Learning to Love the Research Paper Or at least learning to do it well - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Learning to Love the Research Paper Or at least learning to do it well PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: b522-NWI4Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Learning to Love the Research Paper Or at least learning to do it well

Description:

... of the home, the street, the bar, the club, unless we are willing to set ... New York: Penguin, 1990. Spanoudis, Steve. Poet's Corner. 2 Feb. 1998. 4 Feb. 1998 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:553
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 86
Provided by: MWC1
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Learning to Love the Research Paper Or at least learning to do it well


1
Learning to Lovethe Research PaperOr at least
learning to do it well!
  • MLA and APA Made Easy
  • The Academic Support Center
  • Mount Wachusett Community College

2
Table of Contents
  • 1. Getting Started
  • 2. The Importance of a First Draft
  • 3. Doing Research
  • 4. Bringing Research Into Your Paper
  • Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • 5. MLA-Style Documentation
  • 6. APA-Style Documentation
  • 7. Proofreading Strategies

3
Getting Started
  • Finding a Topic
  • Developing an Effective
  • Research Question

4
Finding a Topic
  • Write about what you know.
  • Whenever possible, seek out a research topic that
    interests you and that you care about.
  • Aim to build on knowledge that you already have.
  • If the topic is assigned, try to develop an angle
    that will interest you, then run the idea by your
    instructor.

5
  • Why should you write about what you know?
  • Starting with your own views and opinions will
    motivate you.
  • Writing about a topic familiar to you will help
    you to ask the right questions.
  • If you care about the topic, you will care about
    your paper.

6
Developing an Effective Research Question
  • The best research papers begin with a question
    because
  • Questions help you to find direction.
  • Questions help you to narrow your scope.
  • Be careful of questions that are too broad.
  • Make sure that your question is relevant to the
    length of your paper.
  • Most students use research questions that are not
    focused enough.

7
  • Too Broad
  • ---- What is Attention Deficit Disorder?
  • More Focused
  • ---- Is diet an effective treatment for
    Attention Deficit Disorder?

8
The Importance of a First Draft
  • Techniques to Help You Start Writing
  • Brainstorming
  • Freewriting
  • Clustering
  • Using Drafts

9
Brainstorming
  • Before you begin doing any research, take some
    time to brainstorm.
  • When you brainstorm, list everything that comes
    to mind about your topic, all of your thoughts
    and ideas, in the order in which they occur to
    you.
  • Let your mind free associate and make
    connections.
  • Write down everythingeven those things which
    appear silly and unimportant at first.

10
Freewriting
  • Freewriting is nonstop writing. Set aside ten or
    fifteen minutes, and write whatever comes to you
    without thinking of word choice, spelling,
    organization, etc.
  • Dont stop. Dont get in your own wayyou will
    be surprised what gets down on paper.
  • Freewriting is similar to brainstorming, in that
    you write what comes to you in the order it comes
    to you. However, rather than a list of your
    ideas, you develop your thoughts by having more
    of a conversation with yourself.

11
Clustering
  • While brainstorming and freewriting are ways to
    get information down on paper, clustering allows
    you to begin to see relationships among ideas.
  • To cluster, put the main idea in the center of
    the page, circle it, and list other sub-topics
    around it, connecting ideas that belong together
    with lines.
  • The result looks a lot like a spiders web and
    will do wonders when you being to organize your
    paper.

12
Using Drafts
  • Most writers cannot sit down and, in one setting,
    produce quality work. Most writers write in
    steps or stages.
  • The first step is a rough draft. It is the get
    down draftwhere you get down your ideas onto
    paper. You do not need to worry yet about
    spelling, grammar, punctuation, etc.
  • This first draft is also called the discovery or
    exploratory draft. Why? Because it is where you
    explore your topic and discover what you want to
    say about it.

13
  • But, I hear you say to yourself
  • I dont know anything about my topicwhat can I
    write about before I do research?
  • Think about this
  • A good research paper comes from wanting to know
    more about something.
  • A good research paper contains facts and quotes
    and statisticsyes, but these have been
    integrated with and filtered through the writers
    own ideas and experiences.
  • A good research paper is not a fact-finding
    mission it is a synthesis of what you already
    know and what you learn in the process of your
    research.
  • Most instructors assign topics that ask you to
    examine a topic more deeply than a fifteen week
    course can allow. Use class notes, lectures,
    and textbooks as starting points for your early
    drafts.

14
  • Brainstorming, Freewriting, Clustering, and Using
    Drafts
  • These strategies help you to explore your topic
    before you begin researching it.
  • They give you the opportunity to get your
    thoughts down on paper without worrying about
    organization, grammar, spelling, etc. (There
    will be plenty of time to worry about these
    things when you revise your later drafts.)
  • You can use all of these techniques or only one
    of them.

15
  • Whatever the technique you use, the goal is to
    try to get all of your thoughts down on paper
  • what you already know about your topic
  • what you want to know more about
  • why youve chosen the topic
  • questions you have
  • how you plan to answer those questions
  • You will be surprised how helpful this first
    draft will be when you start to gather your
    research.

16
Doing Research
  • For this presentation, we do not have time to
    discuss how to search for information on your
    topic.
  • There is, however, one piece of advice that is
    worth gold
  • GO TO THE LIBRARY WHEN YOU ARE WRITING
  • A RESEARCH PAPER!

17
  • Go to the colleges library, go to your local
    public library, go to any library.
  • Librarians are great people who are there to help
    you.
  • They can show you how to
  • search for books on your topics
  • search for journal and magazine articles
  • use reference materials
  • access electronic data bases, such as EbscoHost
    and Infotrac, using key word searches
  • evaluate web sites.

18
  • Speaking of web sites Even if you have Internet
    access on your home computer, you should still
    visit a library. Lets play True or False.
  • The Internet has been called an information
    highway. TRUE.
  • It is free.
  • It is vast.
  • It is democratic.
  • It is accessible 24 hours a day.
  • Anyone can post anything.
  • You can believe everything you read on the
    Internet . FALSE.

19
  • The information highway known as the Internet has
    potholes.
  • Anyone can post anything on the Internet.
  • There are no editors or experts reviewing the
    material.
  • Yes, you can access legitimate sites like the
    American Cancer Society or university research
    centers, but you can also access pornography,
    incorrect or misleading information, biased
    opinions, and prejudiced information.
  • While the Internet may provide you with some good
    information, your paper will be stronger for
    having searched many different kinds of sources.

20
Bringing Research Into Your Paper
  • Points to Remember
  • What Are Sources?
  • What Are Citations?
  • Quoting
  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarizing
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

21
Points to Remember (About Writing a Research
Paper)
  • Writing a research paper is like writing any
    other academic paper, with the difference that
    you are bringing into your essay the words,
    ideas, and theories of others, often experts in
    that field of study.
  • In the process of writing your research paper,
    you will learn a new set of vocabulary words and
    concepts.
  • What follows is a list of these words/concepts
    and their definitions. Becoming familiar with
    them will help you in the research process.

22
What Are Sources?
  • A source is what you turn to for information
    about your topic.
  • A source can include any of the following
  • a book
  • a magazine or newspaper article
  • a scholarly journal article
  • a film, television show, or radio program
  • a web site
  • a personal interview
  • They generally fall under print sources,
    non-print sources, and electronic sources.

23
Print Sources
  • A print source can be a periodical or a
    non-periodical.
  • A periodical is a publication that is issued
    periodically, such as any of the following
  • a newspaper (The Boston Globe)
  • a magazine (Newsweek)
  • a journal (Journal of Naturopathic Medicine).
  • A non-periodical most often refers to a book.

24
Non-Print Sources
  • A non-print source can include, but is not
    limited to, any of the following
  • a television or radio program
  • a film
  • a personal interview
  • a class lecture
  • a recording

25
Electronic Sources
  • An electronic source can refer to a source found
    on the Internet, such as a personal or
    professional web site.
  • There are some electronic sources that originally
    appeared in print form. These include articles
    found on databases such as EbscoHost and
    Infotrac and articles in newspapers and magazines
    that publish on the web and in print.

26
What is a Citation?
  • When you bring research (quotations, paraphrases,
    facts, statistics, etc.) into your paper, you
    must give credit to the source and its
    author(s).
  • Giving credit to a source is also called citing a
    source.
  • You do this with in-text or parenthetical
    citations. They are called parenthetical
    citations because the bibliographic information
    goes inside parentheses.

27
What to Cite
  • Quotations Someone elses exact words, enclosed
    in quotation marks.
  • The ideas, opinions, and theories of someone
    elseeven if you restate them in your own words
    in a paraphrase or summary.
  • Facts and statisticsunless they are common
    knowledge and are accessible in many sources.

28
  • Common Knowledge is information that can be found
    in many sources and that no one can claim owning.
    It is information that belongs to everyone.
    Often, it is the stuff of encyclopedias.
    Examples
  • 6 million Jews perished in the Holocaust.
  • The Empire State Building is 1,454 feet tall.
  • The Civil War ended in 1865.
  • You may not have known this before you started
    your research, but it is still common knowledge.
    Often, you will encounter knowledge that is
    common in your field of study, even if the
    general population may not know it.

29
Quoting
  • When you quote, you borrow an authors exact
    words.
  • Use a quotation when
  • the wording is so memorable or expresses a point
    so well that you cannot improve or shorten it
    without weakening it
  • when the author is a respected authority whose
    opinion supports your own ideas
  • when an author challenges or disagrees profoundly
    with others in the field.

30
Paraphrasing
  • Paraphrasing is putting material (including major
    and minor points) into your own words and
    sentence structure.
  • You can paraphrase a theory, an idea, the results
    of a study, or a passage in an original source,
    as long as you use your own words to describe it.
  • A paraphrase is often the same length as the
    original, but it is in your own words.

31
Example of a Paraphrase
  • Original Text (from James C. Stalker, Official
    English or English Only)
  • We cannot legislate the language of the home,
    the street, the bar, the club, unless we are
    willing to set up a cadre of language police who
    will ticket and arrest us if we speak something
    other than English (21).
  • Paraphrase
  • Stalker points out that in a democracy like the
    United States, it is not feasible to have laws
    against the use of a language and it certainly
    would not be possible to make police enforce such
    laws in homes and public places (21).
  • Example taken from Pocket Keys for Writers
  • by Ann Raimes

32
Summarizing
  • Summaries are often less detailed than
    paraphrases.
  • In a summary, you provide your reader with the
    gist of the most important sources you find in
    your own words.
  • Summaries give readers basic information and are
    always in your own words.
  • When you include a summary in your paper,
    introduce the authors name and/or the work.

33
What is Plagiarism?
  • It is fine to bring the words and ideas of other
    writers into your paper.
  • However, when you do so, you must acknowledge
    your debt to the writers of these sources.
  • If not, you are guilty of plagiarism, a serious
    academic offense.

34
The Most Egregious Form
  • The most blatant and egregious form of plagiarism
    is putting your name as the author of a paper you
    did not write.
  • The Internet has certainly made it easier for
    students to find papers on any number of topics.

  • However, professors also know how to use the
    Internet and are quite adept at searching the
    same sites that students use.

35
The Subtle Forms
  • Other types of plagiarism are more subtle and
    include any of the following
  • failure to cite quotations and borrowed ideas
  • failure to enclose borrowed language in quotation
    marks
  • failure to put summaries and paraphrases into
    your own words.
  • Most students who plagiarize are simply unaware
    of the proper way to document sources in academic
    writing.

36
Avoiding Plagiarism
  • In order to avoid plagiarism, be sure that you
    not only give credit where credit is due, but
    that you follow the appropriate formats, often
    either MLA (Modern Languages Association) or APA
    (American Psychological Association) styles of
    documentation.
  • There are also several good publications
    available with which students should be familiar.
    They will be mentioned later in this
    presentation.

37
MLA Style Documentation
  • What is MLA?
  • How To Integrate Research Into the Body of Your
    Paper
  • How to Create a Works Cited Page

38
What is MLA?
  • If you are writing a research paper in English,
    foreign languages, or other humanities classes,
    use MLA-style documentation.
  • MLA stands for the Modern Language Association.
  • The MLA publishes the MLA Handbook for Writing
    Research Papers. This book contains all of the
    rules that govern MLA-style documentation.

39
  • Most good English handbooks also include a
    section on writing research papers. An English
    handbook is a valuable resource for any college
    student. The Academic Support Center has copies
    for students to borrow. Here are a few good
    ones
  • The Everyday Writer, Lunsford and Connors
  • Keys for Writers, Ann Raimes
  • The Little Brown Essential Handbook for Writers,
    Jane E. Aaron
  • Rules for Writers, Diane Hacker
  • Rules of Thumb, Silverman, Hughes, and Weinbroer

40
Points to Remember (About MLA-Style
Documentation)
  • All written material (the body of your paper and
    the Works Cited page) is double-spaced.
  • MLA-style has two main elements
  • In-text Citations
  • Works Cited Page

41
  • Use in-text citations in the body of your paper
    when you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or use
    other borrowed material. Citations should be as
    concise as possible, while still giving readers
    enough information to find the full bibliographic
    information on the Works Cited page.
  • The Works Cited page is a separate page and
    carries the heading Works Cited (or Work
    Cited if you are using only one source). This
    is where you list all of your sources, giving the
    reader full bibliographic information.

42
  • On the Works Cited page, sources are always
    listed alphabetically by the authors last name.

  • If your source has no author, go by the first
    word of the title to alphabetize.
  • When listing sources, indent every line after the
    first line five spaces or one-half inch.
  • Underline book titles and web sites. 
  • Use quotation marks around articles, stories,
    poems, and essays.

43
Integrating Research
  • There are only two pieces of information that
    need to go inside the parentheses of an in-text
    citation
  • the authors last name
  • the page number
  • This information refers readers to the full
    bibliographic information on the Works Cited
    page.

44
  • An in-text citation looks like this
  • (Smith 165)
  • If there are two authors, give both last names
  • (Jones and Nichols 18)
  • If there is no author, give the first word of the
    title
  • (Recent 23)
  • If there is no page number, give the paragraph
    number
  • (McKnight par. 10)

45
Examples
  • Many young women, from all races and classes,
    have taken on the idea of the American Dream,
    however difficult it might be for them to achieve
    it (Sidel 19-20).
  • The adult mountain lion population in California
    is now estimated at four to six thousand (Reyes
    and Messina B1).

46
More Examples
  • In California, fish and game officials estimate
    that since 1972 lion numbers have increased from
    2,400 to at least 6,000 (Lion A21).
  • An article that appeared in Research Quarterly
    states that, Their recovery process parallels
    the steps taken by those recovering from other
    afflictions (Russo par. 3).

47
Signal Phrases
  • Signal phrases help you to transition from your
    words and ideas to the words and ideas of others.

  • With practice, you will learn how to integrate
    research smoothly into your paper.
  • In most cases, it is preferable to include the
    authors name in a signal phrase that precedes
    the quote, fact, statistic, etc. Because the
    author is already named, you need only list the
    page or paragraph number in the parentheses.

48
Examples
  • The sociologist Ruth Sidels interviews with
    young woman provide examples of what Sidel sees
    as the impossible dream (19).
  • Michelle Russos article from Research Quarterly
    states that Their recovery process parallels the
    steps taken by those recovering from other
    afflictions (par. 3).

49
  • The following signal phrases are good examples of
    ways you can introduce the findings of your
    research in your paper
  • According to
  • In the words of
  • In a recent study by
  • Current research proves that

50
  • Avoid overusing the verb said in your paper.
    Here is a list of strong, active verbs that you
    can use in your signal phrases.
  • You can write that someone
  • acknowledges, adds, admits, or agrees
  • argues, asserts, claims, or comments
  • confirms, believes, declares, or implies
  • insists, notes, observes, or points out,
  • reports, states, theorizes, or writes

51
  • Often in your research you will encounter quotes,
    facts, statistics, etc. that are written by
    someone other than the author of the piece you
    are reading. Use the following format
  • We generate words unconsciously, without thinking
    about them they appear, as James Britton says,
    at the point of utterance (qtd. in Smith 108).
  • We only used seven signs in his presence, says
    Fouts. All of his signs were learned from the
    other chimps at the laboratory (qtd. in Toner).
  • NOTE On the Works Cited page give the
    bibliographic information for the source you
    read, not the source quoted fromsince you
    havent read that.

52
Creating a Works Cited Page
  • A Works Cited page contains the full
    bibliographic information to which you have been
    referring in the body of your paper.
  • The Work Cited page is
  • the last page of your paper
  • double-spaced
  • alphabetized

53
  • There are many different ways to cite sources on
    your Works Cited page, depending on whether
    your source is a book, an article, a web page,
    etc.
  • You are not expected to memorize each way you
    are expected to know how to find the format you
    need for your particular source.
  • Once you find the format, follow it to the
    letter. Do not add information not in the
    example.
  • The following is an example of a Works Cited
    page. (On the left is the name of the kind of
    source this is only to help you in the
    presentation and does not appear on your Works
    Cited page.)

54
  • Works Cited
  •  
  • Allende, Isabel. An Act of Vengeance. Trans.
    E.D. Carter, Jr.
  • Literature and Its Writers. Eds. Ann Charters
    and Samuel
  • Charters. Boston Bedford/St. Martins, 2001.
    66-71.
  • Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies.
    Ed. Laura E. Hunt
  • and William Barek. May 1998. U of Toronto. 11
    May 1999
  • .
  • The Decade of the Spy. Newsweek 7 Mar. 1994
    26-27.
  • Hallin, Daniel C. Sound Bite News Television
    Coverage of Elections,
  • 1968-1988. Journal of Communication 49.2
    (1992) 5-24.

work from an anthology with a translator
on-line professional site
anon. article in a magazine
article in a journal that pages issues separatel
y
book two authors
55
  • Works Cited
  • Navarro, Mireya. Bricks, Mortar, and Coalition
    Building. New
  • York Times 13 July 2001 A1.
  • Russo, Michelle Cash. Recovering from
    Bibliographic Instruction
  • Blahs. RQ Research Quarterly 32 (1992)
    178-83. Infotrac
  • Magazine Index Plus. CD-Rom. Information
    Access. Dec.
  • 1993.
  • Sidel, Ruth. On Her Own Growing Up in the
    Shadow of the
  • American Dream. New York Penguin, 1990.
  • Spanoudis, Steve. Poets Corner. 2 Feb. 1998. 4
    Feb. 1998

article in a newspaper
journal article with continuous pagination (fr
om
a database)
book one author
on-line professional site with author
interview
56
  • While this presentation attempts to give a brief
    introduction to MLA, it cannot cover all aspects
    of it.
  • If you still have questions, it is best to
    consult the MLA Handbook for Writers, which is
    available in the Academic Support Center, or any
    of the English handbooks mentioned in this
    presentation.
  • You can also visit MLAs web site at
    http//www.mla.org/. Click on MLA-Style.

57
APA-Style Documentation
  • What is APA?
  • How To Integrate Research Into the Body of Your
    Paper
  • How to Create a References Page

58
What is APA?
  • If you are writing a paper for the sciences or
    social sciences, follow APA-style documentation.
  • APA stands for the American Psychological
    Association. This organization publishes the The
    Publication Manual of the American Psychological
    Association, which offers complete guidelines for
    manuscript style and citation in APA.
  • The MWCC library and the Academic Support Center
    have copies of this manual.

59
  • Many of the English handbooks mentioned earlier
    in this presentation also carry information about
    APA.
  • This presentation condenses the most important
    elements of APA and illustrates how to document
    commonly used sources.
  • If you still have questions after this
    presentation, consult the APA manual or check
    out their web site at http//www.apastyle.org/.

60
Points to Remember (About APA-Style
Documentation)
  • All written material (the body of your paper and
    the list of references) is double-spaced.
  • APA-style requires parenthetical or in-text
    citations in the body of your paper when you
    quote, paraphrase, summarize, or use other
    borrowed material.
  • These parenthetical citations correspond to the
    full bibliographic entries on the reference page
    at the end of your paper.

61
  • The reference page is a separate page and carries
    the heading References. This is where you list
    your sources, alphabetically.
  • When listing sources, indent every line after the
    first line five spaces or one-half inch, as shown
    in the upcoming examples.
  • Capitalize only the first word of an article
    title and of the subtitle (if any) and all proper
    names.
  • On the references page, do not underline the
    title of an article or place quotation marks
    around it.

62
  • Capitalize significant words in the title of a
    journal. 
  • Underline or italicize journal titles and volume
    numbers.
  • Capitalize only the first significant word and
    only proper names within book titles.
  • Capitalize the first significant word of the
    subtitle (if any) of a book.
  • Underline book titles.

63
Integrating Research
  • With APA, there are generally two pieces of
    information that need to go inside the
    parentheses of an in-text citation
  • the authors last name
  • the year the article, book, research, etc. was
    published
  • If giving a direct quote, include also the page
    number.
  • The information in the parentheses refers readers
    to the full bibliographic information on the
    References page.

64
  • Why give the year of publication in the
    parenthetical citations for APA?
  • In the sciences and social sciences, current
    research is valued highly therefore, the year
    that the research was conducted is important to
    note in the body of your paper.
  • In the humanities, which follows MLA-style
    documentation, current research is certainly
    valued however, criticism of a piece of
    literature, for example an essay by T.S. Eliot on
    Hamlet (written nearly a century ago), can still
    be of value to a researcher.

65
  • A basic in-text citation of a direct quotation
    looks like this
  • (Davis, 1978, p. 26)
  • If there is no page number, give the paragraph
    number
  • (McKnight, 2000, para. 10)
  • For a paraphrase or summary, follow this (note
    that there is no page number given)
  • (Davis, 1978)
  • If there are two authors when paraphrasing, give
    both last names
  • (Jones Ellis, 1996)

66
  • If there are three to five authors, list all
    authors
  • (Levy, Bertrand, Muller, Viking, Majors, 1997)
  • Note For the first reference to a study with
    more more than two authors, list all authors.
    For all subsequent references, include only the
    surname of the first author, followed by et
    al.
  • (Levy, et al., 1997)
  • If there is no author, give the first word of the
    title
  • (Strange Encounter, 1997)

67
Examples
  • If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling
    for linguists, it was also startling news for
    animal behaviorists (Davis, 1978, p. 26).
  • As Davis (1978) reported, If the existence of a
    signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was
    also startling news for animal behaviorists (p.
    26).
  • According to Davis (1978), when they learned of
    an apes ability to use sign language, both
    linguists and animal behaviorists were taken by
    surprise.

68
Important to Note
  • In the first example on the previous page, the
    authors name was included in the parentheses
    because it was not mentioned when introducing the
    quotation.
  • In the second example, the author was mentioned
    when introducing the quotation therefore, only
    the page number needed to be given in the
    parentheses.
  • The third example was a paraphrase of the
    original quotation. (No page number was needed
    in the parentheses.)

69
More Examples
  • Patterson and Linden (1981) agreed that the
    gorilla Koko acquired language more slowly than a
    normal speaking child.
  • Researchers found a marked improvement in the
    computer skills of students who took part in the
    program (Levy, Bertrand, Muller, Viking,
    Majors, 1997).
  • Several studies provide support for the idea that
    spanking is not an effective method of
    disciplining preschool aged children (Kames,
    1983 Miller, 1977 Smith, 1993 Tower, 1988).

70
Signal Phrases
  • As with MLA-style documentation, it is helpful to
    the reader if you introduce a quotation or other
    piece of research with a signal phrase.
  • Signal phrases help you to transition from your
    words and ideas to the words and ideas of others.

  • The same signal phrases and active verbs
    mentioned earlier in this presentation work well
    for both MLA and APA styles.

71
  • Often in your research you will encounter the
    quotes, facts, statistics, etc. of someone other
    than the author of the piece you read. Give the
    name of the author(s) of the work when you
    introduce the information, and give the secondary
    source in the parenthetical citation
  • Seidenberg and McClellands study (as cited in
    Coltheart, Curtis, Haller, 1993) indicates
    that
  • NOTE On the References page, you will include
    the bibliographic information of the source you
    read, not the original sourcesince you didnt
    read the original.

72
Creating a References Page
  • A References page contains the full
    bibliographic information to which you have been
    referring in the body of your paper.
  • The References page is
  • the last page of your paper
  • double-spaced
  • alphabetized

73
  • There are many different ways to cite sources on
    your References page, depending on whether your
    source is a book, an article, a web page, etc.
  • You are not expected to memorize each way you
    are expected to know how to find the format you
    need for your particular sources.
  • Once you find the format, follow it to the
    letter. Do not add information not in the
    example.
  • The following is an example of a References
    page. (On the left is the name of the kind of
    source this is only to help you in the
    presentation and does not appear on your
    References page.)

74
  • Reference
  • Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical
    eyewitness. American
  • Psychologist, 48, 674-576.  
  • Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H.,
    Pulakos, E. D., White, L.
  • A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience
    in supervisor
  • performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78,
    443-449.
  • Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES
    database.
  • Fox, R. W., Lears, T. J. J. (Eds.). (1993).
    The power of culture
  • Critical essays in American history. Chicago
    University of
  • Chicago Press.  

journal article one author
journal article five authors from a database
book with editors
online document private organization no date
75
  • References
  • National Head Start Association. (1990). Head
    Start The nation's
  • pride, a nation's challenge. Report of the
    Silver Ribbon Panel.
  • Alexandria, VA Author.  
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (1990).
    Clinical training in
  • serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No.
    ADM 90-1679).
  • Washington, DC U.S. Government Printing
    Office.
  • New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death
    from heart failure.
  • (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.  

  • Odom, S. L., McEvoy, M. A.  (1990). 
    Mainstreaming at the

corporate author
report from govt printing office
daily news- paper article, no author
journal article two authors
76
  • References
  • Posner, M.I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the
    mind. Science, 262,
  • 673-674.
  • Shaller, G.B. (1993). The last panda. Chicago
    University
  • of Chicago Press.
  • Sleek, S. (1996, January). Psychologists build
    a culture if
  • peace. APA Monitor, pp. 1, 33 Newspaper,
    selected
  • stories on line. Retrieved January 25, 1996,
    from the
  • World Wide Web http//www.apa.org/monitor/peace
    .html
  • The Times Atlas of the World (9th ed). (1992).
    New York

magazine article
book, one author
online newspaper article
unknown author, book
77
Proofreading Strategies
  • How to Make Your Paper Perfect (or at least your
    best work)
  • Time
  • Patience
  • Will
  • Time
  • Patience
  • Will
  • Time
  • Patience
  • Will

78
Time
  • Proofreading takes time.
  • There is no way around it. Once you have begun
    to finalize your paper, you need to give yourself
    ample time to read it over (and over) again.
  • Proofreading is another kind of writing. It is
    not as creative, perhaps, as brainstorming or
    developing your ideas, but it is still a part of
    the writing process.
  • Reading your paper one time through is not
    adequate proofreading.
  • Here are some tips.

79
  • Dont wait until the night before a paper is due
    to proofread it you wont be allowing yourself
    enough time to correct it.
  • Always correct a hard (paper) copy of your essay
    you will catch things on paper that you cant on
    screen.
  • Read through your papernot for meaning but for
    clarity and presentation.
  • Youve already developed meaning in earlier
    draftsproofreading is about making sure that
    your meaning is clear.

80
  • Decide on the areas that you should pay attention
    to. For instance
  • Punctuation
  • Spelling
  • In-text citations
  • For each of these areas, read through your paper
    at least once, paying attention to only one area
    at a time.

81
  • Go back to the computer after several readings
    and make corrections on the screen.
  • Print out another clean copy.
  • Ask a friend, parent, or tutor, to be a second
    set of eyes.
  • This is not cheating it is common sense.
  • Even great writers get help.

82
  • Read the paper backwards, sentence by sentence.
  • Sounds crazy?
  • It works.
  • Out of context, sentences with problems stand out
    in ways they dont when you are reading along for
    meaning.

83
Patience
  • Does this method sound like a lot of work?
  • It is.
  • Have patience with yourself. The more you write
    the better writer you will become. You will make
    less mistakes and get better at catching the
    inevitable ones.
  • Hey, were human we all make mistakes
    occasionally. However, skillful proofreading
    eliminates many of the most common mistakes.

84
Will
  • Writing (even a research paper) is a craft.
  • Mastering the craft requires practice and hard
    work.
  • Most of the mistakes that students make are made
    out of carelessness. Once the mistake is pointed
    out, they know hot to fix it and why its wrong.
  • Those students who take the time are able to
    produce polished final drafts that reflect
    intelligence, thoughtfulness, care, and hard
    workqualities professors and future employers
    value.

85
Confucius says
  • I hear, and I forget.
  • I see, and I remember.
  • I do, and I understand.
  • The more you writethe more research papers you
    writethe easier writing will be and the better
    writer you will become.
  • This is the truth!
  • Good luck!
About PowerShow.com