the public about misleading
    weight-loss claims. Many of these diets  like
    the infamous Cabbage Soup Diet  can undermine
    your health, cause physical discomfort and lead
    to disappointment when you regain weight soon
    after you lose it…

14
American Heart Association
  • Quick-weight-loss diets usually overemphasize
    one particular food or type of food. They violate
    the first principle of good nutrition Eat a
    balanced diet that includes a variety of foods.
    If you are able to stay on such a diet for more
    than a few weeks, you may develop nutritional
    deficiencies, because no one type of food has all
    the nutrients you need for good health. The
    Cabbage Soup Diet mentioned above is an example.
    This so-called fat-burning soup is eaten mostly
    with fruits and vegetables. The diet supposedly
    helps heart patients lose 1017 pounds in seven
    days before surgery. There are no "superfoods."
    That's why you should eat moderate amounts from
    all food groups, not large amounts of a few
    special foods…

15
American Heart Association
  • These diets also violate a second important
    principle of good nutrition Eating should be
    enjoyable. These diets are so monotonous and
    boring that it's almost impossible to stay on
    them for long periods.
  • http//www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?ident
    ifier4584

16
How to identify Fad Diets
  • Promise dramatic, rapid weight loss
  • Promote diets that are nutritionally unbalanced
    or extremely low in calories
  • Use liquid formulas rather than foods.
  • Attempt to make clients dependent upon special
    foods or devices.
  • Fail to encourage permanent, realistic lifestyle
    changes.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 253

17
How to identify Fad Diets
  • Misrepresent salespeople as counselors
    supposedly qualified to give guidance in
    nutrition and or general health.
  • Collect large sums of money at the start or
    require that clients sign contracts for
    expensive, long-term programs.
  • Fail to inform clients of the risks associated
    with weight loss in general or the specific
    program being promoted.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 253

18
How to identify Fad Diets
  • Promote unproven or spurious weight-loss aids
    such as starch blockers, diuretics, sauna belts,
    body wraps, passive exercise, ear stapling,
    acupuncture, electric muscle-stimulating devices,
    amino acid supplements, unique ingredients, etc
  • Fail to provide for weight maintenance after the
    program ends.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 253

19
If fad diets don't work, why are they so popular?
  • People are often willing to try anything that
    promises to help them lose weight because they
    want to look or feel better, or because they are
    worried about getting weight-related diseases.
    Companies that promote fad diets take advantage
    of this fact. They appeal to people by promising
    weight loss that's very quick and easy. Many
    people prefer to try the quick fix of a fad diet
    instead of making the effort to lose weight
    through long-term changes in their eating and
    exercise habits.
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

20
If fad diets don't work, why are they so popular?
  • Fad diets also become popular because many of
    them do work for a short time. In many cases,
    this is because when you stop eating certain
    types of food or eat special combinations of
    foods, you are getting fewer calories than you
    normally would. You are also paying more
    attention to what you are eating. However, its
    likely that much of the weight you lose is from
    water and lean muscle, not body fat. Also, most
    people are not able to keep up with the demands
    of a diet that strictly limits their food choices
    or requires them to eat the same foods over and
    over again. People who use fad diets usually end
    up gaining back any weight that they lost.
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

21
Top 10 Fad Diets
  • Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution by Robert C.
    Atkins, M.D.
  • Mastering the Zone by Barry Sears, Ph.D.
  • Eat Right For Your Type The Individualized Diet
    Solution to Staying Healthy, Living Longer and
    Achieving Your Ideal Weight by Peter J. DAdamo,
    M.D.
  • Sugar Busters! Cut Sugar to Trim Fat by H.
    Leighton Steward, Morrison C. Bethea, M.D., Sam
    S. Andrews, M.D., Ralph O. Brennan, Luis A.
    Balart, M.D.
  • Eat More, Weigh Less by Dean Ornish, M.D.
  • The Pritikin Weight Loss Breakthrough Five Easy
    Steps to Outsmart Your Fat Instinct by Robert
    Pritikin.
  • The New Cabbage Soup Diet by Margaret Danbrot
  • The Grapefruit Diet by originator unknown
  • The New Beverly Hills Diet by Judy Mazel
  • Neander-Thin Eat Like a Caveman to Achieve a
    Lean, Strong, Healthy Body by Ray Audette

22
Categories of Fad Diets
  • Controlled Carbohydrates
  • High Carbohydrate Low Fat
  • Controlled Portion Sizes
  • Food Combining
  • Liquid Diets
  • Diet Pills Herbal Remedies

23
Controlled Carbohydrates
  • Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution
  • The Carbohydrate Addicts Diet
  • Protein Power
  • Sugar Busters
  • The Zone
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

24
High Carbohydrate Low Fat
  • Dr. Dean Ornish Eat More, Weigh Less
  • The Good Carbohydrate Revolution
  • The Pritkin Principle
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

25
Controlled Portion Sizes
  • Dr. Shapiros Picture Perfect Weight Loss
  • Volumetrics Weight-Control Plan
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

26
Food Combining
  • Fit for Life
  • Suzanne Somers Somersizing
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

27
Liquid Diets
  • Cambridge diet
  • Slim-Fast
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

28
Diet Pills Herbal Remedies
  • Dexatrim Natural
  • Hydroxycut
  • Metabolife 356
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

29
Other
  • Eat Right For Your Type The Blood Type Diet
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

30
Atkins Diet Carbohydrates are bad…
Picture from
http//www.faddiet.com/atkinsdiet.html
31
Atkins Diet Timeline
  • 1972 Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution
  • 1992 Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution

32
Whats the difference?
33
Whats the appeal?
  • Turns current diet recommendations upside down
  • Eat as much fat, meat, and dairy as you like
  • Ignore fruits, vegetables, and grains
  • Steaks without the potatoes, ribs without the
    coleslaw, and meatballs without the pasta.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 251

34
Whats the appeal?
  • Blame current diet recommendations for our
    obesity epidemic
  • Facts
  • Obesity has risen
  • Fat intake has dropped from 36 to 34 percent
  • BUT… energy intake increased by 200 kcals a day ?
    actual fat intake has increased by 4 grams a day!
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 251

35
Why does it work?
  • Weight loss results because of a reduction in
    calorie intake
  • Protein is the most satiating…people feel more
    full… they eat less (its the calories)
  • Provides a guide… eliminating decision making

36
What are the risks?
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Constipation
  • Low blood pressure
  • Elevated uric acid
  • Stale foul taste in the mouth
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 252

37
What are the risks?
  • Shift from lean body mass to fat
  • High protein usually means high fat! Diets high
    in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol are risk
    factors for heart disease and atherosclerosis
  • Without fruits, vegetables, and grains the diet
    lacks fiber, vitamins and minerals.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 252

38
National Nutrition Month 07
American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org
39
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Develop an eating plan for lifelong health. Too
    often people adopt the latest food fad rather
    than focusing on overall health. Get back to
    basics and use the Dietary Guidelines 2005 and
    MyPyramid as your guide to healthy eating.
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

40
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Choose foods sensibly by looking at the big
    picture. A single food or meal doesnt make or
    break a healthful diet. When consumed in
    moderation in the appropriate portion size, all
    foods can fit into a healthful diet.
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

41
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Food and nutrition misinformation can have
    harmful effects on your health and well-being, as
    well as your wallet. Registered dietitians are
    uniquely qualified to communicate current and
    emerging science-based nutrition information and
    are an instrumental part of developing a diet
    plan that is unique to your particular needs.
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

42
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Learn how to spot a food fad. Unreasonable or
    exaggerated claims that eating (or not eating)
    specific foods, nutrient supplements or
    combinations of foods may cure disease or offer
    quick weight loss are key features of fad
    diets. 
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

43
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Find your balance between food and physical
    activity. Regular physical activity is important
    for your overall health and fitness plus it helps
    control body weight, promotes a feeling of
    well-being and reduces the risk of chronic
    diseases.
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

44
Weight Loss Tips
  • Emphasize nutrient dense foods
  • Eat small portions of foods at each meal
  • Share a restaurant meal with a friend or take
    home half for lunch tomorrow
  • Make legumes, grains, vegetables, and fruits
    central to your diet plan
  • Follow the Dietary Guidelines
  • Eat slowly
  • Limit high-fat foods
  • Limit concentrated sweets and alcoholic beverages
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Participate in physical activity regularly
  • Limit liquid calories choose whole fruits rather
    than juices, and avoid sugary soft drinks and
    alcohol
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pgs 268-269

45
Metabolism during dieting and fasting
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