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A Brief History of Cinema, Television, and Media


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Title: A Brief History of Cinema, Television, and Media

A Brief History of Cinema, Television, and Media
  • Original Presentation Fall 1997, Regent
  • Joseph G. Kickasola, PhD. Associate Professor
  • Director of the Baylor University Communication
  • New York Program
  • Power Point Jonathan Sutton M.A., M.Ed.
  • Blackman High School

Do you think we will ever live in a society like
Fahrenheit 451?
  • Or, do you think society is going to benefit from
    all of this new knowledge, information, and
    technology occurring today?

Before we can answer the question…
  • …we need to know where we have come from, where
    we are at, and where we are heading…

The Silent Era - Beginnings
  • 1895
  • Thomas Edison - Kinetoscope
  • Frenchman Lumier - Cinematographe

Film industry first located near Manhattan in New
Question One
1902 Georges Melies
  • Trip to the Moon
  • Jules Verne Story
  • Remade in Smashing Pumpkins music video Tonight,
  • Melies didnt think best work.
  • He did understand popularity.
  • First to Fade In/Fade Out
  • First to use Stop Motion

  • 1903
  • Edwin S. Porter
  • The Great Train Robbery
  • Considered first successful narrative film
  • Short only five minutes

  • Original Movies - two minute montages of movement
  • Porter thought these movies were gettingstale
  • Sent camera crew out west to shoot movie
  • Considered first Western

Question 2
Stone Temple Pilots Interstate Love Song
  • What cartoon character is the silent film
    character alluding to?
  • How do you think this video could be dealing with
    issues of entrapment and/or escape?
  • Why did the filmmakers incorporate Silent Film
    techniques into mid 1990s filmmaking?

  • 1915 Birth of a Nation
  • Dir. D.W. Griffith
  • First feature length movie (nearly two hours)
  • Racist storyline glorifying the Ku Klux Klan
  • Griffith was from Kentucky
  • Bought into Social Darwinism
  • Admired by President Wilson

  • By the end of the 1910s, Filmmaking was moving
    to California
  • Land was plentiful and cheap
  • Rules were lax
  • Filmmakers were beyond Thomas Edison and his
    goons reach
  • Hollywoodland was originally a land development

Question 3
1919 Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
Dir. Robert Wiene
  • Part of German Expressionism movement
  • Influenced by effects of the Great War
  • Allegorical to German History
  • Mise en scene
  • Influenced Film Noir
  • Remade in 2005
  • Red Hot Chili Peppers used this style
  • in their music video The Other Side

Red Hot Chili Peppers Other Side www.wsix.com
  • What does this video say about industrialization?
  • What kind of world exists throughout the video?
  • Why are the images absurd?
  • What artist is alluded to throughout the video?
  • Why did RHCP agree to make a video using art
    techniques from the 1915s?

Early Film Stars
  • Douglass Fairbanks
  • Mary Pickford
  • Buster Keaton
  • Charlie Chaplin
  • Clara Bow
  • Rudolph Valentino

Question 4
Nanook of the North
Dir Robert Flaherty
  • Struggles of Canadian Inuit Family
  • First Feature Length Documentary
  • Heavily Staged
  • Distorted Reality
  • Considered unethical today

1927 Jazz Singer
  • Stars Al Jolson
  • First talky
  • Warner Brothers advanced synch sound
  • Vitaphone sound printed on record not
  • film
  • Jolson is in blackface
  • Because he was Jewish and the message of the
    film, critics been kinder

Question 5
Talking Era Hollywoods Golden Age 1928 - 1945
  • California studio
  • system in place
  • Moguls ran the business
  • Vertically Integrated
  • companies
  • Many consider this
  • the best age of the cinema

Movie Clip
  • Who Framed Roger Rabbit opening clip on
  • Through the viewing of this clip, assess how the
    studio system was organized and carried out
    during the Golden Era of Hollywood.

1934 - Triumph of the Will
Dir Leni Reifenstahl
  • Chronicles the
  • 1934 Nazi Party
  • Congress
  • Hitler godlike
  • True German Leader returning Germany to glory
  • Propaganda highly staged
  • Considered one of the greatest films ever
  • Influences cinema to this day
  • Raises question of art and morality

Television Arrives
  • 1940 First American Network Television
    Broadcast WNBT in New York
  • Color Television also introduced
  • Considered Futuristic

1941 Citizen Kane
Dir Orson Welles
  • Penultimate Hollywood Studio Film
  • Critics consider it best ever made
  • Welles Boy wonder
  • Best work
  • Broke all cinematic conventions up to that time
  • These conventions now part of everyday filmmaking

Question 6
Movie clip
  • Citizen Kane Opening Clip
  • Why do you think telling this story in various
    flashbacks was important to Wells?
  • In your own words explain the opening sequence
    using the news reel footage? How is this
    different from the newspaper reporters trying to
    figure out the meaning of Rosebud?

1943 - 1961 Italian Neorealism
  • Gritty films about everyday life
  • Reaction to the effects of WW II
  • Shot on location
  • Long takes
  • Vittorio De Sica
  • Roberto Rossollini
  • The Bicycle Thief
  • best known movie

  • 1948 Golden Age of Television
  • Uncle Milton Berle begins TV comedy show
  • Ushers in Golden Age of television
  • Shows include I Love Lucy and Leave it to
  • Jack Bennie, George Burns and Gracie Allen
  • Became THE mass medium

  • 1950s
  • Italians, French,
  • and Japanese enter mainstream filmmaking
  • Influenced by the United States
  • Reject US studio system
  • Seek to create own styles

  • US Census reports 67 of all US Households have
  • Helps create the pop culture
  • 1998 movie, Pleasantville is a parody

Weezer Just Like Buddy Holly www.wsix.com
  • What 1970s television show does this video use
    footage from and parody? What film and television
    stars make guest appearances throughout the
  • This show and the television show both idealized
    the 1950s. Why do you think they portrayed the
    era in this way.
  • What mass media is shown at the start of the
  • How does the dress differ from teens dressing

This video is heavy in the use of editing using
the Kulishov effect.
1955 Indian Filmmaking
  • By this time India making movies
  • Western (British) influence
  • Created own style
  • Today India produces more movies and makes more
    money than US industry
  • Higher ticket sales
  • Fractionalized into sects and regions within

Question 7
French New Wave
  • 1958 1965
  • Youthful filmmakers
  • Rejected Classical Hollywood form
  • Long moving shots with jump cuts
  • Made movies for low cost
  • Influence by film critic Andre Bazin
  • Jean Luc Godard, Francois Truffaut Eric Rohmer
  • Adhered to Director as auteur theory

(No Transcript)
Sixpence None the Richer Kiss Me www.wsix.com
  • Original Video Directed by Brandon Dickerson
  • The video is a parody of Jules et Jim
  • The video is an homage to French New Wave
    filmmaker Francois Truffaut
  • Song went on to international fame
  • MTV created a remake of the video for the movie
    Shes All That
  • Why do you think the filmmakers chose to make
    this video within this style for the band with
    this song?

1964 Hard Days Night
Dir Richard Lester
  • British Comedy
  • Cinema verite cinema of truth
  • Irony is this type of filmmaking is highly
  • Cut to the beat of the music
  • Considered to be first long form music video
  • Satire of youth rebellion and defiance to
  • Highly influential with MTV, BET and todays mass
    youth culture

Question 8
(No Transcript)
1965 - 1970
  • 1965 Television networks move to all color
  • Shows still rural friendly until 1970 when
  • Green Acres and Andy Griffith Show

1970s The New Hollywood
  • Younger generation of mavericks buck the studio
  • George Lucas, Steven Spielberg, Woody Allen,
    Stanley Kubrick, and Robert Altman
  • Technology and commercialism mix
  • Star Wars (1977)
  • Video tape changes film industry

Question 9
  • Cable television develops
  • Personal computers affordable
  • Home satellite dishes affordable
  • New Hollywood now in power
  • Old Classics remade
  • Spike Lee and minority cinema emerges

Question 10
Darren Grant New Minority Filmmaker
  • Mother is a well known Indy filmmaker from
    Seattle who has taught in Los Angeles
  • Attended Cal State Northridge
  • Had friends die in the 94 Northridge Earthquake
  • Directed over 80 RB music videos including
    Destinys Child, Kirk Franklin, Mary Mary, and
  • First feature, Diary of a Mad Black Woman

Kirk Franklin Looking for You www.wsix.com
  • The music within this music is ironic when
    compared with the images. How so?
  • What kind of message is being portrayed?
  • After watching this video, what elements make up
    minority cinema?

The Digital Age
  • 1990 present
  • Computer, Cinema, and Television Meet

Question 11
  • Computer, cinema, and gaming meet
  • Forrest Gump, Jurassic Park, and ID4
  • Cinema, computer graphics merge
  • Cable outlets now viable moneymakers
  • HBO, Showtime, IFC, TMC
  • Mass media increasingly narrowcasting
  • Virtual reality and gaming pair with TV and

Die Brucke www.reelgood.tv
  • Shot in June 1999 in Northern Virginia
  • Directed by Jason Dickerson
  • First Assistant Director Jonathan Sutton
  • Five time film festival award winner including
    Spindletop and Festival Der Nationen
  • Part of the Regent University (VA) short film
    distribution in the early 2000s

  • The rise of Digital Video
  • Non Linear Editing Software now consumer friendly
    and affordable
  • Everybodys a filmmaker
  • Proliferation of content on WWW
  • Media is now everywhere
  • YouTube, Facebook
  • Filmmakers have to think world wide
  • NYU Singapore

Question 13
Breaking Up is Hard to Do www.reelgood.tv
  • Directed by Jonathan Sutton
  • Shot over one weekend in March 1999
  • Over one year in post production
  • Crew consisted of nearly forty people
  • Premiered April 2000 at a DGA screening in Los
  • East Coast Premier May 2000 at the Naro Indy
    Theater in Norfolk, Virginia
  • Budget was less than three thousand dollars
  • 2001 Festival Der Nationen (Ebensee, Austria)
    Bronze Bear Award
  • One of forty five award winning films from Regent
    University (VA) students
  • Viewed at numerous festivals across the globe as
    one of several short films promoted by Regent

What does the future hold?
  • The world is increasingly a media driven place
  • Gens X and Y have become increasingly savvy
  • Mass media replaced with fractionalization
  • Post Modern Society
  • Critics Marshall McLuhan, Francis Schaeffer,
    and Neil Postman
  • The Google Generation processes differently

And now we arrive…
  • …at our original question…

Will we live in a society like Fahrenheit 451?
  • Or, is society going to benefit from all of this
    new knowledge, information, and technology?
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