Introduction to Systematic Instruction and Moderate to Severe Disability - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Introduction to Systematic Instruction and Moderate to Severe Disability


In your small groups generate the characteristics common for ... Step 1 Teacher gets student attention by ringing bell. Step 2 Teacher 'Check your schedule' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Systematic Instruction and Moderate to Severe Disability

  • Introduction to Systematic Instruction and
    Moderate to Severe Disability

Characteristics of Severe Disability- Youre the
  • In your small groups generate the characteristics
    common for students with severe disability based
    on your reading of chapter 1. Think of 3 ways you
    might improve the learning potential of this

  • Generalization of one skill to other
    environments, people, materials, times of day,
    and spontaneous need is a common learning
  • Quick Reflection Which skills are the most
    important for an individual to generalize? Are
    there any where generalization is unimportant are

Systematic Instruction
  • Identify and define the desired behavior
  • Identify shaping procedures and prompts
  • Collect data
  • Measure effectiveness

Prompting Types
General Prompting Strategies
  • Antecedent (Stimulus) Prompts- Prompts that come
    before the desired behavior Ex- yellow
    highlighter to read a specific word
  • Response prompts- Prompts that come after an
    initial cue or request to perform a desired
    behavior Ex- student is asked to pull out their
    assignment- students sits- teacher then gives an
    indirect verbal prompt what are supposed to do
    next Jamalia

Specific Prompting Strategies
  • Most to least or Graduated Guidance-
    (Decreasing)- start with the most intensive
    prompt and move to least intensive prompt-
    decreasing assistance slowly
  • Least to most (Increasing)- start with the least
    intensive prompt move to the most intensive

Constant Time Delay (CTD)
  • Step 1 Attention cue are you ready
  • Step 2 Task Direction (verbal, written, or
  • Step 3 A pre-set standard delay (4-5 sec)
  • Step 4 Controlling stimulus or prompt that will
    insure the targeted behavior is completed
  • Step 5 always provide a reinforcement for

Things You need for CTD
  • Standard interval of time is for student to
    respond before prompt is initiated
  • Must identify initial prompt intensity
  • Controlling prompt
  • Prompt intensity (What level of prompting)
  • What to do if the student fails to respond
  • Error Correction

CTD Example Target Behavior- Start Math Work on
  • Teacher lets get ready to do math
  • Student pulls out workbook
  • Teacher Start problem set 1
  • Teacher waits 4 seconds for students to start
  • Students starts work with 4 seconds
  • Teacher Great Job! you earn 1 point toward a
    pizza party
  • When student fails to start work within 4 seconds
    teacher delivers controlling prompts of point to
    work, after student starts teacher says thank
    you good job.

Progressive Time Delay (PTD)
  • Same as previous except time is gradually
  • Must consider how much you are time you are going
    to increase after how many trials
  • Prompting intensity, initial prompt, failure to
    respond, error correction are also issues that
    need to be determined

PTD Example Target behavior- Check picture
schedule before transition
  • Step 1 Teacher gets student attention by ringing
  • Step 2 Teacher Check your schedule
  • Step 3 Teacher allows Sally two seconds to
  • Step 4 Sally checks responds within two seconds
  • Step 5 Great work! And Sally gets a sticker or-
  • Step 5A Sally did not check her schedule and the
    teacher delivers the controlling prompt (points
    to the picture schedule) sally then responds
    correctly- thank you good job
  • Each week the teacher adds time before she
    delivers the controlling prompt. This is what
    makes it progressive.

Naturalistic Instruction
  • Students with severe disabilities need a lot
    repetition making natural instruction imperative
  • Use natural opportunities throughout the day
  • Plan for naturalistic instruction
  • Naturalistic Cues
  • It supports generalization
  • What are some examples of natural teaching
    opportunities to teach life skills in a
    classroom? Natural Cues?

General Teaching Strategies
  • Shaping- reinforcement successive approximation
    to a target behavior Ex (target behavior is
    proper packaging of a product at job site- job
    coach first reinforces for partial placement in
    the bag, then for further placement of the bag,
    and then finally for placement in the bar and
    closing it)

General Teaching Strategies
  • Backward Chaining- Providing Instruction on the
    final step first and reinforcing completing-
    Example Teaching someone to tie a shoe the last
    step of tieing the loop is mastered first, then
    the step before it and so on. Reinforcement after

General Teaching Strategies
  • Forward Chaining- First step is taught until
    mastered while guidance is given on the rest of
    the steps
  • Example- Putting on Shirt- the teacher first
    teaches the student to put each are in, then
    guides the student though the rest of the steps.
    As each step is mastered you add a new step
    (e.g., buttoning the first button and expect the
    student to put on shirt without help.
    Reinforcement is delivered after successful

General Teaching Strategies
  • Total Task- Teach all the steps in a natural
    order at the same time. Use prompts for steps
    that a student needs help with. Reinforcement is
    provided for success.
  • Example- Cleaning the table- first step is to get
    out supplies, take off placemats, plates etc,
    place on kitchen counter, wet sponge, spray
    cleaner on the table, wipe table clean, check for
    missed spots- as the student moves through these
    tasks instruction and prompting are provided as

Small Steps-Activity Based Cleaning the Table
  • 1. Retrieve sponge from the cabinet
  • In art Steve will retrieve sponge and close the
    door from the cabinet when finished when the
    teacher says clean up
  • 2. Turn on cool water
  • Once the door is closed Steve will turn on the
    cold water
  • 3. Wet sponge
  • When the water is running Steve will stick it
    under the faucet and soak it for only a few
  • 4. Ring excess water from sponge
  • When Steve notices it is damp he pulls the sponge
    away and squeezes it
  • 5. Wipe table (completely)
  • Steve will walk over to the table once the sponge
    has been rinsed and wipe it off using a circular
    motion until he notices the whole table is damp
  • 6. Check for missed spots
  • After Steve notices the table is damp he double
    checks for missed dry spots or crumbs on the
  • 7. Wipe missed spots (if any)
  • If missed spots are identified Steve wipes those
    sections until the missed spots are clean
  • 8. Put sponge away
  • Steve puts the sponge away when the missed spots
    have been cleaned , closing the door after he
    opens it and then goes to his assigned seat in
    art and waits for instructions.

Practice Activity
  • Teach your assigned task incorporating the
    prompting procedures and instructional
    procedures- 1) break down the task down into
    natural steps and write then down 2) write down
    your activity-based objectives 3) describe a
    procedure for teaching your using the assigned
  • Group A- Shaping and Least to Most Prompts
  • Group B-Total Task, Modeling, and Progressive
    Time Delay
  • Group C-Backward Chaining, Modeling, and Constant
    time Delay
  • Group D- Forward Chaining, Modeling, and Most to
  • In all instruction consider the types of prompts
    and explain how, when, and why you will deliver
  • You can pick an example learner someone is
    familiar with from your group- explain any
    special accommodations the learner might need
  • Also- how might assistive/ instructional
    technology be used in your lesson

  • A- Hitting a baseball during gym
  • I am student with an intellectual disability, I
    love the game, but am easily distracted and do
    not look at the ball

  • B- Cook using a Microwave to warm a froze meal
  • I am student with an intellectual disability and
    I have never done this at home before, and a
    forget the steps if I have to many

  • C- Tying my shoe when I go to school
  • I have a student with an intellectual disability
    and I have poor fine motor, but if I dont hurry,
    I can tie my shoe

  • D- Making a Purchase in the Grocery store
  • I am student with an intellectual disability-
    have difficulty making change