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EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORK

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Title: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORK


1
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEAT WORK
  • ANNETTE PRINS Ph.D.

2
Introduction
  • The organisation by which people are employed
    offers opportunities for experiencing numerous
    emotions affecting employees thoughts, feelings
    and actions
  • both in the workplace and when they are away from
    it
  • Work related stress causes a huge problem
    against
  • - Time pressures and
  • - Pressures to be successful

3
Emotional intelligence (EI)
  • Paradigmatic shift
  • Researchers currently look for characteristics
  • predictive of successful living
  • supportive of successful coping at work
  • EI much debated topic

4
Evolution of scientific theories
  • The maturation of a theory includes
  • - a seminal (first) conception
  • - hypothesis testing
  • - refinement of the theory
  • - development of grounded theory
  • (First phase of theorising extrapolated from
    findings
  • rather than direct hypothesis testing,
  • Then conduct research guided by the developing
  • body of knowledge in the area)
  • According to Goleman (2001) the process for EI
  • was remarkably rapid
  • EQ first used in 1980s (Bar-On)
  • EI coined by Salovey and Mayer 1990
  • Followed by Golemans 1995 popularised book
  • Stimulated by current ferment of interest in how
  • human abilities are conceived

5
Historical roots of EI
  • Thorndike 1920s argued for importance of social
    intelligence
  • Ability to act wisely in relation to others
  • Wechsler 1940s non-intellective aspects of
    general intelligence
  • The aggregate or global capacity of the
    individual to
  • - act purposefully
  • - think rationally, and
  • - deal effectively with his/her environment

6
Multiple intelligences
  • Gardner (198319931999)
  • Proposed a theory of multiple intelligences
  • That includes, in addition to cognitive
    intelligence
  • - kinesthetic
  • - practical
  • - musical, and
  • - personal intelligences (intra-psychic
    capacity and interpersonal skill).

7
Personal intelligences, precursor to EI
  • Intrapersonal intelligence
  • ability to understand oneself
  • knowing how one feels about things
  • understanding ones range of emotions, and
  • insight into the way one acts.
  • Assists one to act in ways appropriate to ones
    needs, goals and abilities.
  • Interpersonal intelligence reflects
  • - the ability to read moods, desires and
    intentions of others and to act on this
    knowledge.
  • Therefore, theorists began to challenge
    traditional IO based views of intelligence

8
EI Definitions
  • Bar-On (1997)
  • an array of non-cognitive capabilities,
    competencies, skills that influence ones ability
    to succeed in coping with environmental demands
    and pressures
  • EI an NB predictor of success in life
  • - directly influences general psychological
    well-being and health
  • - Other factors include biomedical
    predisposition and conditions, cognitive
    intellectual capacity and the limitations and
    realities of the changing life context

9
EI Definitions
  • Goleman (2001) learned capability based on EI
    that results in outstanding performance at work
  • Mayer, Salovey, Caruso (2000)
  • argue EI represents a set of mental abilities,
    including the ability to
  • Perceive emotions
  • Access and generate emotions to assist thought
  • Understand and reason about emotion,
  • Reflectively regulate emotions to promote
    emotional and intellectual growth

10
EI Models / Definitions
  • Ability Mixed Personality

11
EI and related concepts
  • Social competence ability to integrate thinking,
    feeling and behaviour to achieve social tasks and
    outcomes valued in the host culture.
  • Emotional competence reflects moral character
    and ethical values in emotional responses and
    promotes personal integrity
  • BUT all will at some stage experience some
    emotional incompetence when unprepared for or
    overextended within a particular context
  • Consequences
  • - effective management of emotions
  • - subjective well-being
  • - resilience

12
EI in approach and avoidance behaviour
  • Impulse control
  • - short-term gratification
  • -role of working memory
  • Persistence
  • -managing negative emotional reactions when
    obstacles present in pursuing goals
  • - Awareness of negative emotions, refraining
    from acting on them
  • Thus, suppression of avoidance behaviour
  • Zeal and motivation
  • - conscious creation of positive affect to
    motivate one to achieve ones goals
  • - recognise the absence of positive affect,
  • - initiate positive affect
  • - monitor and sustain positive affect

13
EI in approach and avoidance behaviour
  • Social deftness
  • - negotiate successfully in social situations
  • - in pursuit of obtaining ones goals
  • - in a particular social context
  • - Successful negotiation result when one
    carefully monitors self and others interests and
    concerns and integrate them for suitable action
  • Accurate empathy
  • - NB cornerstone in anticipating if a particular
    response will invoke a negative response in others

14
BAR-ON EI MODEL
  • Intrigued by why some
  • - enjoy better emotional well-being
  • - are more successful in life
  • - many highly intelligent individuals are not
    successful despite their obvious cognitive
    intelligence
  • - whilst others less cognitively intelligent are
    more successful
  • - Thus, cognitive intelligence does not
    singularly account for success
  • - Looked into emotional and social intelligence
  • His model reflects the potential for success

15
BAR-ON EI MODEL
The components of emotional intelligence measured
by the Bar-On EQ-i
(Bar-On, 1997 p.6)
16
BAR-ON EI MODEL
  • Intrapersonal Component
  • Reflects an individuals understanding,
    expression and development of the inner self.
  • Individuals well developed in this area are
  • - in touch with their inner feelings,
  • - feel good about themselves, and
  • - are positive about their lives
  • - are competent at expressing their feelings,
  • - independent,
  • - strong and confident in expressing their
    ideas and beliefs.

17
Bar-On EI MODEL
  • The Interpersonal Component
  • Reflects interpersonal skills and functioning.
  • - Individuals who are well- developed in this
    area are
  • - responsible,
  • - dependable and
  • - have well-developed social skills so that they
    interact and relate well with others.

18
Bar-On EI MODEL
  • Adaptability Component
  • Reflects how competently an individual copes
    with environmental demands by being able to size
    up situations realistically and to deal with
    problematic situations.
  • Individuals well-developed in this sphere are on
    average
  • - flexible,
  • - realistic,
  • - effective at understanding problematic
    situations and
  • - more competent at creating adequate solutions.

19
Bar-On EI MODEL
  • The Stress Management Component relates to the
    ability to withstand stressors without losing
    control or falling apart.
  • - Individuals with more highly developed skills
    in this sphere tend to be
  • - calmer,
  • - are rarely impulsive, and
  • - tend to work well under pressure.

20
Bar-On EI MODEL
  • The last component namely, General Mood, reflects
    the individuals ability to enjoy life and
    general level of contentment.
  • - Individuals who are well- developed in regard
    to this component tend to be
  • - positive,
  • - cheerful,
  • - hopeful and
  • - know how to enjoy life.

21
Healthy development of EIAffective
neuroscience
  • Affective neuroscience
  • Boundary between cognitive and emotional
    intelligence lies in the distinction between
    capacities largely neurocortical and those
    integrating neurocortical with limbic circuitry
    (Goleman 2001)
  • Traditional IQ (verbal fluency, spatial logic,
    abstract reasoning) based in specific areas of
    neocortex
  • EI has different underlying circuitry
  • Damage impinge the respective areas (ADD)

22
Neurology of decision making
  • Intelligent creative decision making is
    influenced by emotions
  • Damage to ventro-medial prefrontal legions
    developed serious impairments in decision making
    despite otherwise largely intact intellectual
    abilities
  • - such lesions diminish emotional signs that add
    value to options that help guide decisions
  • - via memories of past events that elicited
    positive or negative emotions,
  • reward or punishment, pleasure or pain,
    happiness or sadness

23
Emotions and decision making
  • Emotions provide
  • - go
  • - stop
  • - turn signals
  • Necessary for advantageous decision making
    (Bechara et al., 2000)
  • Activation of somatic states provide biasing
    signals
  • Without the biasing signals decisions become
    equalised and dependent on slow reasoned
    cost-benefit analysis of conflicting options

24
Healthy development of EIRole of primary
caregiver
  • Infants healthy emotional development dependent
    on emotional state of mother
  • Secure attachment depends inter alia on mothers
    self-reflective capacity
  • Caregiver exerts a regulatory influence on the
    maturation of parts of the brain involved in
    emotional awareness and regulation (Taylor
    Bagby, 2000)
  • Contribute to permanent alterations in the
    morphological development of the orbito-frontal
    cortex influencing i.e.
  • - regulation of excitatory processes in the
  • Amygdala and related structures

25
Healthy development of EIRole of language
  • Progressively complex language skills link with
    complex cognitive schemata
  • These schemata elevate the conscious experience
    of emotions from
  • - awareness of emotional arousal
    (undifferentiated bodily sensations/ action
    tendencies), to
  • - awareness of blends of feelings, to ability to
    make subtle distinctions between nuances of
    emotions, and
  • - capacity to appreciate the emotional
    experience of others

26
Healthy development of EIRole of language
27
Healthy development of EIRole of emotional
awareness in social interactions
  • Successful social adaptation requires a duel task
    ability, namely to
  • - consider own and others needs simultaneously
  • - appreciation of the differentiated feelings of
    self and others,
  • - to integrate this information into action
    - that allows for attainment of own and others
    goals
  • - in harmony with the social context

28
Role of emotional awareness in social interactions
  • Accessing ones own emotional life
  • Monitoring and modulating how it may be outwardly
    expressed
  • Considering how the given display may be
    experienced by others
  • Helps influence how emotions will be expressed
  • Thus higher levels of awareness should co-vary
    with greater appropriateness of emotional
    expression in social interactions

29
Abnormal development of EI
  • Childhood trauma
  • Parts of neocortex may be impeded by emotional
    trauma
  • Alexithymia
  • Inability to verbalise feelings
  • Paucity of inner experience
  • Unimaginative
  • Concrete
  • Use physical action to express emotion
  • Absence of symbol system to represent emotions in
    working memory (consciousness)

30
Navorsingsresultate 2006
31
Conclusion
  • Emotions previously seen as illegitimate area of
    research
  • - Viewed through cognitive lens
  • - According to so-called norms of rationality
  • Recent trends in neuroscience provide much
    support for the role of emotion in reasoning.
  • EI exciting and developing research area in
    relation to organisational behaviour
  • Measure of debate surrounding EI reflects healthy
    process in scientific research
  • Neural plasticity allows for lifelong learning
    and adaptation, also in affective realm
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