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Behaviorism Post1970s Presentation by Julie Thomas

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Truth (determinism) Behaviorist does make causal determinations of behavior. ... Behavior can be affected by its results. ... Children at all ages exhibit behavior. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Behaviorism Post1970s Presentation by Julie Thomas


1
Behaviorism (Post-1970s) Presentation by Julie
Thomas
  • If You Take A Mouse To School
  • By Laura Numeroff
  • (then he may not behave!)

2
Definition of Behaviorism
  • Question How are overt behaviors influenced by
    external factors in the environment?
  • Behaviorism is an objective science that studies
    behaviors without reference to mental processes.
  • Defining behavior (p. 13 in Behavior Management
    in K-6 Classrooms)

3
Choice vs Determinism
  • Consequences of behaviors determine whether or
    not behaviors are repeated and at what level of
    intensity
  • Choice? Cause vs Effect, Generalization,
    Discrimination

4
Choice vs Determinism
  • Reference CABAS (Comprehensive Application of
    Behavior Analysis to Schooling) article by
    Vincent K. Adkins
  • Truth (determinism) Behaviorist does make
    causal determinations of behavior.
  • Truth (choice) Having learned new behavior the
    client can make decisions about alternative forms
    of behavior.

5
Beliefs and Structures
  • Four types of behavior learning theories
  • Contiguity stimulus/response connected
  • Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) associate two
    stimuli (no control over unless becomes a
    conditioned response/stimulus)
  • Operant Conditioning (Skinner) relationship
    between responses and their consequences
    (behavior leads to result)
  • Observational Learning (Bandura) modeling and
    imitating behaviors

6
Beliefs and StructuresOperant Conditioning
  • Interview with Peter Harzem
  • Operant conditioning is the study of behavior as
    it operates upon, and interacts with, the
    environment of the individual.
  • Behavior can be affected by its results.
  • Objects have reinforcing properties under certain
    conditions and not under others.

7
Beliefs and StructuresOperant Conditioning
  • Applications of Operant Conditioning to
    Education
  • Our knowledge about operant conditioning has
    greatly influenced educational practices.
    Children at all ages exhibit behavior. Teachers
    and parents are, by definition, behavior
    modifiers (if a child is behaviorally the same at
    the end of the academic year, you will not have
    done your job as a teacher children are supposed
    to learn (i.e., produce relatively permanent
    change in behavior or behavior potential) as a
    result of the experiences they have in the
    school/classroom setting.)
  • http//chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/behsys/opera
    nt.html developed by W.Huitt and J. Hummel

8
Beliefs and StructuresOperant Conditioning
  • B.F. Skinner insisted that external influences
    shape behavior, and he urged the use of operant
    conditioning principles to influence peoples
    behaviors at school, work, and home. (focus on
    rewards)
  • Use on self 1.state goal in measurable terms
    2.record how often behavior happens/events
    3.reinforce desired behavior 4.reduce incentives
    as possible

9
Causes of PersonalityUnhealthy vs Healthy
  • In the educational setting
  • Why misbehave?
  • 1. reinforced for misbehavior
  • 2. skill deficits
  • In the societal context
  • The problem is the problem.
  • Conditioned responses are learned
  • from the environment.

10
Characteristics of PersonalityUnhealthy vs
Healthy
  • Behavior analysts attempt to understand everyday
    behavior by focusing on the act itself and on the
    situational events that surround it. (p. 4 of
    The ABCs of Behavior Change)
  • In educational and societal contexts
  • Behavior is atypical, disturbing, maladaptive,
    and unjustifiable.

11
Assessing Personality
  • Behavior Management A-B-C Checklist
  • Define the behavior problem? Is it measurable?
    Is it observable?
  • Antecedents What happens immediately before the
    behavior occurs?
  • Consequences What happens immediately after the
    behavior occurs?
  • Does the child have a skill deficit?
  • Is the child being reinforced for the
    misbehavior?
  • (Behavior Management in K-6 Classrooms)

12
Assessing Personality
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
  • Mandated by IDEA of 1997
  • Foundations
  • Human behavior is functional. (Behavior serves a
    purpose.)
  • Human behavior is predictable. (Environment can
    set up, set off, or maintain problem behaviors.)
  • Human behavior is changeable. (Goals of behavior
    intervention are to reduce problem behaviors and
    increase appropriate behaviors.)

13
Assessing Personality
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
  • Advantages
  • Considers individual differences and
    environmental factors when developing behavioral
    support plans
  • Intervention strategies are directly linked to
    problem behaviors
  • Increase in treatment effectiveness

14
Assessing Personality
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
  • Levels
  • Simple FBA define problem behavior, interview
    teacher, make hypothesis, design BSP
  • Full FBA Simple FBA plus direct observations in
    settings and more interviews
  • Functional Analysis Full FBA plus more
    extensive information gathering and conducting
    experiments to test hypotheses
  • (Taken from Building Positive Behavior Support
    Systems in Schools Functional Behavioral
    Assessment)

15
Interventions
  • Behavior therapy applies well-established
    learning principles to eliminate unwanted
    behavior. (p. 492 in Psychology)
  • Do Not try to get to the underlying, or inner,
    issues
  • Do try to replace problem thoughts and
    maladaptive behaviors with more constructive ways
    of thinking and acting

16
Interventions
  • One of the most difficult challenges in
    designing effective interventions for children
    with problem behavior is the highly variable,
    individual response to intervention. (p. 4 in
    Building Positive Behavior)

17
Interventions
  • Classical Conditioning conditions new response
    to stimuli
  • Counter-conditioning
  • Systematic desensitization associate pleasant
    state with gradually increasing anxiety-producing
    stimuli
  • Aversive conditioning pair unpleasant state
    with unwanted behavior

18
Interventions
  • Operant Conditioning shaping behaviors using
    rewards/punishers
  • Behavior Modification
  • Token economy
  • Contingency contracts
  • FBA Behavior Support Plans

19
Assets and Limitations
  • Assets Applications to education
  • Limitations Clients may catch on,
    behaviorists may use unethically, rewards may
    take away from intrinsic desires
  • Looking Ahead
  • Nature and Nuture
  • Biological and Cognitive Traits
  • Radical Behaviorism?

20
Case Studies
  • Why is Your Homework Not Done? How Theories of
    Development Affect Your Approach in the
    Classroom by Isabel Killoran
  • Who Moved My Cheese? - book and video by Spencer
    Johnson, M.D.

21
References
  • Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in
    Schools Functional Behavioral Assessment by
    Deanne A. Crone and Robert H. Horner. The
    Guilford Press. New York. 2003.
  • Behavioral Management in K-6 Classrooms by Karen
    Malm. A National Education Association
    Publication. 1992.
  • The ABCs of Behavior Change by Frank J. Sparzo.
    Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Indiana.
    1999.
  • Psychology by David G. Myers. 5th Edition. Worth
    Publishers. New York. 1998.
  • A Response to Some Current Misunderstandings
    About Behavioral Education in Journal of
    Instructional Psychology. Sept. 1994. Vol.21.
    Issue 3. p203.
  • Teaching Behavior Analysis and Psychology in
    Social Context An Interview with Peter Harzem
    in Teaching of Psychology. Spring 2000. Vol.27.
    Issue2. p149.
  • Why is Your Homework Not Done? How Theories of
    Development Affect Your Approach in the
    Classroom in Journal of Instructional
    Psychology. Dec2003. Vol.30. Issue4. p.309.
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