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Introduction to Networking Technologies

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... of broadcast, multicast and unicast traffic, they can help free up bandwidth ... single network for all traffic types, including voice, data, graphics, and video ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Networking Technologies


1
Introduction to Networking Technologies
DRAFT
  • Stefan Karsten
  • Technical Consultant
  • e-mail karst02_at_cai.com

2
Agenda
  • RMON
  • VLAN
  • Frame Relay
  • ATM

3
RMON
  • Remote Monitoring Management Information Base
    (RMON MIB) was developed by a working group of
    the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for
    network monitoring
  • It uses SNMP and its standard MIB design to
    provide multivendor interoperability between
    monitoring products and management stations

4
RMON
  • RMON MIB software agents can be located on a
    variety of devices
  • Network interconnects such as bridges, routers,
    or hubs
  • dedicated or non-dedicated hosts
  • customized platforms specifically designed as
    network management instruments

5
RMON
  • RMON MIB is organized into nine groups for
    Ethernet (RFC 1271) and ten groups for Token Ring
    (RFC 1513)
  • Enhancements through RMON2 (RFC
    2074,RFC 2021)

6
RMON Ethernet groups
  • Statistics
  • Statistics about packets, octets, broadcasts, and
    multicasts on a local segment
  • Packet size distribution
  • Error counters for collisions, undersized
    packets, fragments, CRC, jabbers and oversized
    packets

7
RMON Ethernet groups
  • History
  • Historical view of the statistics in the
    Statistical group except packet size
    distribution. Memory consuming
  • Host Table
  • Hosts statistics of packets sent and received,
    octets set and received, broadcasts, multicasts
    and error packets sent

8
RMON Ethernet groups
  • Host Top N
  • Extends the Host Table by providing sorted hosts
    statistics of the top N nodes sent over the last
    24 hours
  • Traffic Matrix
  • Shows the amount of traffic and number or errors
    between pair of nodes

9
RMON Ethernet groups
  • Alarms
  • Setting Thresholds and sampling intervals to
    generate events on any counter maintained by the
    agent
  • Filters
  • Fills packet capture buffer with packets that
    match filters installed by the user

10
RMON Ethernet groups
  • Packet Capture
  • Includes the capability for users to create a
    multiple number of capture buffers and to control
    when to wrap or stop capturing
  • Events
  • Entries created in the monitor log or SNMP traps
    send from the agent to the management station on
    Alarms of the Event group

11
RMON Token Ring groups
  • Host Group, Filter Group,Matrix Group
  • as defined for Ethernet
  • Mac-Layer Statistics
  • collects information from Mac Layer, including
    error reports for the ring and ring utilization
    of the Mac Layer.
  • Promiscuous Statistics
  • collects utilization statistics from data packets
    collected promiscuously
  • Waldbusser
    Page 4
  • RFC 1513 Token Ring Extensions to RMON
    MIB September 1993
  • 3.2. The Token Ring History Groups
  • The Token Ring History Groups contain
    historical utilization and

12
RMON Token Ring groups
  • Station
  • contains statistics and status information
    associated with each Token Ring station on the
    local ring
  • Station Order
  • provides the order of the stations on monitored
    rings

13
RMON Token Ring groups
  • Station Order
  • provides the order of the stations on monitored
    rings
  • Ring Station Config
  • manages token ring stations through active means.
    Any station on a monitored ring may be removedor
    have configuration information downloaded from it

14
RMON Token Ring groups
  • Source Routing
  • contains utilization statistics derived from
    source routing information optionally present in
    token ring packets

15
Traditional Fully Routed Network
  • Most networks consists of a simple, hierarchical
    arrangement
  • Routers allowed communication between networks
    when necessary
  • Traditional routers are slow, complicated and
    expensive

16
Traditional Fully Routed Network
Router
Hub
PCs
Server
17
Standard Switched Network
  • Switches spearheaded the next evolution of
    network structure
  • Providing dedicated bandwidth where needed, they
    greatly increased performance
  • Traditional switches segment only unicast, or
    node-to-node, traffic
  • They do not limit broadcast traffic (packets or
    multicast traffic

18
Standard Switched Network
Corporate Router
Server
WAN
Switch
Switch
Hub
Hub
Hub
Hub
PCs
PCs
PCs
PCs
19
VLAN Solution
  • VLANs offer an effective solution to swamped
    routers and broadcast storms
  • limiting the distribution of broadcast, multicast
    and unicast traffic, they can help free up
    bandwidth
  • Simple management from a management console
    rather than the wiring closet.
  • Enhanced network security

20
VLAN Solution
Hub
Marketing
Sales
Engineering
PCs
Corporate Router
Switch
Server
WAN
21
Types of VLANS
  • Port-based VLAN
  • The administrator assigns each port of a switch
    to a VLAN
  • The switch determines the VLAN membership of each
    packet by noting the port on which it arrives
  • Reassignment is necessary when a user moves to a
    different location
  • Repeater connection means that all users are
    automatically assigned to the same VLAN

22
Types of VLANS
Marketing
Engineering
Sales
Port-based VLAN Switch
23
Types of VLANS
  • MAC address-based VLAN
  • LAN membership of a packet is determined by ist
    source or destination MAC address
  • Each switch maintains a table of MAC addresses
    and their corresponding VLAN memberships
  • A single MAC address cannot easily be a member of
    multiple VLANs

24
Types of VLANS
  • Layer 3 (or protocol)-based VLANs
  • The VLAN membership of a packet is based on
    protocols (IP, IPX, Netbios, etc.) and Layer 3
    addresses
  • An IP subnet or an IPX network can each be
    assigned their own VLAN
  • Protocol-based membership allows the
    administrator to assign non-routable protocols,
    such as Netbios or DECNET

25
Types of VLANS
Distinction between VLAN implementations is the
method used to indicate membership
  • Implicit VLAN membership is indicated by the MAC
    address. In this case,all switches that support a
    particular VLAN must share a table of member MAC
    addresses.
  • Explicit A tag is added to the packet to
    indicate VLAN membership. Cisco ISL and the IEEE
    802.1q VLAN specifications both use this method.

26
VLAN Standard 802.1q
  • IEEE 802.1q specification is going to support
    port-based membership and explicit tagging
  • IEEE 802.1p, defines the use of priority bits,
    which are part of the explicit VLAN tag as
    defined in 802.1q

27
VLAN Terms
  • VLAN ID unique number (between 1 and 4094) that
    identifies a particular VLAN
  • VLAN Name 32-character alphanumeric name
    associated with a VLAN ID
  • Filtering Database Database structure within the
    switch that keeps track of the associations
    between MAC addresses, VLANs, and interface
    (port) numbers

28
VLAN Terms
  • Filtering Database ID (FID) Addressing
    information that the device learns about a VLAN
    is stored in the filtering database assigned to
    that VLAN
  • Tag Header (VLAN Tag) Four bytes of data
    inserted in a frame that identifies the
    VLAN/frame classification
  • Port VLAN ID (PVID) Identifies the VLAN into
    which untagged frames are classified according to
    a specific port

29
VLAN Terms
  • 1Q Trunk connection between 802.1Q switches that
    passes only traffic with VLAN Tag Header inserted
    in the frame. 1Q Trunk drops all incoming frames
    that do not have a VLAN tag
  • 1D Trunk connection from a switch that passes
    only untagged traffic

30
WAN Technologies
  • What is a wide area network?
  • Interconnected LANs may be in the same geographic
    area or may be separated from one another by
    great distances. When the LANs are geographically
    disperse, they are connected into a wide area
    network (WAN)

31
WAN Technologies
  • Two types of WAN
  • Point-to-point WAN
  • ISDN
  • Cloud WAN
  • ATM
  • Frame Relay

32
Point-to-point WAN
Slough
Islandia
  • Dedicated Connections
  • Fixed Speed
  • Administration overhead
  • Privately or PTT operated

Darmstadt
Paris
33
Cloud WAN
Slough
Islandia
  • Transparent Connections
  • Easy administration
  • Flexible Speed
  • Often PTT operated

Cloud WAN
Darmstadt
Paris
34
Frame Relay
  • Initial proposals were submitted to the
    International Telecommunication Union
    Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
    in 1984
  • Major development in Frame Relays history in
    1990 by Cisco Systems, StrataCom,Northern
    Telecom, and Digital Equipment Corporation

35
Frame Relay
  • Cloud WAN
  • Inital standard 1988 (I.122)
  • Speeds between 56Kbps to 2Mbps and higher

36
Frame Relay Terms
  • Frame Relay provides a packet-switching data
    communications capability
  • Two types of devices
  • User devices are data terminal equipment (DTE)
  • Network equipment that interfaces to DTE is a
    data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE)
  • Communication over Permanent Virtual Circuits
    (PVC)

37
Frame Relay Terms
DTE
DTE
Frame Relay Network
DCE
DCE
Switching Node
Permanent Virtual Circuit
38
Frame Relay Terms
  • The DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier)
    identifies the logical connection that is
    multiplexed into the physical channel
  • DLCIs have local significance the end devices at
    two different ends of a connection may use a
    different DLCI to refer to that same connection

39
Frame Relay Terms
Slough
Islandia
DLCI12
DLCI82
WAN
DLCI12
DLCI64
Darmstadt
Paris
Switching Node
Permanent Virtual Circuit
40
Frame Relay Terms
Frame Relay Network
Data Link Connection (Logical)
Channel (Physical)
Router
41
Frame Relay Terms
  • Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN)
    bit is set by the Frame Relay network in a frame
    to tell the DTE receiving that frame that
    congestion was experienced in the path from
    source to destination
  • Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN)
    bit is set by the Frame Relay network in frames
    traveling in the opposite direction from frames
    encountering a congested path.

42
Frame Relay Terms
  • Frame Relay extensions are referred to
    collectively as the local management interface
    (LMI)
  • connection identifiers global rather than local
    significance
  • Virtual circuit status messages reporting the
    existence of new PVCs and the deletion of already
    existing PVCs

43
Hybrid Frame Relay
Router
Multiplexer
Frame Relay Network
PBX
Multiplexer
Video/Teleconference
Router
44
Frame Relay Management
  • RFC 1315 MIB for Frame Relay DTEs

45
ATM
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode /ATM) can transmit
    voice, video, data, and graphics across LANs,
    metropolitan area networks (MANs), and WANs
  • ATM is an international standard defined by ANSI
    and ITU-TSS (formerly CCITT) and the ATM Forum
    (jointly founded in 1991 by Cisco
    Systems,NET/ADAPTIVE, Northern Telecom, and
    Sprint)

46
ATM
  • Connection oriented
  • dedicated links existing between network devices
  • Cell-switching
  • segment data at high speeds into units called
    cells of 52 octets length
  • Multiplexing technology
  • single network for all traffic types, including
    voice, data, graphics, and video

47
ATM
ATM Switch
ATM Network
ATM Switch
ATM Switch
ATM Uplink
LAN Switch
48
ATM Terms
  • ATM stations connecting to the ATM network,
    arrange a contract with the network based on
    Quality of Service (QoS) of the User-to-Network
    Interface (UNI) specifications
  • ATM will be available at 155 Mbps through an
    interface to Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
  • SONET will eventually allow ATM to be deployed at
    rates of 622 Mbps, 1.2 Gbps, and 2.4 Gbps

49
ATM Terms
  • ATM Adaptation Layer 1(AAL/1) supports
    connection-orientated services for traffic that
    is constant which require timing synchronization
    and constant bit rate service like video signals
  • ATM Adaptation Layer 3/4 (AAL/3,AAL/4) is
    designed for both connectionless and
    connection-oriented variable bit rate services

50
ATM Terms
51
ATM Terms
52
ATM Terms
  • Virtual connections are made of Virtual Channels
    (VCs) and virtual paths (VPs) which are based on
    the operation and nature of these virtual
    connections
  • Virtual channel (VC) is a single connection
    between two ATM devices
  • The channel is given a unique identifier, called
    a Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI)

53
ATM Terms
  • Virtual paths are groups of VCs that are carried
    between two ATM interfaces
  • VPs are given unique identifiers, called Virtual
    Path Identifiers (VPI).

54
ATM Terms
  • A Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) is the
    end-to-end path that an ATM signal takes from its
    source to its destination
  • A VCC is made up of a series of intermediate
    hops, that are each identified by their
    respective VCIs and VPIs

55
ATM Terms
Source 1
Destination 1
VCC 1
VCI 73 VPI 19
VCI 41 VPI 12
VCI 15 VPI 62
ATM Switch
ATM Switch
VCI 48 VPI 62
VCI 33 VPI 11
VCI 20 VPI 09
Source 2
VCC 2
Destination 2
56
ATM Terms
  • Permanent Virtual Channels (PVCs) are manually
    established once and kept up until removed
  • Switched Virtual Channels (SVCs) established
    temporarily, used for the duration of a
    transmission or series of transmissions, and then
    eliminated by the network

57
ATM Cell
58
ATM cell stream
59
ATM Management
  • RFC 1695 AToM MIB
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