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Michel Foucault

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The concept of the design is to allow an observer to observe (-opticon) all (pan ... being observed or not, thus conveying a 'sentiment of an invisible omniscience' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Michel Foucault


1
Michel Foucault
  • The Means of Correct Training
  • From Discipline and Punish The Birth of the
    Prison (1975)

2
Discipline makes individuals...
  • ...by means of
  • Hierarchical observation (surveillance)
  • Normalizing judgment
  • Examination

3
1. Hierarchical observation
Jeremy Benthams blueprint for the Panopticon
prison (1791)
4
Panopticon
The concept of the design is to allow an observer
to observe (-opticon) all (pan-) prisoners
without the prisoners being able to tell if they
are being observed or not, thus conveying a
"sentiment of an invisible omniscience".
5
(No Transcript)
6
2. Normalizing judgment
  • At the heart of all disciplinary systems
    functions a small penal mechanism (193).
  • It punishes non-conformity, that which does not
    measure up to the rule, that departs from it
    (194).

7
3. Examination
  • The examination combines hierarchical observation
    and normalizing judgment in one procedure.

8
Tests and exams measure...
  • School performance
  • Specific knowledge or skills (driving
    professional certification, etc.)
  • Intelligence (I.Q., or Intelligence Quotient)
  • Personality characteristics (Minnesota
    Multiphasic Personality Test)
  • Interests (academic, professional, etc.)

9
Exam results mapped on a normal distribution curve
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