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Collaborative Problem Solving

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Title: Collaborative Problem Solving


1
Collaborative Problem Solving
Presented by
YOUR NAME HERE!
  • Course overheads

2
Recent Notes on Community Policing
  • 1974 Kansas City Preventive Patrol
  • 1980 Rapid Response Studies
  • 1981 Differential Response Studies
  • Foot Patrols
  • Broken Windows/Fear Reduction
  • 1994 The Crime Act--COPS Office

3
The Core Components of Community Policing
  • Community Partnership
  • Problem Solving
  • Organizational Transformation

4
The Community Policing Consortium
5
The Police Executive Research Forum (PERF)
6
Community Policing Defined
  • Organizational philosophy
  • Management approach
  • Facilitates partnerships
  • Addresses
  • fear
  • causes of crime
  • quality-of-life issues

7
Principles of Community Policing
  • Trust
  • Accountability
  • Change
  • Vision
  • Partnerships
  • Empowerment
  • Problem Solving
  • Leadership
  • Equality
  • Service

8
Module I
  • Introduction to
  • Problem Solving

9
Course Expectations
  • Strengthen Problem Solving Skills
  • Learn Ways to Mobilize the Community
  • Learn Effective Collaborative Problem-Solving
    Techniques

10
Five Course Modules
  • Introduction
  • Mechanics
  • Community collaboration
  • Mechanics of collaborative problem solving
  • Facilitating community group dynamics

11
Challenges for Collaborative Problem Solvers
  • Using SARA model correctly.
  • Shedding expert role.
  • Facilitating effective interaction.
  • Involving community members.

12
Connect the Dots
13
Solution
14
Impediments to Thinking Creatively
TRADITIONAL POLICING
15
Impediments to Thinking Creatively
(cont.)
RULES AND REGULATIONS
TRADITIONAL POLICING
TOLERANCE FOR RISK
TRAINING
RIGID DISCIPLINARY POLICIES
16
TRADITIONAL POLICING
OFFENDER
17
Community Policing
  • Philosophical characterization
  • Recognizes differences
  • Provides customized services
  • Forms partnerships

18
What is a Problem?
  • Two or more incidents
  • Similar in nature
  • Capable of causing harm and
  • Public expectation to do something about it.

19
Violations of the LawVs.Community ProblemsAre
There Differences?
20
How Are Incidents Related?
  • Location
  • Suspect
  • Victim Group
  • Behavior
  • Time
  • Evidence

21
Problem Triangle
Victim
Offender
Location
22
Traditional Policing
TRADITIONAL POLICING
OFFENDER
23
Problem-Oriented Policing
TRADITIONAL POLICING
OFFENDER
24
SARA Problem-Solving Model
25
Problem Solving Involves
  • S A R A

26
Problem Solving Involves
  • S A R A

Scanning Identify neighborhood crime and
disorder problems.
27
Problem Solving Involves
  • S A R A

Analysis Understand conditions that cause
problems to occur.
Scanning Identify neighborhood crime and
disorder problems.
28
Problem Solving Involves
  • S A R A

Response Develop and implement solutions.
29
Problem Solving Involves
  • S A R A

Assessment Determine the impact.
30
Expert Vs. Collaborative Model
  • Expert Model officer takes on all responsibility
    and leads problem-solving stages.
  • Collaborative Model officer shares
    responsibility with community members they lead
    the problem-solving process.

31
RULES OF PROBLEM SOLVING
32
The Problem Solver Must
RULES OF PROBLEM SOLVING
  • Adhere to community norms
  • Be consistent with departmental values
  • Be moral, legal and ethical
  • Use common sense
  • Be creative

33
Levels of Problem Solving
34
Levels of Problem Solving
  • Simple -
  • Individual Officer
  • Moderate -
  • Small Group/Team of Officers
  • Complex -
  • Organizational Collaboration

35
Legitimate Expectations of Problem Solving
  • Eliminate the problem.
  • Move the problem.
  • Manage the problem better.
  • Repair the problem.
  • Reduce the harm.
  • Reduce the problem.

36
Module II
  • The Mechanics of
  • Problem Solving

37
ConceptualizationThe Problem-Solving Process
38
SARA
39
(No Transcript)
40
Scanning Steps
Step 1
  • List neighborhood problems.

41
Scanning Steps
  • Step 1 (continued)
  • How do you find out what the problems are?

42
Scanning Steps
Step 2
  • Select problems that meet the definition.

43
Review What is a Problem?
  • Two or more incidents
  • Similar in nature
  • Capable of causing harm and
  • Public expectation to do something about it.

44
Scanning Steps
Step 3
  • Prioritize problems.
  • (Expert vs. Collaborative)

45
Common Rationales for Prioritization
  • Umbrella Method
  • Easiest Most Difficult
  • Quickest Most Lengthy
  • APEs
  • Generate Positive Publicity
  • Most Least Serious
  • Fewest Most Resources

46
Scanning Steps
Step 4
  • State specific problem behavior.
  • Where does problem occur?
  • Which setting is causing the most difficulty?

Offender
Victim
Location
47
Summary of Scanning Steps
  • Laundry list
  • Identify problems
  • Prioritize problems (method?)
  • State specific problem behavior
  • Where does the problem occur?
  • Which setting is causing the most difficulty?

48
Preparation for Analysis
  • Preliminary hypothesis
  • General goal statement
  • Determine how data will be gathered and reported.
  • When will data collection begin?

49
Hypothesis
  • From what you already know, what do you
  • think is causing the problem?
  • Form general goal statement
  • Data gathering and reporting
  • Decide when collection will begin

50
Analysis Steps
Step 1
  • What conditions or events precede the problem?

51
Analysis Steps
Step 1 (continued)
  • What conditions or events precede the problem?
  • What accompanies the problem?

52
Analysis Steps
Step 1 (continued)
  • What conditions or events precede the problem?
  • What accompanies the problem?
  • What are the problems consequences?

53
Analysis Steps
Step 1(continued)
  • What conditions or events precede the problem?
  • What accompanies the problem?
  • What are the problems consequences?
  • What harms result from the problem?

54
Analysis Steps
Step 2
  • How often does the problem occur?

55
Analysis Steps
Step 2 (continued)
  • How often does the problem occur?
  • How long has this been a problem?

56
Analysis Steps
Step 2 (continued)
  • How often does the problem occur?
  • How long has this been a problem?
  • What is the duration of each occurrence of the
    problem?

57
Analysis Steps
HYPOTHESIS
  • What are your conclusions about why the problem
    occurs?

58
Analysis Steps
Step 3
  • Define a tentative goal.

59
Analysis Steps
Step 3 (continued)
  • Define a tentative goal.
  • Identify resources that may assist in solving the
    problem.

60
Analysis Steps
Step 3 (continued)
  • Define a tentative goal.
  • Identify resources that may assist in solving the
    problem.
  • What has already been established to address the
    problem?

61
Summary of Analysis Steps
  • Step 1
  • What conditions or events precede the problem?
  • What conditions or events accompany the problem?
  • What are the problems consequences?
  • What harms result from the problem?

62
Summary of Analysis Steps (continued)
  • Step 2
  • How often does the problem occur?
  • How long has this been a problem?
  • What is the duration of each occurrence of the
    problem?
  • Now that the data have been collected, should you
    continue with analysis or return to scanning and
    restate the problem?

63
Summary of Analysis Steps (continued)
  • Hypothesis
  • What are your conclusions about why the problem
    occurs?
  • Step 3
  • Define a tentative goal.
  • Identify resources that may be of assistance in
    solving the problem. 
  • What procedures, policies or rules have been
    established to address the problem?

64
Response Steps
Step 1
  • Brainstorm possible strategies.

65
Response Steps
Step 2
  • Feasibility of alternatives
  • Pre-plan work
  • Who will be responsible?
  • Goals plan will accomplish
  • How will data be collected?

66
Response Steps
Step 3
  • Realistically, what are the most likely problems
    with implementing the plan?

67
Response Steps
Step 3 (continued)
  • Realistically, what are the most likely problems
    with implementing the plan?
  • What are some procedures to follow when plan is
    not working or when not being implemented
    correctly?

68
Summary of Response Steps
  • Step 1
  • Brainstorm possible strategies
  • Step 2
  • Feasibility of alternatives
  • Pre-plan work
  • Who will be responsible?
  • Goals plan will accomplish

69
Summary of Response Steps (cont.)
  • How will data be collected?
  • Step 3
  • Realistically, what are the most likely problems
    with implementing the plan?
  • What are some procedures to follow when plan is
    not working or when not being implemented
    correctly?

70
Implement the Plan
71
Assessment Steps
Step 1
  • Was the plan implemented?

72
Assessment Steps
Step 1 (continued)
  • Was the plan implemented?
  • Are we making progress towards the goal(s)?

73
Assessment Steps
Step 1 (continued)
  • Was the plan implemented?
  • Are we making progress towards the goal(s)?
  • How do you know?

74
Conventional A-B Graph
Number or Amount
Hours, Days, Weeks, Months, Years
75
Conventional A-B Graph
A B (Baseline) (During Response)
Number or Amount
Hours, Days, Weeks, Months, Years
76
A
Number of Auto Break-ins
Months
77
A B
Number of Auto Break-ins
Months
78
A
B
Number of Auto Break-ins
Months
79
A
B
Number of Auto Break-ins
Months
80
A
B
Number of Auto Break-ins
Months
81
Assessment Steps
Step 2
  • What if the plan is removed?
  • What if the plan remains in place?
  • New strategies to increase effectiveness
  • How can we monitor plan in the future?

82
Summary of Assessment Steps
  • Step 1
  • Was the plan implemented?
  • Are we making progress towards the goal(s)?
  • How do you know?

83
Summary of Assessment Steps (continued)
  • Step 2
  • What if the plan is removed??
  • What if the plan remains in place?
  • New strategies to increase effectiveness
  • How can we monitor plan in the future?

84
Module III
Collaborating with the Community
85
Expert Vs. Collaborative (Review)
  • Expert Model officer takes on all responsibility
    and leads problem-solving stages.
  • Collaborative Model officer shares
    responsibility with community members they lead
    the problem-solving process.

86
Community Collaboration
  • What is Collaboration?

...a formal, sustained commitment to work
together to accomplish a common mission.
87
What is Your Agencys Mission?
88
Community Collaboration
  • For police, collaboration involves
  • working with community members
  • who have vested interest in problem
  • who are willing to commit resources toward its
    solution.

89
Collaboration vs. Cooperation
  • Active Vs. Passive
  • People with similar goals
  • Decide on solution to problem
  • In collaboration, all participants invest time,
    talents and resources into making the solution a
    reality.

90
How Do You Define a Community?
  • Geographical boundary
  • Ethnic or cultural group
  • Socio-economic status
  • Shared interests (e.g., business, school)
  • Other....?

91
Collaboration in Your Community
  • What are the departments greatest strengths in
    collaborating with the community?
  • What impedes further progress?
  • What steps could be taken to improve community
    collaboration?

92
Advantages and Challenges of Collaboration
93
Advantages of Collaboration
  • Knowledge
  • Community Contacts
  • Saves Resources
  • Transfers Responsibility
  • Empowers people
  • Builds Support
  • Funding and Supplies
  • Builds Trust
  • Response Options
  • Increases Officer Safety

94
Challenges to Collaboration
  • Frustration
  • Unwanted responses
  • Personal agendas
  • Unintended outcomes
  • Greater demands/expectations
  • Accountability issues
  • Ethical issues

95
Do the Advantages Overcome the Challenges?
96
Police Officer RoleLeading by Facilitating
  • Lead by pointing the community in the right
    direction, helping to make decisions and allocate
    resources.

97
Police Officer RoleLeading by Facilitating
(cont.)
  • Lead
  • Facilitate by guiding the community through the
    problem-solving process, sharing the
    responsibility for tasks and progress.

98
Two Strategies for Bringing Community Members
Together
  • Work with existing groups.

99
Two Strategies for Bringing Community Members
Together
  • Work with existing groups.
  • Form a group of your own.

100
Strategy 1Work with Existing Groups
  • Inventory those with time, talents and resources.
  • Good strategy if problem affects large segments
    of community or if past experiences have been
    successful.

101
Strategy 2Form a Group of Your Own
  • Identify community stakeholders
  • Form entirely new group
  • Recruit new people
  • (Good strategy if there are no willing or
    interested groups in your area.)

102
Community Stakeholders
  • Who are stakeholders?
  • Directly impacted by the problem
  • Residents, business owners, local government
    officials, etc.
  • How are stakeholders identified?

103
Factors Affecting Collaboration
  • Fear
  • Anger
  • Police are solely responsible
  • Apathy and helplessness
  • Lack of time and commitment

104
Tactics to Move from Cooperation to Collaboration
  • Take steps to ensure confidentiality.
  • Neutral location
  • Approach one-on-one
  • Approach in plain clothes
  • Anonymous surveys
  • Dont argue with residents.
  • Ask for help with specific tasks.

105
Why I Became a Cop...
106
Review of Module III
  • Community collaboration
  • Community
  • Advantages and challenges
  • Strategies for organizing
  • Factors affecting collaboration and tactics to
    overcome them

107
Module IV
The Mechanics of Collaborative Problem Solving
108
A Case Example of Collaborative Problem Solving
  • Ways to involve the community in scanning,
    analysis, response and assessment
  • The facilitator will use the New Market example
    from the guide or another problem-solving example.

109
Review of Scanning Questions
  • STEP 4
  • Specific problem behaviors
  • Links between problem behaviors
  • Where is problem occurring?
  • What is known about victims and offenders?
  • What is the preliminary hypothesis?
  • What is the goal?
  • How will analysis be conducted?

110
Ways to Collaborate Scan
  • Bring community members together.
  • Hold organizational meeting.
  • Collect information.
  • Documentation Log
  • Crime Data
  • Monitor progress set follow-up meeting.
  • Time/Task Log

111
Results of Scanning in New Market
  • Problem behaviors loud noise, trash and drug
    vials, unsupervised teens, all linked to one
    house and one set of kids.
  • Preliminary Hypothesis The behaviors are
    consistent with daytime drug activity at the
    house.
  • Goal The community wants to reduce the problem
    behaviors.

112
Review of Analysis Questions
  • STEP 1
  • Antecedents, sequential conditions, consequences?
  • What harms?
  • STEP 2
  • How often does problem occur?
  • How long has it been a problem?
  • What is the duration of each occurrence?
  • Hypothesis?
  • STEP 3
  • Tentative goal?
  • Available resources?
  • What has already been done?

113
Ways to Collaborate Analyze (I)
  • Use community members to collect data.
  • meetings with other community members
  • direct observation
  • focus groups
  • surveys/questionnaires
  • library research
  • meetings with other public, private, or
    government agencies

114
Ways to Collaborate Analyze (II)
  • Encourage documentation of findings.
  • Develop full range of community resources for the
    response stage.
  • Brainstorm Session
  • Personal Asset Inventory

115
Results of Analysis in New Market
  • Before, During and After Conditions
  • The property was abandoned by out-of-town owners.
  • Nearby students have study hour that coincides
    with activity and residents mostly work during
    the day.
  • Robberies were up in the businesses nearby.

116
Results of Analysis in New Market
  • Before, During and After Conditions
  • The property was abandoned by out-of-town owners.
  • Nearby students have study hour that coincides
    with activity and residents mostly work during
    the day.
  • Robberies were up in the businesses nearby.
  • Problem Strength 3 times/week for a couple of
    hours.

117
Results of Analysis in New Market
  • Before, During and After Conditions
  • The property was abandoned by out-of-town owners.
  • Nearby students have study hour that coincides
    with activity and residents mostly work during
    the day.
  • Robberies were up in the businesses nearby.
  • Problem Strength 3 times /week for a couple of
    hours.
  • Goal to stop the drug activity and restore the
    communitys appearance and faith in police.

118
Results of Analysis in New Market
  • Before, During and After Conditions
  • The property was abandoned by out-of-town owners.
  • Nearby students have study hour that coincides
    with activity and residents mostly work during
    the day.
  • Robberies were up in the businesses nearby.
  • Problem Strength 3 times /week for a couple of
    hours.
  • Goal to stop the drug activity and restore the
    communitys appearance and faith in police.
  • Community Resources schools and business people,
    homeowners associations.

119
New Information Revealed
  • Thought poor parental supervision
  • Found abandoned property
  • Learned school schedule an issue
  • Consequences and harms are more far-reaching than
    initially apparent.

120
Review of Response Questions
  • STEP 1
  • Brainstorm possible interventions.
  • STEP 2
  • What is the feasibility of each option? What is
    costbenefit?
  • What is the best option?
  • What needs to be done before plan implementation?
  • Who will be responsible for preliminary actions?
  • STEP 3
  • What are all of the parts of the plan? Who will
    be responsible?
  • Will the plan accomplish all or only part of
    stated goal?
  • What are some ways that data can be collected?
  • STEP 4
  • What problems can we expect?
  • What can we do if plan is not working?

121
Ways to Collaborate Respond (I)
  • Brainstorming sessions
  • Ask community members to consider
  • traditional responses
  • collaborative responses
  • referral
  • Remember that responses can target
  • the problem location
  • those that are affected by problem
  • those that are responsible for problem

122
Ways to Collaborate Respond (II)
  • Help community select appropriate response.
  • Feasibility
  • Risks, costs and benefits
  • Facilitate community plan of action.
  • Caution about expectations--ensure reasonable
    goals.

123
Responses in New Market
  • To identify and arrest teenagers
  • community developed descriptions of teenagers,
  • sketch was made and shown to school staff, and
  • property was searched for evidence.
  • To improve neighborhood appearance
  • neighborhood trash was cleaned,property was
    repaired,and security locks and lighting were
    installed.
  • Posted sketches and mailed newsletter to
    community.

124
Review of Assessment Questions
  • STEP 1
  • Was the plan implemented?
  • What was the goal?
  • Was the goal attained?
  • How do you know if the goal was attained?
  • STEP 2
  • What is likely to happen if the plan is removed?
  • What if the plan remains in place?
  • What strategies will increase plan effectiveness?
  • How can plan be monitored in the future?

125
Ways to Collaborate Assess (I)
  • Answer two basic questions
  • Was the plan implemented as designed?
  • Was the plan effective in achieving the goal?
  • Several methods available
  • community meetings or focus groups
  • analysis of police data (calls-for-service, etc.)
  • personal observations
  • meeting with other agencies
  • surveys/questionnaires

126
Ways to Collaborate Assess (II)
  • Measure outcome, not just success, in response
    efforts.
  • Was goal attained?
  • Assist in developing plan for the future--
  • how to maintain success?

127
Results of Assessment in New Market
  • Documentation logs and review of
    calls-for-service data showed no further activity
    at the house and a reduction in
    burglaries/robberies.
  • Survey revealed that residents and business
    owners were pleased with the outcome and police
    involvement.
  • Plans made to maintain successes.

128
Module V
Facilitating Community Group Dynamics
129
Personality 1Community Leaders
  • Voice of the community
  • Helpful in identifying participants, logistics
    and disseminating information.
  • Gatekeepers
  • May need to be reminded that everyone must have a
    role in the collaborative.

130
Personality 2Active Volunteers
  • Active in the community
  • Willing to share control
  • Willing to share information with police
  • Willing to contribute time and energy to process

131
Personality 3Passive Volunteers
  • Attends meetings and observes others
  • Shares information with police
  • NOT likely to contribute actively if left on
    their own.

132
Meet the Tate Family
DIC-
HESI-
AGI-
IRRI-
133
DIC-TATE
134
HESI-TATE
135
IRRI-TATE
136
AGI-TATE
137
FACILI-TATE
138
Handling Resistance
  • Dont get defensive.
  • Pick up on non-verbal cues.
  • Recognize your non-verbal cues.
  • Neutralize the resistance--name it.
  • Allow free and open expression.

139
Tips for Success
  • Approval and support not necessary.
  • Encourage/invite people to take responsibility.
  • Expect argument and criticism.
  • Keep it short.
  • Support participant involvement.
  • Show confidence and move on.

140
Ground Rules for Group Discussion
  • Respect input of others.
  • Recognize all participants have an equal
    contribution to make.
  • Do not interrupt.
  • Practice active listening.

141
The Consortium
142
For More Information
For more information, call Andrew Morabito PERF
Training Coordinator 202-833-3305 or Corina Sol?
Brito PERF Management Representative 202-466-7820
or visit www.communitypolicing.org or www.policefo
rum.org
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