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The Expansion of Industry


Buy out the stocks of competing companies. Bosses of the Senate. From Puck Magazine ... Drive cars later on. Buy ready made clothes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Expansion of Industry

The Expansion of Industry
19th Century America
  • US became industrialized
  • Industrialism
  • A change in production from hand craftsmanship to
    machine manufacturing
  • More goods are produced from machines

Technological developments
  • Bring about major change
  • Bessemer process (1855)
  • Make steel from iron
  • Take out the carbon
  • Stronger, more flexible, rust resistant
  • Industrial age not possible with out the
    invention of steel

Black Gold
  • Edwin F. Drake
  • Used steam engine to drill for oil
  • This method became practical
  • Started the oil boom
  • Transform oil into kerosene
  • Gasoline (a byproduct) later becomes important

  • Edison
  • Came up with a way to produce/distribute
    electrical power
  • Changed businesses
  • Ran machine
  • Factories can locate where ever they want
  • Contributed to electrical run inventions
  • Electric street car
  • Leads to growth of cities
  • Westinghouse made home use available

  • Alexander Bell
  • Communication possible
  • Invention of the telephone
  • New jobs for women
  • Easier to do business

  • Christopher Sholes
  • Helps to get women in the work force by created
    new jobs for women

Key factors needed for growth
  • Abundant supple of natural resources
  • Discovery of coal, oil, and iron ore
  • Improved transportation
  • Railroad made with steel
  • Transcontinental railroad built in 1869
  • Labor force
  • Population shifted from rural to urban centers
  • Immigration
  • Government support
  • Minimal regulations
  • No taxes on personal income
  • Tariff was high
  • No environmental control
  • Explosion of inventions

  • First one built in New York City in 1901
  • First one in Chicago
  • The Home Insurance Building
  • No single innovation affected change more than
    the development of steel
  • Steel becomes king!
  • Easy and cost effective
  • Replaces iron

  • John D. Rockefeller
  • Oil baron
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Steel
  • J. Pierpont Morgan
  • Banker took over Carnegie Steel
  • First billion dollar company
  • Cornelius Vanderbelt
  • Railroad giant

  • Helped to industrialize the United States
  • Used their genius to gain advantage over their
  • Helped to make big business what it is today
  • Used new management techniques to improve quality
    and cut cost
  • One of the new strategies was to create a
  • Supported the idea of Social Darwinism
  • Wealthy was a measurement of ones worth
  • Supported laissez faire economic system
  • Only way to grow strong is to allow talent
    members to rise to the top
  • No public aid or assistance to the poor

Vertical integration
  • Bought out all suppliers
  • Controlled all levels of production
  • Example Carnegie Steel
  • His miners got the ore from the earth
  • His ships floated it across the Great Lakes
  • His railroads delivered it to the factories in
  • His employees poured in into the mold
  • Goal to improve efficiency by making the
    supplies more reliable and controlling the
    production at all stages

(No Transcript)
Horizontal Consolidation
  • all the same companies
  • Consolidate with the competitors to monopolies

Rockefeller developed a trust
  • A business combination in which management and
    control of the member corporations are in a
    single board of trustees
  • You do not own the companies BUT you control them
    because you have a majority of their stocks
  • Not a merger because companies are run as
    separate companies
  • Convinced stockholders in various smaller
    companies to give their stocks to the board of

Government Answer
  • Sherman anti-Trust Act in 1890
  • To protect free competition
  • Outlawed combinations which would restrain free
  • Not effective not enforced
  • No teeth
  • No resources to enforce it
  • Government was pro business at the
  • time
  • Created holding companies
  • Holds companies in either parts or whole
  • May or may not be related
  • Buy out the stocks of competing companies

Bosses of the Senate
  • From Puck Magazine
  • Senate of the Monopolies, by the Monopolies for
    the Monopolies

Industrialization benefited the Middle Class
  • National wealth and income grew
  • Middle class Americans experience greater comfort
    and conveniences in daily life
  • Talk on the phone
  • Drive cars later on
  • Buy ready made clothes
  • Department stores grew which created new types of
  • Marshall Fields
  • Sears catalog starts in 1907

  • Captains of Industry
  • or
  • Robber Barons

Life for the average American
  • Jobs moved from home to factory
  • Majority still used candlepower
  • Had no indoor plumbing or heating
  • Cooked on wood-fed stove
  • Could not afford telephones
  • Unequal distribution of wealth

Laboring in a factory
  • 10-12 hours a day
  • Unhealthy conditions
  • Poorly lit, overheated and badly ventilated,
  • 5 a week / 8cents a day
  • Constant threat of being fired/replaced
  • Lots of immigrant easily replaces
  • Well below poverty line
  • Lived in dumbbell tenement in crowed urban
  • Child labor 1/5 were working and not in school
  • Injured on job fired
  • Accidents were common from bad equipment and no
  • Treated with lack of respect

  • Joined Labor Unions to demand better working
    condition and an 8 hour day!
  • Result of discontent among workers
  • The Great Strike of 1877
  • The Haymarket Strike
  • The Homestead Strike
  • The Pullman Strike

The Great Strike
  • Railroad workers went on strike to protest wage
  • Lasted about a week
  • Gov steps in because lack of rail transportation
    was interfering with interstate trade

The Haymarket Strike
  • Wanted changes in labor
  • 8 hours work day
  • Many strikes took place throughout country
  • Police called in brutally put strike down
  • 3,000 gather in Chicago
  • Protesting police brutality that took place
  • Police arrive
  • Crowds begins to leave
  • Bomb went off
  • Police fired several deaths
  • We will never know
  • Public opinion turns against labor movements

The Homestead Strike
  • Carnegie Steel Company
  • Guards from Pinkerton Detective Agency
  • Hire to protect plant when they hired the scabs
  • Violence breaks out
  • Nine dead workers
  • Forced Pinkerton Agencies out
  • Closed plant
  • National guard put down the strike
  • Steel workers and miners across nation strike
  • Each time troops and local militia call in to put
    the strike down

The Pullman Strike
  • Pullman Town
  • Company lays off workers
  • Cut wages w/out cutting rest and costs at the
    general store
  • Workers were getting about 2 cents a day 40
    cents today
  • Pullman refused arbitration
  • Strike breaks out due to his mis-treatment of the
  • Hired strike-breakers
  • Strike turns violence
  • President sends in troops (12,000 sent in 30
  • Strike over
  • Strikers fired/blacklisted

  • Strikes are associated with violence
  • Employers began to rely on the government for
    protection against strikes
  • Employers use the courts to get order against
    unions citing the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • Labor movement becomes fractionalized