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Vowels

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Serve as the nucleus of a syllable (carry pitch, tone) Consonants ... A PURE vowel means that throughout the production of the vowel the tongue stays ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vowels


1
Vowels
  • LIN 3201

2
Vowels vs. Consonants
  • Vowels
  • Pulmonic Egressive Airstream
  • Usually voiced, but can be voiceless
  • Maintainable articulations
  • More open than approximants all equal to or more
    open than i
  • Serve as the nucleus of a syllable (carry pitch,
    tone)
  • Consonants
  • Many different airstreams pulmonic glottalic or
    velaric
  • Voiced or voiceless
  • Maintainable and momentary articulations
  • Less open than i no more open than
    approximants
  • Found at edges of syllables, before and after
    vowels

3
Some caveats about vowels
  • Vowels are naturally more difficult than
    consonants because there are no physical
    boundaries from one to another
  • Vowels form a continuum, so some of the
    delineation of vowels is acoustic and auditory,
    not articulatory

4
A caveat for native speakers of American
Englishes
  • Your natural tendency is
  • to GLIDE vowels

5
What is a GLIDE?
  • Vowels are produced either as PURE vowels or
    GLIDED vowels
  • A PURE vowel means that throughout the production
    of the vowel the tongue stays in the same
    location and maintains the same sound during the
    entire production of the vowel
  • i.e. i, e, o, u

6
  • A GLIDED vowel is a slightly longer vowel, in
    which the tongue moves towards or from production
    of second vowel during the production
  • GLIDES are combinations of vowels with
    semi-vowels j, w or ?
  • i.e. uw, oj

7
Wait a seca semi-vowel?
  • The approximants j, w and ? are considered
    semi-vowels
  • although they share many characteristics with
    vowels, they can not serve as syllable nuclei
    (the center of the syllable)
  • Considered non-syllabic versions of i, u
    and y
  • They combine with vowel as vowel glides

8
  • GLIDES may be considered
  • ON-GLIDES -
  • glide occurs in syllable initial position
  • Articulates as rapid glide movement from high
    vowel position j, central vowel position?,
    low vowel position w or retroflex ? to
    following vowel
  • Examples jo, wa. ?e
  • OR
  • OFF-GLIDES
  • Glide occurs in syllable final position
  • Rapid gliding movement toward high vowel position
    j, central vowel position ?, low vowel
    position w or retroflex ?
  • Examples ow, ay

9
So just remember
  • Be VERY careful
  • to produce
  • PURE vowels
  • when needed

10
4 Parameters for Vowels
  • 1. Tongue Height (high, mid, low)
  • (close, close-mid, open-mid, open in IPA)
  • 2. Tongue Backness (front, central, back)
  • 3. Tongue Tenseness (tense or lax)
  • 4. Lip Rounding (rounded or unrounded)

11
(No Transcript)
12
Tongue Height
  • Location, or vertical placement of tongue in the
    mouth
  • High, High-Mid, Mid, Low-Mid, Low
  • IPA Close, Close-Mid, Open-Mid, Open
  • High i, y, ?, ?, ?, u
  • Mid (Mid-High/Mid-Low) e, o, ? ?, ?
  • Low a, æ, ?

13
Tongue Backness
  • Location, or horizontal placement, of tongue in
    the mouth
  • Front, Central, Back
  • Front i, e, ?, æ, a
  • Central ?, ?, ?
  • Back y, ?, o, u, ?

14
Lip Rounding
  • Whether lips are rounded or unrounded during
    vowel production
  • Rounded y, u, o
  • Unrounded i, e, ?

15
The front, unrounded vowels
  • i close
  • ? close/close-mid
  • e close-mid
  • ? open-mid
  • æ open-open-mid
  • a open

16
The back, rounded vowels
  • u close
  • ? close/close-mid
  • o close-mid
  • ? open-mid
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