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Matrix Training of Instruction Following of Pre-Academic Skills with Preschoolers with Autism

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Object-preposition-location (e.g., car under tree) ... Separation of actions and pictures. Instruction to select utensil that matched action ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matrix Training of Instruction Following of Pre-Academic Skills with Preschoolers with Autism


1
Matrix Training of Instruction Following of
Pre-Academic Skills with Preschoolers with Autism
  • Judah B. Axe, Ph.D., BCBA
  • Simmons College
  • March 14, 2009
  • Contemporary Developments in Behavior Analysis
    Conference
  • Simmons College

2
Co-Author
  • Diane M. Sainato, Ph.D.
  • The Ohio State University

3
Introduction
  • Children with autism exhibit delays
  • Language (Rapin, 2006)
  • Literacy (Mirenda, 2003)
  • Language interventions and programs
  • UCLA model (Lovaas, 1987)
  • Verbal behavior model (Sundberg Partington,
    1998 Sweeney-Kerwin et al., 2007)
  • Educational programs (Schwartz et al., 2004 Odom
    Strain, 1984)
  • Literacy/academic interventions and programs
  • Emergent literacy programs (Koppenhaver
    Erickson, 2003)
  • Writing interventions (Delano, 2007 Myles et
    al., 2003)

4
Power of Behavior Analysis
  • Contingencies of Reinforcement
  • Generative Instruction
  • Arrange instruction systematically
  • Teach some skills, get others for free
  • Efficient

5
Match-To-Sample
Book
6
Stimulus Equivalence
67 of learning without direct teaching
Symmetry
BOOK
Book
Transitivity
Symmetry
7
Teach 4 behaviors, child learns 16 behaviors.
75 of learning was not directly taught.
8
Combinations in Previous Research
  • Action-object
  • Karlan et al. (1982) Mineo Goldstein (1990)
    Nigam et al. (2006)
  • Object-location (e.g., ball on chair)
  • Ezell Goldstein (1989) Goldstein et al.
    (1987) Light et al. (1990)
  • Object-action (e.g., dog eating)
  • Dauphin et al. (2004)
  • Expression-person (e.g., happy boy)
  • Remington et al. (1990)
  • Object-preposition-location (e.g., car under
    tree)
  • Goldstein et al. (1987) Goldstein Brown
    (1989) Goldstein Mousetis (1989)
  • Reading and spelling (e.g., s-at, m-op s-op,
    m-at)
  • de Rose et al. (1996) Hanna et al. (2004)
    Melchiori et al. (2000) Mueller et al. (2000)

9
Advancing the Research
  • Evaluate with children with autism
  • Two previous studies with children with autism
    (Dauphin et al., 2004 Goldstein Brown, 1990)
  • Errorless training procedures
  • Previous studies used least-to-most prompting
    (Goldstein et al., 1987 Mineo Goldstein, 1990
    Striefel et al., 1978)
  • Most-to-least prompting (Massey Wheeler, 2000)
  • New skills
  • Language picture selection
  • Pre-academic writing tasks on paper
  • E.g., circle the pepper, underline the deer

10
(No Transcript)
11
(No Transcript)
12
Participants/Setting
  • Four preschoolers with autism
  • Matt, Rex, Trey, Nina
  • Ages 4-5
  • Matt, Trey, and Nina had significant language
    delays Rex had mild language delay
  • Sessions conducted in quiet room in school
  • Sessions were 10-30 min (probe then training)

13
Research Questions/Dependent Variables
  • Directly teach instruction following ?
  • Trained instruction following
  • Untrained instruction following
  • Maintenance of trained and untrained instruction
    following
  • Untrained instruction following with new actions
    and previously known pictures, letters, and
    numbers
  • Social validity of goals, procedures, outcomes

14
Experimental Design
  • Multiple probe across behaviors design
  • Following BL, lt 90 correct on probe ? training
  • 90 correct on trained 3 sessions ? probe
    untrained
  • 90 correct on trained and 50 correct on
    untrained 3 sessions ? next tier
  • 90 correct on trained and lt 50 correct on
    untrained 3 sessions ? train new cell

15
Probe
  • New probe sheet
  • Get ready, (action) the (picture)
  • No feedback for incorrect or no response
  • Reinforcement for correct response
  • If no correct responses 4-6 trials, presented
    known trials (e.g., touch your head) and
    reinforced compliance

16
Training
  • Pictures
  • 1. Picture alone
  • 2. Picture alone
  • 3. One distracter
  • 4. Two distracters
  • 5. Probe sheet
  • Prompts
  • Model Physical
  • Model
  • Gestural
  • Instruction alone
  • Instruction alone

17
Procedural Modifications
  • Rex
  • Stimulus fading for triangle, sun
  • Trey
  • No physical prompts, dots under pictures, prompt
    to select utensil
  • Nina
  • Error correction
  • Distracter trials
  • Trials in fast alternation
  • Separation of actions and pictures
  • Instruction to select utensil that matched action
  • Delay between action and picture in instruction
  • Instructions to perform actions with known
    picture (car)

18
MATT
19
REX
20
TREY
21
NINA
22
Percent correct on probes of trained actions with
known pictures at the beginning and end of the
study for Matt, Rex, and Trey
23
Percent correct on probes of trained actions with
known letters and numbers at the beginning and
end of the study for Matt, Rex, and Trey
24
Efficiency
25
Social Validity
  • Prior to the study
  • Teacher, SLP, principal
  • Found goals and procedures acceptable (6.4/7)
  • Concerns regarding learning difficulties
  • After the study
  • 2 teachers, SLP, principal, 2 parents, K teacher
  • Found procedures (5.9/7) and outcomes (6.1/7)
    acceptable
  • Frequent concern with transfer to classroom

26
Discussion
  • Matt and Rex
  • Errorless teaching procedures
  • Contingencies of reinforcement

underline the pepper
(2)
(3)
(1)
27
Limitations
  • Limited responding by Nina and Trey
  • Stimulus blocking (Fields, 1979 Partington et
    al., 1994)
  • Multiple exemplar instruction
  • Modifications to error correction to transfer
    stimulus control
  • Separation of components of instruction
  • Baseline responding with Matt, Rex, and Trey
  • Prior repertoires in weak strength
  • Learning by exclusion
  • Selection of trial-and-error responding

28
Future Research
  • Identification of training tactics to develop
    multi-component verbal stimulus control
  • Manipulate the order of words in the instruction
  • Reduce potential for baseline responding
  • Other skills
  • Letter, word identification math skills, telling
    time
  • Mands, intraverbals
  • Adoption of matrix training in classrooms

29
Implications for Practice
  • Skills taught can prepare preschoolers for
    writing and discrimination tasks in elementary
    school
  • Efficient strategy for teaching many language and
    academic skills
  • Add to discrete trial training programs and other
    educational programming

30
  • Thank you!
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