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THE DARFUR CONFLICT

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Inequity between the center of the country (regions along ... Regional geopolitics. BACKGROUND... Early 15th century: establishment of a sultanate which gave ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE DARFUR CONFLICT


1
THE DARFUR CONFLICT
  • A HUMANITARIAN DISASTER

2
KEY FIGURES
  • 400,000 people died
  • 2 million have been driven from their homes

3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Geography
  • Background
  • Chronology of facts
  • International response
  • Conclusion

4
GEOGRAPHY
  • 3 tribes
  • The Fur
  • The Masalit
  • The Zaghawa

5
BACKGROUND
  • Inequity between the center of the country
    (regions along the Nile) and the rest of the
    country such as Darfur
  • Environmental disaster
  • Political opportunism
  • Regional geopolitics

6
BACKGROUND
  • Early 15th century establishment of a sultanate
    which gave Islam the status of state religion
  • Conquest by the Turco-Egyptian force expanding
    along the Nile
  • defeated by another self-proclaimed state
    called
  • Mahdi
  • Mahdist state collapsed under the onslaught of
    the British force creation of a British-Egyptian
    condominium
  • Autonomy of Darfur until 1916 incorporation to
    Sudan
  • Nile valley received the bulk of British
    investment
  • Arab-African dichotomy

7
BACKGROUND
  • Interactions between Sudan, Lybia and Chad
    Establishment of Darfur as a rear base (decided
    by Sudanese preseident)
  • 1983-84 famine
  • Civil war

8
BACKGROUND
  • In 2003
  • Justice Equality Movement (JEM) associated with
    the Fur, Masalit and a clan of Zaghawa
  • Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) associated with
    another clan of Zaghawa
  • Government
  • Janjaweed Militia
  • (the leader is the former officer of the Sudanese
    army)

Sudanese armies bombed the villages of Darfur
9
CHRONOLOGY OF FACTS
  • April 2004 ceasefire declared between the
    Sudanese government and JEM and SLM
  • Kofi ANAN  the risk of genocide is
    frighteningly real in Darfur
  • May 2006 agreement signed by the Sudanese
    governement and the faction of the SLA (Sudan
    Liberation Armythe military branch of the SLM)
    but rejected by the JEM and a rival faction of
    the SLA.

10
CHRONOLOGY OF FACTS
  • July-August 2006 fighting started again Kofi
    Anan suggested to bring a force of 17,000
    international peacekeepers to replace the African
    Union force of 7,000
  • Sudan opposed
  • August 24th UNSC meeting with its plan of
    sending 10,000 Sudanese soldiers instead ot the
    proposed 20,000 peacekeeping force but Sudan
    refused to attend this meeting

11
CHRONOLOGY OF FACTS
  • August 31st UNSC resolution to send a new
    peacekeeping force of 20,000
  • strong opposition of Sudan
  • September 5th Sudan wants the AU to leave the
    region. The AU mandates expires on September 30th
    but might remain passed the deadline
  • October-November deterioration of the situation
    which extend to Chad and the Central African
    Republic. Vote for the extension of the UN
    mission in Sudan until April 30th 2007.

12
INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE
  • Beginning with reports of Amnesty International
    and the International Crisis Group
  • Medias cover the events since 2004
  • September 2004 the UNSC calls for a Commission
    of Inquiry (Resolution 1564)
  •  genocidal intent appears to be missing 
  • March 2005 UNSC refers to the International
    Criminal Court
  • In 2006 criticism of the international response,
    great powers have different interests in Sudan.
  • Oil-bearing interests of the USA, Great Britain,
    China

13
CONCLUSION
  • The interests of great powers seems to be an
    obstacle
  • The right of interference is questionned
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