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Self Made Monsters Indigenous North American Groups and Body Modification

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Roanoke men did not tattoo but had a totemic mark (tribal marking) on part of ... could have tattoos but men who where chiefs or warriors had elaborate designs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Self Made Monsters Indigenous North American Groups and Body Modification


1
Self Made Monsters Indigenous North American
Groups and Body Modification
  • Nicole Jerome

2
Topic Questions
  • What indigenous North American groups had
    traditions of body modification?
  • Describe the practices of at least two groups,
    along with the purpose of the modification (s),
    gender differences (if applicable), and other
    relevant details

3
Southeast
  • Ex Virginia, Florida, Mississippi
  • Cherokee, Choctaw, Yuchi, and Siouan tribes
  • Capt. John Smith noted VA Indians as having body
    parts painted red and women were adorned with
    serpents painted on their legs, face, hands and
    breast
  • Tattooing was practiced by both sex, but many
    women had a band painted around their waist and
    arms
  • Roanoke men did not tattoo but had a totemic mark
    (tribal marking) on part of the body, usually on
    the shoulder.
  • Cherokee men would paint themselves for war and
    have tattoos but the women never were tattooed.

4
Southeast cont.
  • In general both men and women had pieced ears and
    wore shinny stones or shells
  • Men pierced their nasal septum
  • Everyone could have tattoos but men who where
    chiefs or warriors had elaborate designs
  • Face, legs, truck and arms were tattooed
  • Deformed heads
  • Pressure of bags and wood were used to deform the
    heads of infants craddle board
  • Body painting was used for war and morning
  • Scarification of birds, serpents and other
    animals

5
Yuchi tribe
6
Oasis/Southern Plains
  • Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas and Oklahoma
  • Kiowa women had a small circle tattoo on their
    forehead or a cross over their nose and between
    the eyes
  • This was special ceremony done by the elder women
  • Wichita men and women tattooed most of their body
  • Men had tattoo lines from their lips downward
  • Women made tattoo rings around their breast

7
Pueblo Indians
8
Northwest Coast
  • Nez Perces of Washington
  • In general both men and women had pieced ears
  • Men pierced their nasal septum
  • Nez Perc, is French for nose pierced
  • A long stick or bone is passed though the nose
    and piercing flattens the nose, which was
    desirable
  • Paints of red, black and white were used on
    special occasions by both sexes
  • Men plucked their beards and women their eyebrows
  • Head deformation for infants with a craddle board
    or binding

9
Northern Plains
  • Middle states Ohio, Michigan
  • Iroquois
  • Scarification of birds, serpents and other
    animals
  • Its an operation with a needle where gunpowder is
    rubbed into the puncture
  • Found on the faces or breast of men
  • Used to give off a courageous appearance
  • Women did not use Scarification
  • Chippewa
  • Tattooed cheeks and foreheads
  • Both sexes have blue or black thick lines that
    are one to four in number. They tell which tribe
    someone is in.
  • The women tattoo over temples, head or checks in
    order to relieve a headache or tooth ache.
  • In general less tattooing than other tribes

10
Mandan tribe of North Dakota
  • Sun Dance
  • The tribal leaders and the young men would be
    hung up with hooks that are pierced into the
    man's chest and he is hung from the ceiling until
    the hooks tare free from the flesh. Capture,
    torture, release
  • The dancers are captured by warriors and an
    incision is made in their chest and back with
    pieces of wood attached by leather ropes, which
    are tied to a pole. The men where hung from the
    ceiling while they stare at the sun until their
    flesh ripped. To make the process go faster, some
    people would add their weight to the ropes so the
    skin would rip faster.
  • Served as a coming-of-age ritual for the young men

11
Sun Dance
  • This is a 1908 photo by Edward S. Curtis
  • Its a Crow Indian of Montana, leaning back with
    sticks pierced to his chest.

12
Alaska
  • Eskimo women in 1589 we reported to have raised
    tattoos on their faces
  • Sacrificial scares
  • In 1975 a 1600 year old body of a women was
    discovered in St. Lawrence Island, AK.
  • The womans arms were tattooed
  • In 1928, observers saw that the young women were
    still having these tattoos on their arms

13
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14
Bering Sea Eskimos
  • Women wore masks that had tattoos on them for
    religious rituals
  • They had chin tattoos and red cheek spots.
  • Blueberry Woman, 1917

15
Tlingit Tribe of Alaska
  • Shark Tooth Earrings
  • Labret, 1897

16
(No Transcript)
17
Alternative Beliefs
  • While tattooing may not be an alternative belief,
    the reason for the tattoos is an alternative
    belief
  • For religion, tribal identification and military
    rank not often for ornament or beauty
  • The concept of forced deformation was considered
    beautiful
  • The sun-dance and ripping the body in order for a
    boy to become a man

18
Time, Place and Culture
  • In the past, tattooing, head deformation,
    scarification and the sun dance were considered
    normal rituals
  • Today, the sun dance is considered torture by law
    and is illegal to practice
  • However, people are still practicing it

19
Cont.
  • In the past scarification and tattooing was seen
    as enhancing the beauty of someone and their was
    pride in the pain
  • Today, those practices can be seen as
    disfigurement of the body and unattractive
  • In the past, specific groups could get tattoos
    and it was a sign of social rank
  • Today anyone can get a tattoo and tattooing has
    become mainstream

20
Quiz
  • Name at least two forms of body modification that
    was practiced by the Native Americans?
  • What tribe was known for piercing their nasal
    septum?
  • The women of the Chippewa tribe used tattoos to
    do what?
  • True/False The Sun dance was a coming of age
    ritual for young men?
  • The discovery of a 1600 year old women was
    important because A) she had scars of birds and
    serpents on her arms B) she had tattoos on her
    arms C both A and B

21
Answers
  • Body painting, Sun dance, scarification, tattoos,
    head deformations
  • Nez Perces of Washington
  • To relieve a headache or tooth ache
  • True
  • B) she had tattoos on her arms

22
References
  • Sinclair, A.T. (1908). Tattooing of the North
    American Indians. American Anthropologist, Vol.
    11, No 3. Retrieved October 10, 2008, from JSTOR
    database.
  • Diver Harold E (1957). Comparative Studies of
    North American Indians. Transactions of the
    American Philosophical Society, Vol. 47, No 2.
    Retrieved October 10, 2008, from JSTOR database.
  • Smith, George S (1957). American Antiquity, Vol.
    40 No 4. Retrieved October 10, 2008, from JSTOR
    database.
  • University of Pennsylvania Museum. (2007).
    Examples of Body Modification. Retrieved October
    10, 2008, http//www.museum.upenn.edu/new/exhibits
    /online_exhibits/body_modification/bodmodgalleries
    .shtml
  • Ramirez, Miriam. (2007, March 29). Hanging by a
    Moment Locals hooking into body modification
    trends in the Valley. The Monitor. Retrieved
    October 10, 2008, http//www.themonitor.com/onset?
    id1234templatearticle.html
  • Garrett, Nancy. Siouan Language Group. Retrieved
    October 10, 2008, http//www.bigorrin.org/cherokee
    _kids.htm
  • Favazza, Armando R. (1996). Bodies Under Siege.
    Google Books. Retrieved October 10, 2008,
    http//books.google.com/books?idBwQT9fdZNdgCpgP
    A12lpgPA12dq22Indians2222bodymodification
    22sourcewebots9Csu-d9wCjsigr9Md42IumqXo2tKb
    qaU-Hj1ITxUhlensaXoibook_resultresnum6ct
    resultPPA12,M2
  • Ethridge, Robbie. (2002) The New Georgia
    Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 10, 2008, from
    http//www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp
    ?idh-585
  • Old Picture of the day. (2007). Retrieved
    October 10, 2008, from http//old-photos.blogspot.
    com/2007/04/indian-piercing-ritual.html
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