Effects of Selected Forest Management Practices on Forest Birds in Missouri OakHickory Forests - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Effects of Selected Forest Management Practices on Forest Birds in Missouri OakHickory Forests

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Effects of Selected Forest Management Practices on Forest Birds in Missouri Oak-Hickory Forests ... All captured birds identified, sexed & aged, banded, and released ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effects of Selected Forest Management Practices on Forest Birds in Missouri OakHickory Forests


1
Effects of Selected Forest Management Practices
on Forest Birds in Missouri Oak-Hickory Forests
2
Principal Investigators
  • Rick Clawson, Missouri Department of
    Conservation
  • Dr. John Faaborg, University of
    Missouri-Columbia
  • Dr. Paul Porneluzi, Central Methodist University

3
Collaborators
  • Wendy Gram, Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural
    History
  • Mike Wallendorf, Missouri Department of
    Conservation
  • Elena Seon, Missouri Department of Conservation
    (former employee)

4
Background
  • Studies had shown that avian species diversity
    and reproductive success were lower on forest
    fragments
  • Nest predation by mammalian and avian predators
    and parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds were the
    principal mechanisms
  • Some people believed that similar phenomena would
    occur in a predominantly forested landscape with
    small openings
  • An experimental approach was needed

5
Objectives
  • To determine differences in breeding densities of
    selected a) mature forest and b)
    early-successional forest songbirds in forest
    managed by EAM, UAM, and no-harvest methods
  • To determine rates of nest parasitism, nest
    predation, and reproductive success for these
    songbirds
  • To provide educational training in field biology
    to undergraduate student interns

6
5 Focal Mature Forest Species
  • Acadian Flycatcher
  • Ovenbird
  • Worm-eating Warbler
  • Kentucky Warbler
  • Wood Thrush

7
6 Focal Early Successional Spp.
  • Indigo Bunting
  • Yellow-breasted Chat
  • Hooded Warbler
  • Prairie Warbler
  • Blue-winged Warbler
  • White-eyed Vireo

8
Bird Study Data Collection Spot Mapping
  • Species densities determined using spot-mapping
  • Each site divided into 7 spot mapping plots
  • Each spot mapping plot surveyed 10 times
  • Territories identified from compilation maps for
    each species, each year
  • Density determined by dividing number of
    territories by study site area

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Bird Study Data Collection (cont.) Nest
Monitoring
  • Reproductive data collected by locating and
    monitoring nests
  • Most nests were on the ground, in shrubs, or in
    the subcanopy
  • Nests monitored every 3 5 days
  • Predation and parasitism events noted

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Bird Study Data Collection (cont.) Mist Netting
  • 13 mist net lies per study area
  • 12 mist nets per line, set 50 meters apart
  • Each mist net line run for two mornings
  • All captured birds identified, sexed aged,
    banded, and released
  • Prior to first treatment, mist net lines spaced
    out along east-west grid lines
  • After treatment, net lines on EAM sites set in
    clear cuts

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Results Spot Mapping
  • 53 different species recorded
  • Most species present during both pre-treatment
    and post-treatment years
  • Following treatment, all 5 focal mature forest
    species declined
  • Early successional species densities increased
    dramatically after tree harvest
  • Responses were species specific

21
After initial decline, returning to near
pre-treatment levels
22
Climbing, but not yet back to pre-treatment levels
23
Negatively affected by EAM
24
Has returned to pre-treatment level on EAM sites,
but abandoning no-harvest sites?
25
Although low numbers, positive response to EAM
UAM
26
Appears to prefer the larger openings of EAM sites
27
Appears to prefer larger openings of EAM sites
28
Accepts all sizes of canopy gaps
29
Accepts all sizes of harvest openings
30
Found in low numbers responded to both harvest
types
31
Results - Nesting
  • Found over 1,500 nests from 29 species
  • Found nests for 6 of the focal species, before
    and after treatment
  • Daily mortality rates did not change
    significantly from pre- to post-treatment
  • Mayfield nesting success averaged 29 for these 6
    spp.
  • Brood parasitism rates were low, averaging 3.2
    in both pre- and post-treatment
  • Nest failure generally attributed to predation

32
Results - Mist Netting
  • Prior to treatments, capture rates were low on
    all sites
  • Recapture rates were low (
  • Nets placed at the edges of clear cuts and on
    paths in the interior of clear cuts had
    dramatically higher capture rates
  • Within clear cuts, both early successional and
    mature forest birds were captured

33
Implications
  • In general, forest management treatments affected
    bird species as expected
  • Mature forest species declined on all sites
  • Birds had species-specific responses to even-aged
    and uneven-aged forest management
  • Although early successional species increased,
    some used larger openings and some used both
    small and larger openings
  • Recommend a blend of harvest types to maintain
    diversity of forest avifauna

34
  • Our results agree with current theory about
    landscape-level forest cover the
    timber-management treatments did not increase
    cowbird parasitism or nest predation

35
Additional Findings
  • During the fledging period, even mature forest
    species moved into the dense vegetation of clear
    cuts, presumably for foraging and cover
  • Densities of early successional species were
    higher in larger clear cuts than in smaller ones
  • Densities of early successional species
    apparently reached plateaus in 2000 or 2001 and
    are now declining

36
Progression of Study
  • 1991-1996 1997-2000 original protocol
  • 27 student interns
  • All 7 spot map plots
  • 2001-2003 modified protocol
  • 16 student interns
  • 4 of the 7 spot map plots
  • 2004
  • 5 student interns
  • Point counts rather than spot mapping
  • 2005-2007
  • REU grant return to modified protocol (?)

37
EAM sites 1991-2002/4 of 7 plots
38
UAM sites 1991-2002/4 of 7 plots
39
Challenges
  • Recruitment of interns was more difficult as time
    progressed
  • Downed material and explosive growth in the clear
    cuts made the interior impenetrable until bird
    paths were cut
  • We are trying to find funding to continue
    monitoring avifauna changes between treatment
    applications

40
Future Avian Study
  • Continue to monitor avian population dynamics
    between treatments
  • Analyses of avian response to clear cuts and the
    zone immediately surrounding the cuts
  • Analyses of avian response to TSI
  • Correlation of bird densities with insect data

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