We are making miles and miles of progress toward the metric system Gerald Ford - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – We are making miles and miles of progress toward the metric system Gerald Ford PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: d857-N2M5N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

We are making miles and miles of progress toward the metric system Gerald Ford

Description:

It's fun to kid about the metric system, but... thicknesses, air diffuser capacities, fluorescent tubes, and means of suspension ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:125
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 153
Provided by: nibs
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: We are making miles and miles of progress toward the metric system Gerald Ford


1
We are makingmiles and milesof progress toward
the metric systemGerald Ford
2
Its fun to kid about the metric system,
but.this presentation will show that the
President was right!
3
CONSTRUCTIONMETRICATION
4
Produced by theConstruction Metrication
Councilof the National Institute ofBuilding
Sciences,Washington, D.C.October 2002
5
To begin at thebeginning..
6
Thomas Jefferson was intrigued by the metric
system and strongly advocated the use of
decimal-based measuresBut he only got half of
whathe wanted...
7
METRIC MONEY That is, money based on the
decimal system
8
.and metricstock prices, too That is,
decimal-basedstock prices
9
BUT we insist on keeping the archaicinch-poundm
easurement system based on...
10
fractions of an inch...12 inches to a foot.3
feet to a yard. 5.5 yards to a rod...320 rods
to a mile... 43,560 sq ft to an acre...
11
16 ounces to a pound...(avoirdupois)12 ounces
to a pound...(troy)4 quarts to a gallon...3
teaspoons to a tablespoon
12
You get the point
13
While the U.S. continues usinginch-poundmeasures
,the other 94 of the worldhas adopted
theMETRIC SYSTEM
14
Now the metric system(Standard International or
SI)is all around us
15
We buy cola in liters...We by film in
millimeters...We run 10 km races...(in fact,
all U.S. track andfield events are in metric
units)We swim in 25 meter pools...We watch
metric Olympics...
16
The entire U.S. automobile industry is
metric...All pharmaceuticals are metric...as is
the entire health care industry
17
Also metricThe liquor industry Most farm
machinery and heavy equipmentThe machine tool
industry Most electronics All medicine and
science
18
And guess what?We think nothing of it!
19
So whats left?
20
Baseball and football(some things are
sacred)Plus everyday consumer goods and
measurements --and until recently...
21
ConstructionBut thats changing,too
22
Overseas,U.S. architects, engineers, and
contractors do over100 BILLION in metric
workevery year
23
Guess what again?Its not a problemEveryone
easily adapts to metric usage -- then the
prefer it
24
Our Canadian and Mexican neighbors also buildin
metric unitsCanada and Mexico account forabout
70 of all U.S. exports
25
Now, U.S. federally-fundedconstructionis being
built inmetric measures, too
26
Federal-fundedmetric construction is1O-15
BILLIONannually
27
With so muchcivil engineeringin metric units,
some state and local governments are alsogoing
metric
28
Almost without notice,the metric system is
burrowing in inthe U.S. constructionindustry
29
No one knows how long it will take to metricate
ALL construction, but it easily could be done
withinTEN YEARS
30
Regardless of how long,metrication is
inevitableits just a question ofnow or
later Why not now, so wecan reap the benefits
sooner?
31
FACTS ABOUTCONSTRUCTIONMETRICATION
32
FACT Metrication is largely a paper change and
the paper change is largely complete
33
FACT The model codes and most construction
standards contain metric units, as do all federal
and state highway standards, criteria, and
specifications
34
FACTContractors and the trades adapt readily to
metric usageif they have adequate timeon the
job to learn it
35
FACT Work is still donethe same wayby the
same peoplewith the same skills...
36
and with the same experience,using the same
products,and almost all ofthe same tools and
equipment
37
FACTThe costs of metric projects consistently
have been comparable to conventionalinch-pound
projects...
38
METRICDOESNTCOST MORE.on large jobs!
39
Metric-related problemshave been FEWSchedules
have beenUNAFFECTED
40
FACTLittle metric trainingis needed for most
crafts
41
Almost all trainingcan be performedon-the-job
42
THEBENEFITS
43
BENEFITMetrication can increase
constructionsEFFICIENCY AND QUALITY
44
...making us morecost-effectiveat home and
atougher competitorabroad
45
The simplicity of adecimal-based systemspeeds
workand reduces errors
46
BENEFIT Metrication willexpand export
opportunities forU.S. building products
47
...and for even moreU.S. architectural,engineeri
ng, andconstruction services
48
because we finallywill be usingthe same
measurement systemas the rest of the world
49
BENEFIT Metrication will bring6 million U.S.
workers and13 of our GDPinto the world
standard of measurement to...
50
BENEFITALLAMERICANS
51
WHAT WILL CHANGEANDWHAT WILL STAYTHE SAME
52
METRICMODULE
53
What will changeThe basic building
module,from 4 inchesto 100 mm
54
What will stay the sameA module based on
rational, easy-to-use dimensionsThe 100 mm
module is theworld standard
55
DRAWINGS
56
What will changeFeet and inches to
millimetersfor building dimensionsand meters
forsite plans and civil drawings
57
Unit notations areunnecessaryif theres no
decimal point,its millimetersif theres a
decimal pointcarried to one, two or three
places, its meters
58
A millimeter is quite small(exactly 1/25.4 of an
inch)but it works surprising wellon drawings
and in the field
59
In accordance with ASTM E621, CENTIMETERS are not
used inconstruction because1) They are not
consistent with the preferred use of multiples of
1000(that is, tertiary powers of 10)
60
2) The order of magnitude between a millimeter
and a centimeter is only 10 the use of both
leads to confusion and requires the use of unit
symbols on drawings3) The use of millimeters
almost entirely eliminates decimal fractions
61
NEVER use both inch-pound andmetric units on a
drawing!Using dual units--Increases
dimensioning time--Doubles the chance for
errors--Makes drawing more confusing--Postpones
the learning process
62
If you MUST includeinch-pound units,forget
metricationand use inch-pound units onlyWith
dual units, no one uses the metric units anyway
and they just clutter up the drawings and add
confusion
63
DRAWINGSCALES
64
What will changeInch-fraction scales will
change to true ratio scales150 (close to 1/4
1-0)1100 (close to 1/8 1-0)1200 (close
to 1/16 1-0)1500 (close to 1 40-0)
65
Inch-fraction scales can beconverted to true
ratio scales by multiplying the scales
divisorby 12 (inches)For example, for 1/4
1-0,multiply the divisor, 4, by 12 for a
trueratio of 148 this is very close to the
metric scale of 150
66
DRAWINGSIZES
67
What will changeDrawing sizes,to ISO A
seriesA0 1189 x 841 mm (46.8 x 33.1 in)A1
841 x 594 mm (33.1 x 23.4 in)A2 594 x 420 mm
(23.4 x 16.5 in)A3 420 x 297 mm (16.5 x 11.7
in)A4 297 x 210 mm (11.7 x 8.3 in)
68
Of course,metric drawings can bemade on any
sizepaper
69
CONSTRUCTIONPRODUCTSIN GENERAL
70
What will changeA few modular products,such
as concrete block,drywall, plywood, suspended
ceilings, and raised floors...
71
plusproducts that are fabricated or formed for
each job, such as cabinets, wood trusses,
ductwork, commercial doors and windows, and
concrete work
72
Such products usually can be made in inch-pound
or metric sizes with equal ease
73
What will stay the sameAll other products,
since they are cut-to-fit,likeframing
materials, structural steel, wood trim, siding,
wiring,piping, and roofing...
74
or their placement isnot dimensionally
sensitive,likefasteners, hardware, electrical
components, plumbing fixtures, and HVAC equipment
75
Such products simply will be relabeled in metric
units
76
Eventually, manufacturers may convert the
physical dimensions of many of these products to
new rational metric sizes
77
2 X 4SAND OTHER 2-BYWOOD AND METAL FRAMING
78
What will changeSpacing ,from 16 to 400
mmand from 24 to 600 mm
79
Metric-spaced framing members are placed slightly
closer together than normal, since400 mm
15.7600 mm 23.6
80
What will stay the sameEverything else2x4s
will not change size
81
Since 2-bys are made in odd, fractional inch
sizes,there is no need to changethem to new,
roundedmetric sizes
82
2 x 4s probably will keep their names
forever...unless they someday areresized to
new, rounded metric dimensions-- then theyll
get metric names
83
DRYWALL,PLYWOOD, OSB, PARTICLE BOARD, AND
RELATED SHEET PRODUCTS
84
What will changeWidths, from 4-0 to 1200
mmHeights, from 8-0 to 2400 mmand from
10-0 to 3000 mm
85
What will stay the sameThicknesses,so fire,
acoustic, andthermal ratings wont haveto be
recalculated
86
Metric drywall and plywood are readily
availablebut may require longerdelivery times
and maycost more in small amountsuntil their
use becomesmore common
87
BATTINSULATION
88
What will changeNothing,although batts may be
relabeled to include nominalmetric widths, such
as16/400 mm or24/600 mm
89
Batts wont change in width or thickness
--theyll just have a little tighterfriction
fit when installed between metric-spacedframing
members
90
DOORS
91
What will changeDoor heights,from 6-8
(80)to 2050 mm (80.7)or 2100 mm (82.6)
92
Door widths, from30 to 750 mm (29.5)32 to
800 mm (31.5)34 to 850 mm (33.5)36 to 900
mm (35.4)40 to 1000 mm (39.4)
93
What will stay the sameDoor thicknesses and
hardwareFor commercial work,doors and windows
can be ordered in any size since they ordinarily
arecustom made for the job
94
That said,conventional inch-pound doors can be
used in many metric wallapplications(such as
drywall partitions)with equal ease
95
SUSPENDEDCEILINGSYSTEMS
96
What will changeGrid spacing, lay-in ceiling
tile,air diffusers, and recessed lighting
fixtures (troffers)...
97
from24 x 24 to 600 x 600 mm(23.6 x
23.6)and from24 x 48 to 600 x 1200 mm(23.6
x 47.2)
98
What will stay the sameGrid profiles, tile
thicknesses, air diffuser capacities, fluorescent
tubes, and means of suspension
99
Note The Cox Bill (P.L. 104-289) prohibits
federal contract documents from solely specifying
metric recessed lighting fixturesThe layout and
specification of metric fixtures and ceiling
systems may continue but specifications must
allow contractors to substituteinch-pound
components
100
The use of metric recessed fixturesmay present
installation problemssince they cannot be
placedend-to-end or end-to-wall
101
In such cases,other types of lighting(can,
pendant, wall, task, floor) should be
substitutedorthe ceiling system and its
fixturesshould be specified inconventional
inch-pound sizes
102
RAISEDFLOORSYSTEMS
103
What will changeGrid spacing and lay-infloor
tiles and carpet squares,from 24 x 24to 600 x
600 mm
104
What will stay the sameGrid profiles, floor
tile thicknesses, and means of support
105
BRICK
106
What will changeMortar joints, from3/8 to 10
mmThe brick module, from24 x 24 to 600 x 600
mm
107
What will stay the sameStandard brick sizes
and everyday masonry practicesOf the 100 or so
brick sizes commonly made, almost all are within
a millimeter or soof a metric brick size
108
CONCRETEBLOCK
109
What will changeBlock sizes, from a7-5/8 x
15-5/8 face to190 x 390 mm(7-1/2 x
15-3/8)Notice that conventional block is 1/8
taller and 1/4 longer than metric block
110
Mortar joints will also change, from 3/8 to 10
mm(3/8 9.5 mm)
111
What will stay the sameEveryday masonry
practices
112
Note The Cox Bill (P.L. 104-289) prohibits
federal contract documents from solely specifying
metric blockThe layout and specification
ofblock walls may continue but specifications
must allow contractors to substitute inch-pound
block
113
Whenever possible, block wallsshould be
designedin a manner that permitsthe use of
either inch-poundor metric block
114
This is usually easy to do forinfill and backup
block wallsbut it may be difficult forblock
bearing walls,since metric blocks
slightlysmaller size affects coursing
115
PIPE
116
What will changeNominal pipe designations,
from inches to millimeters1/2 15 mm3/4 20
mm1 25 mm1-1/2 40 mm2 50 mm
117
What will stay the samePipe diameters and
threadsLike 2 x 4s , pipe is made in odd,
fractional inch sizes,so there is no need to
changepipe to new, rounded metric sizes
118
STRUCTURALSTEEL
119
What will changeDesignations,from inches to
millimetersand from pounds per foot tokilograms
per meterper ASTM A6M
120
Structural steel bolts,to metric diameters and
threadsper ASTM A325 M and A490M
121
What will stay the sameCross sectional
sizesLike 2 x 4s and pipe,structural steel is
rolled primarily in odd, fractional inch sizes,
so there is no need to change structural steel to
new,rounded metric sizes
122
CONCRETE
123
What will changeStrength designations,
frompsi to megapascalsper ACI 318M2500 psi
to 20 MPa3000 psi to 25 MPa4000 psi to 30 MPa
124
What will stay the sameEverything
elseconcrete conforms to thesize and shape of
itsformwork
125
REBAR
126
What will changeConcrete reinforcing baris
being renamed inmetric unitsper ASTM
A615M-96aand ASTM A706-96a
127
...as followsNo. 3 to No. 10No. 4 to No.
13No. 5 to No. 16No. 6 to No. 19No. 8 to No. 22
128
What will stay the sameActual rebar sizes
129
ELECTRICALWIRE
130
What will changeNothing at this time
131
What will stay the sameExisting American
WireGage (AWG) sizes
132
READINGMETRICDRAWINGS
133
Reading metric drawingsrequires visualizing
dimensions in metric unitsThis takes practice
134
Meanwhile,a few rules-of-thumbcan help you
tovisualize metric dimensionseasily
135
Rules of thumb25 mm about 1 inch300 mm
about 1 foot
136
1 m (1000 mm) about 3 ft 10 more3 m
about 10 ft(9.84 ft)
137
1 square meter about 10 square feet(10.76 sq
ft)
138
Review25 mm 1 inch300 mm 1 foot1000 mm
1 m 3 feet 10 more1 square meter 10
square feet
139
PROBLEMA rooms dimensions areshown as 3 000 x
4 500 What size is the roomin feet?
140
Using 1000 mm 1 m about 3 feet 10 more
141
3 m x 3 9 ft 10 (0.9) about 10 ft(actual
9.8 ft)4.5 m x 3 13.5 ft 10 (1.3)
about 15 ft(actual 14.8 ft)
142
...or, using300 mm about 1 foot3 000/300
30/3 about 10 ft4 500/300 45/3 about 15 ft
143
PROBLEMA building is 4500square meters in
areaHow big is it in square feet?
144
Using 1 square meter about 10 square
feet4500 x 10 about 45 000 sq ft(actual
48,450 sq ft)
145
PROBLEMA gypsum wall assemblyis 125
thickWhat is its thickness in inches?
146
Using 25 mm 1 inch125/25 5 inches
147
PROBLEMA water supply line is labeled50What
size is the pipe ininch-pound units?
148
Using metric pipe designationswhere 1 25
mm50/25 2-inch pipe
149
PROBLEMA steel lintel is labeled90 x 90 x
6What is its size in inches?
150
90/25 3-1/2 inches6/25 1/4 inchThe lintel
is3-1/2 x 3-1/2 x 1/4
151
Not so hard, is it?
152
So.GO METRIC!
About PowerShow.com