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We are making miles and miles of progress toward the metric system Gerald Ford

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Title: We are making miles and miles of progress toward the metric system Gerald Ford


1
We are making miles and miles of progress toward
the metric system Gerald Ford
2
Its fun to kid about the metric system,
but…. this presentation will show that the
President was right!
3
CONSTRUCTION METRICATION
4
Produced by the Construction Metrication
Council of the National Institute of Building
Sciences, Washington, D.C. October 2002
5
To begin at the beginning…..
6
Thomas Jefferson was intrigued by the metric
system and strongly advocated the use of
decimal-based measures But he only got half of
what he wanted...
7
METRIC MONEY That is, money based on the
decimal system
8
….and metric stock prices, too That is,
decimal-based stock prices
9
BUT we insist on keeping the archaic inch-pound m
easurement system based on...
10
fractions of an inch... 12 inches to a foot…. 3
feet to a yard…. 5.5 yards to a rod... 320 rods
to a mile... 43,560 sq ft to an acre...
11
16 ounces to a pound... (avoirdupois) 12 ounces
to a pound... (troy) 4 quarts to a gallon... 3
teaspoons to a tablespoon…
12
You get the point
13
While the U.S. continues using inch-pound measures
, the other 94 of the world has adopted
the METRIC SYSTEM
14
Now the metric system (Standard International or
SI) is all around us
15
We buy cola in liters... We by film in
millimeters... We run 10 km races... (in fact,
all U.S. track and field events are in metric
units) We swim in 25 meter pools... We watch
metric Olympics...
16
The entire U.S. automobile industry is
metric... All pharmaceuticals are metric... as is
the entire health care industry
17
Also metric The liquor industry Most farm
machinery and heavy equipment The machine tool
industry Most electronics All medicine and
science
18
And guess what? We think nothing of it!
19
So whats left?
20
Baseball and football (some things are
sacred) Plus everyday consumer goods and
measurements -- and until recently...
21
Construction But thats changing, too
22
Overseas, U.S. architects, engineers, and
contractors do over 100 BILLION in metric
work every year
23
Guess what again? Its not a problem Everyone
easily adapts to metric usage -- then the
prefer it
24
Our Canadian and Mexican neighbors also build in
metric units Canada and Mexico account for about
70 of all U.S. exports
25
Now, U.S. federally-funded construction is being
built in metric measures, too
26
Federal-funded metric construction is 1O-15
BILLION annually
27
With so much civil engineering in metric units,
some state and local governments are also going
metric
28
Almost without notice, the metric system is
burrowing in in the U.S. construction industry
29
No one knows how long it will take to metricate
ALL construction, but it easily could be done
within TEN YEARS
30
Regardless of how long, metrication is
inevitable its just a question of now or
later Why not now, so we can reap the benefits
sooner?
31
FACTS ABOUT CONSTRUCTION METRICATION
32
FACT Metrication is largely a paper change and
the paper change is largely complete
33
FACT The model codes and most construction
standards contain metric units, as do all federal
and state highway standards, criteria, and
specifications
34
FACT Contractors and the trades adapt readily to
metric usage if they have adequate time on the
job to learn it
35
FACT Work is still done the same way by the
same people with the same skills...
36
and with the same experience, using the same
products, and almost all of the same tools and
equipment
37
FACT The costs of metric projects consistently
have been comparable to conventional inch-pound
projects...
38
METRIC DOESNT COST MORE ….on large jobs!
39
Metric-related problems have been FEW Schedules
have been UNAFFECTED
40
FACT Little metric training is needed for most
crafts
41
Almost all training can be performed on-the-job
42
THE BENEFITS
43
BENEFIT Metrication can increase
constructions EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY
44
...making us more cost-effective at home and
a tougher competitor abroad
45
The simplicity of a decimal-based system speeds
work and reduces errors
46
BENEFIT Metrication will expand export
opportunities for U.S. building products
47
...and for even more U.S. architectural, engineeri
ng, and construction services
48
because we finally will be using the same
measurement system as the rest of the world
49
BENEFIT Metrication will bring 6 million U.S.
workers and 13 of our GDP into the world
standard of measurement to...
50
…BENEFIT ALL AMERICANS
51
WHAT WILL CHANGE AND WHAT WILL STAY THE SAME
52
METRIC MODULE
53
What will change The basic building
module, from 4 inches to 100 mm
54
What will stay the same A module based on
rational, easy-to-use dimensions The 100 mm
module is the world standard
55
DRAWINGS
56
What will change Feet and inches to
millimeters for building dimensions and meters
for site plans and civil drawings
57
Unit notations are unnecessary if theres no
decimal point, its millimeters if theres a
decimal point carried to one, two or three
places, its meters
58
A millimeter is quite small (exactly 1/25.4 of an
inch) but it works surprising well on drawings
and in the field
59
In accordance with ASTM E621, CENTIMETERS are not
used in construction because 1) They are not
consistent with the preferred use of multiples of
1000 (that is, tertiary powers of 10)
60
2) The order of magnitude between a millimeter
and a centimeter is only 10 the use of both
leads to confusion and requires the use of unit
symbols on drawings 3) The use of millimeters
almost entirely eliminates decimal fractions
61
NEVER use both inch-pound and metric units on a
drawing! Using dual units --Increases
dimensioning time --Doubles the chance for
errors --Makes drawing more confusing --Postpones
the learning process
62
If you MUST include inch-pound units, forget
metrication and use inch-pound units only With
dual units, no one uses the metric units anyway
and they just clutter up the drawings and add
confusion
63
DRAWING SCALES
64
What will change Inch-fraction scales will
change to true ratio scales 150 (close to 1/4
1-0) 1100 (close to 1/8 1-0) 1200 (close
to 1/16 1-0) 1500 (close to 1 40-0)
65
Inch-fraction scales can be converted to true
ratio scales by multiplying the scales
divisor by 12 (inches) For example, for 1/4
1-0, multiply the divisor, 4, by 12 for a
true ratio of 148 this is very close to the
metric scale of 150
66
DRAWING SIZES
67
What will change Drawing sizes, to ISO A
series A0 1189 x 841 mm (46.8 x 33.1 in) A1
841 x 594 mm (33.1 x 23.4 in) A2 594 x 420 mm
(23.4 x 16.5 in) A3 420 x 297 mm (16.5 x 11.7
in) A4 297 x 210 mm (11.7 x 8.3 in)
68
Of course, metric drawings can be made on any
size paper
69
CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS IN GENERAL
70
What will change A few modular products, such
as concrete block, drywall, plywood, suspended
ceilings, and raised floors...
71
plus products that are fabricated or formed for
each job, such as cabinets, wood trusses,
ductwork, commercial doors and windows, and
concrete work
72
Such products usually can be made in inch-pound
or metric sizes with equal ease
73
What will stay the same All other products,
since they are cut-to-fit, like framing
materials, structural steel, wood trim, siding,
wiring, piping, and roofing...
74
…or their placement is not dimensionally
sensitive, like fasteners, hardware, electrical
components, plumbing fixtures, and HVAC equipment
75
Such products simply will be relabeled in metric
units
76
Eventually, manufacturers may convert the
physical dimensions of many of these products to
new rational metric sizes
77
2 X 4S AND OTHER 2-BY WOOD AND METAL FRAMING
78
What will change Spacing , from 16 to 400
mm and from 24 to 600 mm
79
Metric-spaced framing members are placed slightly
closer together than normal, since 400 mm
15.7 600 mm 23.6
80
What will stay the same Everything else 2x4s
will not change size
81
Since 2-bys are made in odd, fractional inch
sizes, there is no need to change them to new,
rounded metric sizes
82
2 x 4s probably will keep their names
forever... unless they someday are resized to
new, rounded metric dimensions -- then theyll
get metric names
83
DRYWALL, PLYWOOD, OSB, PARTICLE BOARD, AND
RELATED SHEET PRODUCTS
84
What will change Widths, from 4-0 to 1200
mm Heights, from 8-0 to 2400 mm and from
10-0 to 3000 mm
85
What will stay the same Thicknesses, so fire,
acoustic, and thermal ratings wont have to be
recalculated
86
Metric drywall and plywood are readily
available but may require longer delivery times
and may cost more in small amounts until their
use becomes more common
87
BATT INSULATION
88
What will change Nothing, although batts may be
relabeled to include nominal metric widths, such
as 16/400 mm or 24/600 mm
89
Batts wont change in width or thickness
-- theyll just have a little tighter friction
fit when installed between metric-spaced framing
members
90
DOORS
91
What will change Door heights, from 6-8
(80) to 2050 mm (80.7) or 2100 mm (82.6)
92
Door widths, from 30 to 750 mm (29.5) 32 to
800 mm (31.5) 34 to 850 mm (33.5) 36 to 900
mm (35.4) 40 to 1000 mm (39.4)
93
What will stay the same Door thicknesses and
hardware For commercial work, doors and windows
can be ordered in any size since they ordinarily
are custom made for the job
94
That said, conventional inch-pound doors can be
used in many metric wall applications (such as
drywall partitions) with equal ease
95
SUSPENDED CEILING SYSTEMS
96
What will change Grid spacing, lay-in ceiling
tile, air diffusers, and recessed lighting
fixtures (troffers)...
97
from 24 x 24 to 600 x 600 mm (23.6 x
23.6) and from 24 x 48 to 600 x 1200 mm (23.6
x 47.2)
98
What will stay the same Grid profiles, tile
thicknesses, air diffuser capacities, fluorescent
tubes, and means of suspension
99
Note The Cox Bill (P.L. 104-289) prohibits
federal contract documents from solely specifying
metric recessed lighting fixtures The layout and
specification of metric fixtures and ceiling
systems may continue but specifications must
allow contractors to substitute inch-pound
components
100
The use of metric recessed fixtures may present
installation problems since they cannot be
placed end-to-end or end-to-wall
101
In such cases, other types of lighting (can,
pendant, wall, task, floor) should be
substituted or the ceiling system and its
fixtures should be specified in conventional
inch-pound sizes
102
RAISED FLOOR SYSTEMS
103
What will change Grid spacing and lay-in floor
tiles and carpet squares, from 24 x 24 to 600 x
600 mm
104
What will stay the same Grid profiles, floor
tile thicknesses, and means of support
105
BRICK
106
What will change Mortar joints, from 3/8 to 10
mm The brick module, from 24 x 24 to 600 x 600
mm
107
What will stay the same Standard brick sizes
and everyday masonry practices Of the 100 or so
brick sizes commonly made, almost all are within
a millimeter or so of a metric brick size
108
CONCRETE BLOCK
109
What will change Block sizes, from a 7-5/8 x
15-5/8 face to 190 x 390 mm (7-1/2 x
15-3/8) Notice that conventional block is 1/8
taller and 1/4 longer than metric block
110
Mortar joints will also change, from 3/8 to 10
mm (3/8 9.5 mm)
111
What will stay the same Everyday masonry
practices
112
Note The Cox Bill (P.L. 104-289) prohibits
federal contract documents from solely specifying
metric block The layout and specification
of block walls may continue but specifications
must allow contractors to substitute inch-pound
block
113
Whenever possible, block walls should be
designed in a manner that permits the use of
either inch-pound or metric block
114
This is usually easy to do for infill and backup
block walls but it may be difficult for block
bearing walls, since metric blocks
slightly smaller size affects coursing
115
PIPE
116
What will change Nominal pipe designations,
from inches to millimeters 1/2 15 mm 3/4 20
mm 1 25 mm 1-1/2 40 mm 2 50 mm
117
What will stay the same Pipe diameters and
threads Like 2 x 4s , pipe is made in odd,
fractional inch sizes, so there is no need to
change pipe to new, rounded metric sizes
118
STRUCTURAL STEEL
119
What will change Designations, from inches to
millimeters and from pounds per foot to kilograms
per meter per ASTM A6M
120
Structural steel bolts, to metric diameters and
threads per ASTM A325 M and A490M
121
What will stay the same Cross sectional
sizes Like 2 x 4s and pipe, structural steel is
rolled primarily in odd, fractional inch sizes,
so there is no need to change structural steel to
new, rounded metric sizes
122
CONCRETE
123
What will change Strength designations,
from psi to megapascals per ACI 318M 2500 psi
to 20 MPa 3000 psi to 25 MPa 4000 psi to 30 MPa
124
What will stay the same Everything
else concrete conforms to the size and shape of
its formwork
125
REBAR
126
What will change Concrete reinforcing bar is
being renamed in metric units per ASTM
A615M-96a and ASTM A706-96a
127
...as follows No. 3 to No. 10 No. 4 to No.
13 No. 5 to No. 16 No. 6 to No. 19 No. 8 to No. 22
128
What will stay the same Actual rebar sizes
129
ELECTRICAL WIRE
130
What will change Nothing at this time
131
What will stay the same Existing American
Wire Gage (AWG) sizes
132
READING METRIC DRAWINGS
133
Reading metric drawings requires visualizing
dimensions in metric units This takes practice
134
Meanwhile, a few rules-of-thumb can help you
to visualize metric dimensions easily
135
Rules of thumb 25 mm about 1 inch 300 mm
about 1 foot
136
1 m (1000 mm) about 3 ft 10 more 3 m
about 10 ft (9.84 ft)
137
1 square meter about 10 square feet (10.76 sq
ft)
138
Review 25 mm 1 inch 300 mm 1 foot 1000 mm
1 m 3 feet 10 more 1 square meter 10
square feet
139
PROBLEM A rooms dimensions are shown as 3 000 x
4 500 What size is the room in feet?
140
Using 1000 mm 1 m about 3 feet 10 more
141
3 m x 3 9 ft 10 (0.9) about 10 ft (actual
9.8 ft) 4.5 m x 3 13.5 ft 10 (1.3)
about 15 ft (actual 14.8 ft)
142
...or, using 300 mm about 1 foot 3 000/300
30/3 about 10 ft 4 500/300 45/3 about 15 ft
143
PROBLEM A building is 4500 square meters in
area How big is it in square feet?
144
Using 1 square meter about 10 square
feet 4500 x 10 about 45 000 sq ft (actual
48,450 sq ft)
145
PROBLEM A gypsum wall assembly is 125
thick What is its thickness in inches?
146
Using 25 mm 1 inch 125/25 5 inches
147
PROBLEM A water supply line is labeled 50 What
size is the pipe in inch-pound units?
148
Using metric pipe designations where 1 25
mm 50/25 2-inch pipe
149
PROBLEM A steel lintel is labeled 90 x 90 x
6 What is its size in inches?
150
90/25 3-1/2 inches 6/25 1/4 inch The lintel
is 3-1/2 x 3-1/2 x 1/4
151
Not so hard, is it?
152
So…. GO METRIC!
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