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Persuasion

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Persuasion is ubiquitous ... Persuasion. Current theories posit two ... Small attack will defend against later persuasion attempts. Typical for military ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Persuasion


1
Persuasion
  • June 18th

2
Todays Agenda
  • Questions from Last time?
  • Persuasion
  • Dual-Process Models
  • Source
  • Message
  • Receiver
  • Resistance
  • Fear appeals

3
Persuasion
  • Communication intended to induce belief or
    action
  • persuasion. (n.d.). WordNet 3.0. Retrieved June
    13, 2007, from Dictionary.com website
    http//dictionary.reference.com/browse/persuasion
  • Persuasion is ubiquitous
  • Discussion
  • Lectures
  • Speeches
  • Advertisements

4
Persuasion
  • Current theories posit two processes in
    perception
  • Elaboration-Likelihood
  • Heuristic-Systematic
  • System 1
  • Peripheral or Heuristic
  • the person primarily attends to superficial
    aspects of the message
  • System 2
  • Central or Systematic
  • the person thinks carefully and deliberately
    about the content of the message

5
The Yale School
  • Hovland, Janis, Kelley
  • Influential framework for studying persuasion
  • WHO
  • Says WHAT
  • To WHOM
  • to what EFFECT (on the targets attitude)
  • Field was busy, but there were some inconsistent
    findings

6
Persuasion Theories in a nutshell
7
Persuasion Situation
Who
says
What
to
Whom
to what
Effect?
John T. Cacioppo
Thomas Gilovich
The Elaboration Likelihood Model is better that
anything Bob Zajonc ever did
Message
Source
Target
8
ELM and the Receiver
  • Elaboration
  • The extent to which a person thinks about the
    arguments in the message
  • Sometimes we elaborate, sometimes we do not
  • Necessary conditions
  • Motivation
  • Whether the message is personally relevant
  • Ability
  • Distraction, etc.

9
Representative research on ELM
  • Participants read an essay with 8 arguments in
    favor of a comp exam
  • Strong or weak
  • Next year or ten years
  • High school class or Carnegie Commission

10
Results
11
Source Characteristics
  • Who delivers the messages can important
  • Attractiveness
  • Credibility
  • Sleeper effect
  • When a message from an unreliable source
    initially exerts little influence but later
    causes attitudes to shift
  • Oppenheimer vs. Pravda

12
Message Characteristics
  • Is the message clear?
  • Are the conclusions of the argument implicit or
    explicit?
  • Does it refute the other position?
  • Is the message in the sources self-interest?
  • Is the information vivid?
  • Identifiable victim effect
  • This is Johnny…

13
Receiver Characteristics
  • Characteristics of the person who receives the
    message, such as sage, mood, and motivation to
    attend to the message
  • Need for cognition
  • Mood
  • Age

14
Resistance to Persuasion
  • Attentional Biases
  • Selective attention
  • Selective evaluation

15
Resistance to Persuasion
  • Previous Commitments
  • Public statements make attitudes more stable
  • Thought polarization hypothesis
  • Extended thought produces more extreme,
    entrenched attitudes
  • Similar to group persuasive arguments

16
Resistance to Persuasion
  • Knowledge about topic
  • Counterargument
  • Attitude inoculation
  • Small attack will defend against later persuasion
    attempts
  • Typical for military

17
Evidence for Innoculation
18
Fear Appeals
  • Often PSAs tell us to do something (or not)
  • Often they use fear appeals (scare tactics)
  • Do they work?

19
Questions?
  • Next time Attitudes Behavior consistent or
    inconsistent?
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