Diversity and systematics of sea anemones - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Diversity and systematics of sea anemones PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: d66aa-ZTQ4M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Diversity and systematics of sea anemones

Description:

Diversity and systematics of sea anemones – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:320
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 44
Provided by: Jen497
Learn more at: http://www.nhm.ku.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Diversity and systematics of sea anemones


1
Diversity and systematics of sea anemones
  • Meg Daly
  • Adorian Ardelean
  • Ha Rim Cha

2
Acknowledgments
  • Michel Clareboudt, staff faculty of Marine
    Sciences, SQU
  • Daphne Fautin
  • American Association for the Advancement of
    Science, National Science Foundation, KU Natural
    History Museum Biodiversity Research Center

3
Sea AnemonesCnidaria Anthozoa Actiniaria
4
Sea Anemones
  • Cnidaria
  • 2 layered, organ-less body, with stinging
    nematocysts
  • Anthozoa
  • Polyp form only
  • Actiniaria
  • Skeleton-less, solitary or clonal (not colonial)

5
Subclass Hexacorallia
Antipatharia
Actiniaria
Ceriantharia
Antipatharia
Actiniaria
Ceriantharia
Zoanthidea
Scleractinia
Corallimorpharia
Zoanthidea
Scleractinia
6
Why study anemones?
  • Diverse in habitat, biology, life history
  • Understand evolution of colonies and skeletons
    among Anthozoa
  • Understand evolution of tissues, organs, and
    polarity in animals

7
Overview
  • Anemone diversity systematics
  • Morphology variability of Actinodendridae
  • Diversity systematics of Corallimorpharia

8
  • Systematics Diversity of Actiniaria
  • Diversity
  • Habitat
  • Biology
  • Life history
  • Systematics
  • Identification
  • Morphology
  • Molecules
  • Role of Biodiversity Studies
  • Evolution
  • Biogeography

9
Anemone diversity--typical habits
  • Attached to rocks or coral skeletons
  • Intertidal to deep sea
  • In sand or mud
  • Intertidal to deep sea

10
Exotic habits
  • On living hermit crabs or gastropods
  • On jellyfish or comb jellies
  • On living sponges, corals gorgonians

11
How does habit(at) manifest itself in morphology
or biology?
  • Shape
  • Musculature
  • Reproductive biology
  • Symbionts

12
Shape
  • Burrowing forms tend to be long, slender, smooth
  • Intertidal forms are often bumpy with suckers
    that hold stones
  • Deep water forms tend to be thick, stout, with
    wide oral discs

13
Musculature
  • Burrowing forms have strong retractor and
    circular muscles, weak basilar muscles
  • Intertidal forms have strong marginal sphincters
  • Attached forms have weak circular and retractor
    muscles

14
Reproduction
  • Attached forms in shallow subtidal and in deep
    sea have free swimming larvae, deep sea forms may
    have very large larvae
  • Attached forms undergo longitudinal fission,
    burrowing forms undergo transverse fission

15
Symbionts
  • Photosymbionts in attached and burrowing forms in
    shallow water
  • Photosymbiotic forms have broad oral disc
  • Crab symbionts tend to have potent nematocysts

16
How can we interpret and understand this
diversity?
  • ? Taxonomy systematics

17
What is it?Process of identification
  • Find specimen
  • Compare multiple specimens
  • Develop sense of range of variation in color,
    shape morphology
  • Compare to descriptions of similar known species

18
Is it the same?Process of comparison
  • Color, habitus, biology life history
  • Arrangement and morphology of mesenteries
    muscles
  • Size, shape distribution of nematocysts

19
Why does it matter?
  • Variation in biology and/or role in ecosystem
  • Repeatability and comparability of results

20
Biodiversity in Oman
  • Components of the tropical Indo-Pacific fauna
  • New species (possibly endemic)
  • Lacking representatives of Acontiaria

21
Omani Anemones
A new species of Heteractis?
22
Anthopleura biogeography and evolution in the
intertidal zone
  • What role do history, geography, or habitat play
    in
  • loss or re-acquisition of asexual reproduction?
  • loss, change, or re-acquisition of
    photosymbionts?

23
Global Diversity of Edwardsiidae
Small burrowing anemones Poorly known,
difficult to collect
24
Known Distribution
25
Morphology Variability Systematics of
the sea anemone family Actinodendridae
26
General - morphology
long, highly branched tentacles
secondary branches
primary branch
column
pedal disc
10 mm
27
Morphology - acrospheres
simple, pointed
Actinostephanus haeckeli
bilobed, narrow
Actinodendron arboreum species complex
bilobed, wide
Actinodendron alcyonoideum
simple, capitate
Megalactis sp.
28
acrosphere
fired capsule
Stinging capsules
29
General - habitat
shallow water
on sand
on sea grass bed
among rocks and corals
on mud
30
General - distribution
tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean and the
Red Sea
over 400 records
31
Variability
morphology of tentacles color and color
patterns nematocysts (stinging
capsules) Field research helps to understand
variability
32
Variability - morphology
Variant with long tentacles, branches,
acrospheres
Actinodendron arboreum
33
Variability - morphology
Variant with short tentacles, branches,
acrospheres
Actinodendron arboreum
34
Variability with age
number of branches increases with age
acrospheres are longer in juvenile individuals
Actinodendron arboreum
adult
juvenile
35
Variability with behavior
tertiary branch
secondary branch
primary branch
36
Variability - regeneration of tentacles
Actinodendron arboreum
37
Taxonomy - original descriptions versus reality
Actinodendron alcyonoideum (Quoy and Gaimard,
1833) original description vs specimen
from Fiji, near Dravuni Isl.
38
CORALLIMORPHARIA
Vincent B. Hargreaves
Adorian Ardelean
George Miller
  • Ha-Rim Cha
  • The Natural History Museum and Biodiversity
    Research Center
  • The University of Kansas
  • Lawrence, KS, USA

39
Corallimorpharia
  • One of six orders of Zoantharia
  • Coral-like sea anemones
  • Solitary or colonial polyps without skeleton
  • Current Classification four families, 13
    genera, and 50 species
  • Widely distributed from tropical to polar areas
    and from shallow to deep water
  • Questions in the classification and the
    phylogenetic relationships

LeRoy (http//www.garf.org)
40
What do they look like?
  • Plate-like body
  • Family Ricordeidae Watzl, 1922
  • Family Discosomatidae Duchassaing de Fombressin
    and Michelotti, 1864

(Photos by Vincent B. Hargreaves)
41
What do they look like?
  • Cylindrical body
  • Family Sideractiidae Danielssen, 1890
  • Family Corallimorphidae Hertwig, 1882

42
Corallimorpharia from Red Sea
Eilat Reef, Israel
Discosoma unguja
Discosoma nummiforme
Rhodactis rhodostoma
(photos by Baraka Kuguru)
43
Predictive Range Modeling
Discosoma nummiforme
SST_mean_monthly, SST_min_max_range,
Salinity_ann_avg, Chlora, Tides
About PowerShow.com