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Latinos in Higher Education


5 reasons Latina females have a negative assessment of the school environment ... Lack of adequate vocation and career counseling for Latina women ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Latinos in Higher Education

Latinos in Higher Education
  • RYAN,

Latinos Without Higher Education
High School Diploma or Equivalent
  • Because of technological developments in fields
    of all types, the demand for skilled labor has
    increased greatly.
  • The minimum requirement for most jobs is a high
    school diploma and even as time increases the
    minimum is more likely to become a bachelors
  • High School dropouts have an increased rate of
    unemployment and are more likely to require
    public assistance.
  • When working the same or similar jobs, dropouts
    earn less money than high school graduates and
    high school grads earn less money than people who
    earn a bachelors degree.

Latino Completion
  • Over the last 25 years the high school completion
    rate of all racial and ethnic groups has
    increased for every group except Latinos.
  • In 1998, 94 of Asian Americans completed high
    school requirements, 90 of Whites, 81 of
    African Americans and 63 of Latinos.
  • Only 52 of Latinos graduate high school with a
    diploma compared to 70-83 of non-Latino groups.
  • In 1995 in California 30 of all Latinos in the
    U.S. between the ages of 16-24 had not completed
    high school.

Reasons for Decreased Latino Education
  • Underachievement for Latinos is partially a
    consequence of the previous undereducated
    generations of Latinos.
  • Poverty levels of Latino households are also a
    cause of Latino dropouts from high school as
    young adults leave school to provide an income
    for the family.
  • The influence of gangs and crime has taken a
    major toll on dropout rates and completion of
    Latinos education.

Past Generations Influence the Future
  • When the first generation of Mexican Americans
    entered the country in the Southwest where
    prejudice kept most Latinos uneducated.
  • Most Latinos were enrolled in segregated, poorly
    funded schools which had lower expectations for
    Latinos because they mostly worked in the fields
    as farm workers so that was the level of
    education they received.
  • A major gap between the level of education formed
    between Latinos and non-Latino groups, older
    generations of Latinos may not know how important
    a higher education is and what benefits it has.

Poverty Levels of Latinos
  • Because of lower education, the older generations
    of Latinos have less money and the younger
    Latinos, usually 18 and younger, are almost twice
    as likely to live in poverty compared to
  • Latinos are also twice as likely to attend a
    high-poverty high school.
  • For these reasons Latino males are more likely to
    dropout of school to go to work to support the
    income of the family.

Gangs and Crime in Latino Lifestyles
  • Gang crime has increased by 50 between 1999 and
  • Gangs in the Hispanic barrios recruit younger and
    younger children every day causing a high dropout
  • Children feel they must join gangs for protection
    because if they do not have an affiliation they
    will be beat up repeatedly.
  • In California in 1998, Latinos totaled 30 of the
    population while they were 42 of the new admits
    to prison.

  • 1.)Gándara, Patricia, Katherine Larson, Russell
    Rumberger, and Hugh Mehan. Capturing Latino
    Students in the Academic Pipeline. California
    Policy Seminar Brief Series. (May 1998).
    (Accessed November 9, 2006)
  • 2.)Mac Donald, Heather. The Immigrant Gang
    Plague. City Journal. (Summer 2004). (Accessed
    November 9, 2006)
  • 3.)McCluskey, Cynthia Perez, Marvin D. Krohn, Ala
    J. Lizotte, Monica L. Rodriguez. Early Substance
    Use and School Achievement. Journal of Drug
    Issues. (2002). 922-944.

Where we are now
  • How Latinos represent the population currently

Student Demographics
  • Population age 5-24 Public K-12 2 Years
    4 year
  • African 17 21
    14 12
  • Asian 3 3
    5 6
  • Latino 15 16 16
  • White 55 59 63
  • Other 10 NA
    1 11
  • Total 3,916,538 2,071,391 688,140
  • 2001-2002, Illinois High School and College

Enrollment (1st year College vs. degrees Awarded)
  • Freshman Degree
  • African 15,518 5,588
  • Asian 6,291 3,968
  • Latino 9,233 3,376
  • White 75,459 41,217
  • Other 5,452 3,761
  • Total 111,953 57,910

University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign6
year graduation rates
  • African American 61
  • Asian 83
  • Latino 66
  • Native American 50
  • White 83
  • Total 80

Why Latinos lag behind obtaining college degrees
  • Many Latinos only attend college part time
  • Often enroll in community colleges
  • Prolong their college education into their
    mid-20s and beyond
  • Educator, policy makers and their own
    communities should view these college students as
    targets of opportunity. Helping them get to
    graduation day would yield enormous returns on
    relatively small investments

Implication for the U.S. economy
  • Between 2000 and 2025, the white working
    population will decrease by 5 million workers
  • Baby boom
  • While working age Latinos is projected to
    increase to 18 million
  • According to U.S. Census Bureau
  • According to the Pew Hispanic Center Efforts to
    increase the numbers of Latino college graduates
    will raise the economic prospects, social
    well-being and civic engagement of the fast
    growing U.S Hispanic population

Latina Perspective
  • They see us as low, and even in our culture-like
    our parents-they teach us that mean are more than
    women. Like, why do men go out, and I dont go
    out? Because hes a man. Why do my brother do
    these things, and I dont? Because hes a manand
    we dont hear this only from other people,
    whatbut in our families, in our culture.
    Because our culture, they see a woman as low
    (Souza K 2004).
  • I wanted to graduate and finish school. As a
    woman, I think its important, specifically so
    men wont be discriminating against you and
    stuff. Because on day, I dont want any man to
    look at me and say, "You are nothing, because I
    didnt graduate from high school and I dropped
    out of high school (Souza,K, 2004).

Latina Perspective (Cont.)
  • Aura Gabriela I couldnt do my home work. I
    said, I cant do it. Might as well drop out
  • Julio Cammarota Why couldnt you do it?
  • AG I couldnt understand the material
  • JC Why couldnt you just ask the teacher?
  • AG Because I always had to rush home to pick up
    my baby. And he teacher was always picking on
    me and he told me, What are you going to do
    after your baby is born? Are you going to drop
    out? Because I cant tolerate all this. Ill
    fail you automatically.
  • JC But you dont think that was discriminatory?
    It sounds like a judgment.
  • AG The perception is Latina, pregnant. Why
    should I waste my time? I didnt care I had to go
    to school. I have to find a way to graduate,
    That was my thinking.

5 reasons Latina females have a negative
assessment of the school environment
  • Lack of Latina role models (teachers, counselors,
  • Disproportionate level of referrals to SPED
  • 13enrolled in Sped compared to the 2,048,792
    Latino students enrolled in K-12
  • Low expectations for Latinas by school personnel
  • Lack of adequate vocation and career counseling
    for Latina women
  • Should be in place by 4th grade
  • Stereotypic portrayal of Latina women in

COPLA Commite de Padres Latinos
  • Parent led organization independent of the school
  • Helps Latinos/parents feel empowered
  • Learn info from parents who have sent children to
  • Little money needed to run this program

The Other Side of The Coin
  • Why programs may be a waste of money
  • High School counselors
  • Why couldn't they inform Latino Parents/Students
  • Once they get there
  • Working too much
  • Going only part time
  • Pressures from home
  • Money deficits
  • where should the money go?

  • Anthropology Education Association. (2004). The
    Gendered and Radicalized Pathways of Latina and
    Latino Youth (Anthropology Education Quarterly
    35(1)53-74. Arizona Julio Cammarota.
  • Education Trust, Inc. Education Watch (State
    Summary Reports).
  • Pew Hispanic Center. (2002). Pew Hispanic Center
    (Press Release). Washington, D.C Cristina

Poverty Level
  • There are groups in the Hispanic population
    striving to get Hispanic children enrolled in
    college. Although the numbers of Hispanics
    attending college is increasing they are still
    below national state level. One reason for this
    is the economic level that Hispanics most often
    find themselves in. According to the article,
    among students qualified to attend college, 91
    percent of those from high-income families
    applied, compared with 62 percent of those from
    low-income households. Furthermore, 83 percent of
    high-income students eventually enrolled in
    college, compared with less than half of
    low-income students who did so

Poverty (Continued)
  • These statistics are especially noteworthy
    because of the disproportionately high percentage
    of Hispanics living in low-income households,
    says Sara Martinez Tucker, president and CEO of
    the Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF). According to
    the U.S. Census Bureau, 22.8 percent of Hispanics
    lived in poverty in 1999, compared with 7.7
    percent of Anglos. The same year, 30.3 percent of
    Hispanic children lived in poverty, compared with
    9.4 percent of their Anglo counterparts.

Interview with Mrs. Martinez Tucker
  • Were still alarmed that the progress we are
    making is not keeping pace with what is happening
    in this country, particularly with regard to
    professional jobs," says Ms. Martinez Tucker.
    Im afraid were going to lose whatever gains
    weve had if we dont catch this generation of
    Hispanic students and help them get to
    college." Ms. Martinez Tucker says that Hispanic
    children living in poverty confront at least two
    major obstacles to college attendance
    insufficient money and negative attitudes.
    Parents, she says, cite the lack of money as
    the reason why their children cant attend
    college, while students point to a shortage of
    role models. They say, Nobody in our community
    went to college and lived a better life than my
    family, so what is my incentive? says Ms.
    Martinez Tucker.

The Struggles at college
  • Once Hispanic students arrive at college, the
    obstacles they face fall into three types
    financial, academic, and social. Along with
    providing scholarships, the HSF is developing
    programs to help students overcome academic and
    social barriers, says Ms. Martinez Tucker. Such
    programs include student chapters on college
    campuses, alumni mentoring, and Saturday clinics
    for parents and their college-age children. The
    Saturday clinics, held in areas with large
    Hispanic populations, help create a college-bound
    culture by stimulating interest in college,
    assisting with the application process, and
    providing information about financial aid, Ms.
    Martinez Tucker says

  • Schools that are successful in recruiting and
    retaining Hispanic students typically have
    programs to address their unique financial and
    social needs. The Kenan-Flagler Business School
    at the University of North Carolina at Chapel
    Hill is one example. Last September, Hispanic
    Business named Kenan-Flagler one of the top 10
    business schools in the nation for Hispanic
    students. Sherry Wallace, director of MBA
    admissions, says UNC works to attract Hispanic
    students through its participation in the
    Consortium for Graduate Study and Management. The
    consortium of 14 universities and 200
    corporations is working to address the shortage
    of minorities in Corporate America. Eleven of the
    14 consortium members allow prospective MBA
    students to apply using a common application, and
    the consortium provides merit fellowships to
    outstanding applicants