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Keys to English Print

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Orientation and first reading of a new book. Teaching and Learning through Discourse ... by Carol LaSasso and Kelly Lamar Crain ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Keys to English Print


1
Keys to English Print
  • By
  • Bev Teeter
  • Brooke Mensing
  • Dani Cady

2
Methods
PAVE
Discourse
Reading Recovery
Visual Phonics
MVL
How can we help increase reading levels in our st
udents?
Bridges/LOCAN
Fingerspelling
Fairview Learning/BiBi
Bypassing Sound
Cued Speech
3
Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary
Enhancement(PAVE)
  • Integration of phonological awareness and
    vocabulary enhancement in the classroom
  • Models of words decoding show the need for
    efficient activation of letter, phonemic, and
    semantic knowledge
  • Early childhood students

4
Key to English Print
  • Study Results children without language skills
    have lower reading achievement and it continues
    through the elementary years. If they start
    behind, they continue to be behind. Gap becomes
    larger.
  • Goal was to create an intervention to stop the
    cycle of kids coming not ready to read.

5
Classroom Strategies
  • Literacy Practices
  • Environmental Print
  • Book Reading
  • Alphabet Knowledge
  • Relationship to Orientation
  • Instruction Practices
  • Developing Phonological Awareness
  • Vocabulary Enhancement

6
Results
  • No documentation
  • Claim is that it is based on what research has
    said are effective practices to promote
    preliteracy skills. This was conducted with
    hearing children, but feel confident that it will
    also apply with deaf children.

7
Visual Phonics
  • A multisensory approach, using tactile,
    kinesthetic, visual, and auditory feed back to
    improve reading, writing and speech skills in
    deaf students and other children and adults who
    do not learn readily from traditional reading
    approaches.

8
Visual Phonics Continued
  • Used to improve reading through the development
    of phonological awareness skills, writing through
    the development of spelling skills, and speech
    through the development of articulation/mouth
    movements.

9
Additional Components of Visual Phonics
  • System of 45 hand cues and written symbols that
    help students make the connection between written
    and spoken language.
  • Different from Cued Speech

10
Examples
11
Visual Phonics allows deaf students to ask
questions similar to those of their hearing peers.
12
Key to English Print
  • Written symbols that go with the hand cues so
    students can make connections.

13
Strategies
  • Rhyming Words
  • Phoneme Counting
  • Oddity Task
  • Sequencing and Segmenting Sounds

14
Rhyming Words
  • Present words with hand cues. Students see
    similarity in how the words look with hand cues.

15
Phoneme Counting
  • Students count phonemes by using hand cues which
    allows them to see how many phonemes are in a
    given word.

16
Oddity Task
  • Use hand cues to allow students to see which
    words begin or end with the same or different
    sounds and to identify what the specific sounds
    are.

17
Sequencing and Segmenting Sounds
  • Present sounds in words with hand cues, which
    provides visual feedback and enhance the
    students ability to sequence/segment sounds in
    words.

18
Research
  • Initial research indicates visual phonics
    enhances skills such as phonics, reading,
    spelling, speech, and working memory however,
    much more research is needed.

19
Fingerspelling
  • 26 handshapes that correlate with the English
    alphabet

20
Key to English Print
  • When fingerspelling you are matching signs to
    letters.
  • Deaf children have the ability to see the visual
    image of the sign and understand the concept of
    the meaning of the word before they develop their
    spelling abilities from repetition and practice.
  • They transition from seeing it as a sign to
    individual letters and eventually connecting that
    to the printed word.

21
Strategies
  • ABC Stories
  • Morphology words within words
  • Appropriate model
  • Early Exposure

22
Cued Speech
  • System that is used to represent the phonemes in
    the English language in a visual manner in the
    same way that hearing individuals have access to
    sound
  • Uses 8 handshapes and four hand placements near
    the mouth to distinguish the 40 phonemes of
    English and other traditionally spoken languages.

23
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24
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25
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26
Misconception
  • Often times people believe that cued speech is
    supposed to be used as a language, but it is
    actually a visual representation of the language
    that is used and has been adapted.

27
Key to English Print
  • English is a phonemic language and Cued Speech
    allows students to see a visual representation of
    the phonemes in the English language.
  • Uses less memory than Manually Coded English and
    allows for less cognitive energies to be used
    during the information processing stage.

28
How is Cued Speech Used?
  • Supplement reading programs
  • English language development

29
Learning How to Read and Bypassing Sound
  • Using the same concept that we use with hearing
    children to learn print, they bypass sound by
    using glossing and ASL-phabet.
  • Use linguistics of ASL and apply them to English
    print.

30
Key to English Print
  • Break apart signs and relate it to printed word
    to gain phonological awareness.

31
Strategies
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Alphabetical Principle
  • Orthographic Awareness
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Comparative Analysis

32
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33
Gloss
34
Examples
35
Fairview Learning/Bi-Bi
  • English and ASL
  • 5 component reading program which gives direct
    access to ASL and English so that students can
    think and sign bilingually.

36
Strategies
  • Adapted Dolch Word Lists
  • Bridge Lists and the Bridging Process
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Reading Comprehension
  • ASL Development/Spontaneous Written English

37
Adapted Dolch Word Lists
  • Goal was to match word meanings with their
    appropriate signs.
  • Materials card sets, tapes, workbooks, and wall
    charts design for the language and reading
    development of deaf students.

38
Bridge Lists and the Bridging Process
  • Supply different ASL translations for frequently
    used English phrases.
  • Lists are divided into grade levels.
  • Teacher shows the student the front of the card,
    the student must then respond with all the listed
    sign translations of the phrase.
  • 265 Bridge phrases on 5 lists.

39
Phonemic Awareness
  • 21 consonant sounds and 21 vowel patterns
    presented in such a way as to make these patterns
    accessible to students.
  • Example, long i sound teach in patterns.
    Students asked to sign and/or speak these
    patterns.

40
Reading Comprehension
  • Structured reading exercises produced by SRA.
  • When the foundation is mastered, most students
    get on grade level quickly. Some move 2 or 3
    grade levels per year in their reading
    comprehension.

41
American Sign Development/ Spontaneous Written
English
  • First situation
  • Students tell personal stories to instructor.
  • Instructor retells story modeling correct rules
    and grammar of ASL.
  • Students sign again implementing what they have
    learned.
  • Second situation
  • Students translate their signed stories into
    written English or dictate stories to teachers.
  • Stories are edited into correct English, and
    copied and illustrated by the students.
  • Kept as picture books for students to take home.

42
Bridges/LOCAN
  • Program that is developed on the basis that the
    brain can be developed at any age through
    appropriate pattern of exercises.
  • Taps into the recent research done on multiple
    intelligences.

43
Bridges Continued
  • When developing new skills the Bridges Program
    stresses the importance of following the order
    from figural (concrete objects) to symbolic
    (written digits) to semantic (application through
    words problems).

44
Language Objectified for Conceptual Attainment
and Narration (LOCAN)
  • An easy-to-learn, concrete language for
    expressing thoughts and ideas uses glyphs, or
    simple figures, to represent concepts. Each glyph
    represents a single concept and students can
    read the glyphs as a figural precursor to
    reading print.

45
Motto
46
How it is used
  • Students participate in lab 40 minutes twice a
    week, 20 minutes doing cognitive skills and 20
    minutes on physical exercises to develop focusing
    and integration skills.

47
Arrows Opposite
  • Maintain easy rhythm and prescribed posture
  • Smoothly scan from left to right and top to
    bottom without repeating or omitting symbols
  • Accurately discriminate shapes and symbols, then
    rotate them mentally
  • Maintain intense concentration for 30 shapes,
    approximately 45 seconds

48
Manipulative Visual Language (MVL)
  • A visual model of English in its basic forms.
  • Colored shapes are used to teach the parts of
    written English.
  • Teaches English syntax.

49
How is it used
  • Use two or three dimensional objects to show
    sentence structure.
  • Have a map/path that takes you through creating a
    sentence and the necessary parts of a sentence.
  • In reading, students use colored pencils to label
    the words in sentences.

50
Examples
  • Noun black equilateral triangle
  • Verb red circle
  • Pronoun purple triangle
  • Preposition green crescent
  • Adjective blue equilateral triangle

51
Reading Recovery with Deaf Students
  • Procedure to help develop the literacy of
    struggling learners with one-to-one skilled
    instruction 30 minutes every day.
  • Books are chosen with the childs syntactic and
    semantic knowledge in mind.
  • Provides teaching at the instructional level for
    each individual student.

52
How it is used
  • A systematic, organized, patterned program that
    is done daily.

53
Reading Recovery Lesson
  • Familiar reading
  • Running record of yesterdays new book
  • Letter identification
  • Making and breaking of words
  • Writing
  • Working with a cut-up story
  • Orientation and first reading of a new book

54
Teaching and Learning through Discourse
  • The Model
  • Focus on content and meaning of what a student is
    saying.
  • Provide feedback that will help a student be an
    active participant in the construction of
    knowledge.
  • Ensure that classroom dialogue engages the
    students in genuine problem solving.

55
Strategies for Implementing
  • Establish a common understanding of a question or
    topic.
  • Take the students contributions as evidence of
    their current level of understanding and expand
    on them.
  • Make explicit connections between student
    contributions and the topic at hand.

56
Implementing Strategies cont.
  • Use questions as prompts.
  • Rephrase student contributions.
  • Summarize and restate what has been said.

57
Research
  • All of these keys to English print require a lot
    more research. Most have not been researched in
    depth and much of the research has not been
    replicated. Some of the methods were very
    effective with a few students, but have never
    been tried and tested with a large population.

58
Resources
  • In Search of Keys to English Print by Jane K.
    Fernandes
  • Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary
    Enhancement Experiment in Preschool Literacy by
    Paula J. Schwanenflugel, Stacey
    Neauharth-Pritchett, Jamilia Blake, Claire
    Hamilton, and M. Adelaida Restrepo
  • Research and Theory Support Cued Speech by Carol
    LaSasso and Kelly Lamar Crain
  • Manipulative Visual Language A Tool to Help
    Crack the Code of English by Jimmy Challis Gore
    and Robert Gillies
  • Reading Recovery with Deaf Children by Susan
    King Fullerton, Nancy Brill, and Christine
    Carter

59
Resources
  • See that Sound! Visual Phonics Helps Deaf and
    Hard of Hearing Students Develop Reading
    Skills by Bettie Waddy-Smith and Vanessa
    Wilson
  • A Deaf Child Teaches a Community About
    Fingerspelling by Mary Ellen Carew
  • Phonemic Awareness through Immersion in Cued
    American English by Kitri Larson Kyllo
  • Bridges in Arizona Building Minds Ready for
    Reading by Kim Atwill, Sara Briggs, and Maureen
    Gallucci
  • With Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students A Model
    for Effective Communicative Practice by David
    Stewart, Connie Mayer, and C. Tane Akamatsu

60
Resources
  • When Fingerspelling Replaced Signs Remembering
    an Encounter with Visible English by MJ
    Bienvenu
  • Fingerspelling Aint Easy (But I use It Every
    Day) by David R. Schleper
  • Cued Speech and American Sign Language Hand in
    Hand by Harry Wood
  • Bridges in Illinois A New Program Connects
    Students to Learning by Joen M. Forney and
    Andrea Simeone

61
Resources
  • My Experience Communicating via Cued Speech by
    Ami Tsuji-Jones
  • Learning How to Read and Bypassing Sound by Sam
    Supalla and Laura Blackburn
  • Incorporating Phonics into an American Sign
    Language and English Program A Conversation by
    Sara Schley and Gary Wellbrock
  • Literacy Strategies for the Classroom Putting
    Bi-Bi Theory into Practice by Connie (Ruth) S.
    Schimmel and Sandra G. Edwards
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