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PATIENT CARE IN RADIOGRAPHY

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HOT CATHODE RAY TUBE. ELECTRICAL SUPPLY. FLUOROSCOPY. ROENTGEN ... 1 rem x age is cumulative dose limit. Cardinal principles of protection. TIME. DISTANCE ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PATIENT CARE IN RADIOGRAPHY


1
PATIENT CARE IN RADIOGRAPHY
  • CLASS 1
  • REFERENCES
  • ERHLICH

2
RADIATION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  • When the term radiation is used, it generally
    evokes concern and a sense of danger
  • Introduction to Radiology Technology and Patient
    Care, Adler and Carlton 1999

3
HISTORY NOV. 8, 1895
  • WILHELM CONRAD ROENTGEN
  • SIR WILLIAM CROOKS
  • X
  • WILLIAM COOLIDGE
  • H.C.SNOOKS
  • THOMAS EDISON
  • CLARENCE DALLY
  • GEORGE EASTMAN
  • DISCOVERED X-RAYS
  • CATHODE RAY TUBE
  • UNKNOWN ENERGY
  • HOT CATHODE RAY TUBE
  • ELECTRICAL SUPPLY
  • FLUOROSCOPY
  • ROENTGEN MARTYR
  • PLASTIC FILM

4
RADIATION INJURIES EARLY 20TH CENTURY
  • SKIN BURNS
  • HAIR LOSS
  • ANEMIA
  • TO BOTH PT AND DOCTOR

5
HISTORY OF RADIOGRAPHERS
  • PHYSICISTS
  • OJT (TECHNICIANS)
  • HOSPITAL BASED PROGRAMS
  • COMMUNITY COLLEGES

6
OVERVIEW OF RADIOLOGY AND RADIOGRAPHIC
PROCEDURES WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?
7
HOW ARE X-RAYS PRODUCED? http//www.oucom.ohio.edu
/dbms-witmer/anatomy_immersion.htm
8
X-RAY PRODUCTION AN OVERVIEW
  • VACUUM TUBE----WHY?
  • SOURCE OF ELECTRONS (TUNGSTON)WHY?
  • TARGET (TUNGSTON) WHY?
  • HIGH POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE(VOLTAGE) WHY?

9
RAD. TERMS/FACTS
  • ELECTRON CLOUD
  • SPACE CHARGE
  • 99 HEAT
  • 1 X-RAY
  • WAVELENGTHS
  • AMPLITUDE
  • FREQUENCY
  • SHORTER THE WAVELENGTH ,THE HIGHER THE FREQUENCY

10
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
  • GAMMA
  • X-RAY
  • VISIBLE LIGHT
  • MICROWAVES
  • RADIO WAVES
  • COMPARE THE WAVELENGTH (SHORTER OR LONGER?) THE
    FREQUENCY (LONGER OR SHORTER) OF THESE ENERGIES
    TO X-RAYS

11
X-RAY VS VISIBLE LIGHT
  • TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINES
  • AFFECT PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSIONS
  • CAN PRODUCE HARMFUL EFFECTS TO BODY
  • TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINES
  • AFFECT PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSIONS
  • CAN PRODUCE HARMFUL EFFECTS TO BODY

12
X-RAY VS VISIBLE LIGHT
  • WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?

13
IONIZATION ITS NOT AS BAD AS IT SOUNDS!!!!
14
  • Ionization is the process of when a neutral atom
    loses or gains an electron. When the loss or gain
    occurs, a net charge is produced. Ionization
    can disrupt matter.

15
SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION Bushong, pgs 5-6
  • MAN-MADE
  • X-RAYS
  • NUCLEAR POWER /WASTE
  • NATURAL
  • COSMIC
  • RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN EARTH
  • POTASSIUM 40

16
THE X-RAY BEAM
  • Small area of target
  • Cone shaped
  • Primary beam
  • Radiation field
  • Central ray
  • collimator
  • Scatter
  • Why is called that?

17
RETURN TO SCAVENGER HUNT RESULTS AND REVIEW
  • Add the following to your scavenger hunt notes
  • DISTANCE
  • SID AND OID
  • DENSITY
  • mA, mAs
  • CONTRAST
  • kVp

18
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT IN RADIOGRAPHY TRADITIONAL
SI UNIT
  • ROENTGEN
  • RAD
  • REM
  • CURIE
  • MILLI- 1000TH OF A UNIT
  • COULOUMB
  • GRAY
  • SIEVERT
  • BECQUEREL

19
Weighting Factor
  • Useful for measuring occupational dose
  • Look at the table 1-3 on page 29…which of these
    ionizing radiation do you think would produce the
    most harm?
  • Why?

20
Brief overview of radiobiology
  • Laws of Bergonie and Tribondeau pg 30 in Ehrlich
  • Age
  • Differentiation
  • Metabolic rate
  • Mitotic rate
  • Effects
  • Short term/Long term somatic
  • Genetic

21
KEEPING SAFE
  • We just discussed a method of recording
    radiation…how do we keep this exposure to its
    lowest level
  • QUIT THE PROGRAM??????
  • No…there are better ways!!!!!

22
MEASURING RADIATION FOR THE RADIOGRAPHER
  • FILM BADGE
  • TLD
  • OSL
  • CONTROL
  • 5 rem per year
  • 1 rem x age is cumulative dose limit

23
Cardinal principles of protection
  • TIME
  • DISTANCE
  • SHIELDING
  • DESCRIBE HOW THESE APPLY TO BOTH PATIENT AND
    OCCUPATIONAL WORKER?
  • PRIMARY BEAM AND CR

24
ALARA
  • AS
  • LOW
  • AS
  • REASONABLY
  • ACHIEVABLE

25
PATIENT PROTECTION
  • ERRORS
  • REPEATS
  • COLLIMATION
  • HIGHEST KVP. WHY?
  • FAST SCREEN/FILM
  • AT LEAST 40 SID

26
Patients are frightened about radiation
  • What can we say or do to educate them?

27
OCCUPATIONAL PROTECTION
  • YOU TELL ME!
  • .5MM LEAD SHOULD ATTENUATE 90 OF RADIATION AT 75
    kVp
  • Thyroid shields

28
ROSE AEHLE RT (R,M)
  • Appendix A

29
WHAT DO RADIOGRAPHERS DO?
  • WHAT IS OUR SCOPE OF PRACTICE?

30
CHAPTER 12, EHRLICH
  • In addition to radiographers being trained in the
    OR, in trauma radiography and in mobile
    radiography they can cross train in
  • SPECIAL IMAGING MODALITIES
  • CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY
  • CT
  • MRI
  • MAMMOGRAPHY
  • DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL SONOGRAPHY
  • NUCLEAR MEDICINE
  • POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

31
THE PROFESSION
  • ACRONYMS YOU NEED TO KNOW
  • PACS
  • ASRT
  • ARRT
  • ACR
  • CARE
  • JCAHO
  • JRCERT

32
DESCRIBE THE TYPE OF PATIENT YOU MAY HAVE TO X-RAY
  • BODY HABITUS
  • PHYSICAL CONDITION
  • EMOTIONAL CONDITION
  • AGE
  • OTHER FACTORS
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