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AMERICAN ART SINCE 1945 Realism

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In this work she explores the impact of fate, chance and astrology on human life. ... Chinese Student, 1990. Hanson is seen as a social critic, a satirist. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AMERICAN ART SINCE 1945 Realism


1
AMERICAN ART SINCE 1945Realism Super realism
  • ANDREW WYETH
  • EDWARD HOPPER
  • GEORGE SEGAL
  • AUDREY FLACK
  • RICHARD ESTES
  • DUANE HANSON

2
Andrew Wyeth
  • Andrew Wyeth made realism respectable again
    during the late 1940s and is still one of the
    most popular painters in America today. He
    explores the loneliness and desolation
    experienced in Mid-Western rural America. As in
    Christinas World, 1948 Wyeths landscapes often
    suggest that there is something out there that
    we dont see.

3
Wind from the Sea, 1947
  • Wyeths paintings give us fleeting glimpses of
    rural views. Often he includes the presence of
    wind, footprints or tracks which allude to the
    subliminal activity in the countryside that goes
    unnoticed. The inclusion of a window frame often
    cuts the viewer off from the scene and creates
    almost a voyeuristic image.

4
Winter, 1963
  • Wyeths landscapes are typically barren. Many of
    his works are done in tempera, which allows him
    to focus on surface texture, yet his objects
    appear to have no solidity. His style has been
    described as that of a sophisticated primitive,
    and sole figures in expansive fields are one of
    his favourite subjects.

5
Haybarn, 1968
  • Wyeth gives us a nostalgic look at rural life.
    His objects - all part of intimate country
    living, show wear and tear yet it is as though
    time has stood still. For these reasons there has
    been many parallels made of Wyeths work with
    that of nineteenth century novelists such as
    Hardy and Coleridge.

6
Bedroom in Maine, 1969
  • His works can be described as modern in that
    they are placeless and timeless yet all of his
    scenes are located in Pennsylvania or Maine. His
    images are from the voice of a country dweller,
    but in fact they are immediately recognised and
    identified with by his city audience.

7
Cranberries, 1972
  • His paintings begin as hazy sketches and then an
    intimate mood is created through his ability to
    freeze the essence of a particular place, often
    set against an afternoon sun. A magical key to
    his success is the skill of blending fantasy
    with reality with such deftness that it defies an
    easy explanation.

8
Edward Hopper
  • Just as Wyeth explored rural life, Hopper focused
    on loneliness and life in the American city since
    the 1930s. As in Nighthawks, 1942 Hopper looks
    at the pathos of daily life. In his scenes
    figures are placed next to one another but there
    is little communication.

9
Early Morning in Pennsylvania, 1938
  • Hoppers paintings are structured through
    architectural forms which give them a sense of
    weightiness and solidity. His use of strong
    directional light and extensive use of
    chiaroscuro enable him to show his most intimate
    impressions of nature within a highly organised
    composition.

10
House, 1943
  • His study of rooftops and architecture gave him
    the ability to refine and reduce forms to remove
    all trivial detail to the point where the scenes
    appear almost bleak. This gave his style a sense
    of abstraction.

11
Hotel Lobby, 1946
  • Even though the figures do not communicate, the
    scenes contain an intimacy that seems as though
    Hopper has been there. As a spectator, we observe
    figures in his paintings that are unaware of
    being watched.

12
Morning, 1962
  • Hoppers images have a strong emotional tone,
    like a recording of a past experience. An
    anonymous face becomes inscribed in our memory.
    Often there are moments of déjà vu, or we feel a
    sense of familiarity. A seemingly banal scene is
    transformed into a vision shrouded in atmospheric
    light.

13
Woman in Sunlight, 1961
  • Hoppers figures move slowly, turning their blank
    faces to the light. They relax, or are stilled in
    some transitory pose that is reminiscent of
    Degas, whom Hopper admired. Hopper believed his
    style depended on creating a voice within his
    figures, by emphasising all the elements that
    cannot be expressed, but give the painting life.

14
George Segal
  • George Segal creates traditional sculptures from
    white plaster casts which are combined with
    assemblages to create a complete environment. The
    figures which are cast from live models appear
    frozen in time. Like classical ruins, they exist
    in the real world yet are also works of art.

15
The Parking Garage, 1972
  • In his earlier works, Segal makes no attempt at
    giving the figures natural colourings. They are
    completely unemotional, in poses and subjects
    that are directly taken from daily life. The
    familiarity of the themes allow us to identify
    immediately with the scenes, so the figures
    become part of our own way of life.

16
Girl on a Chair, 1976
  • Segal composes his installations through drawings
    and studies of movement. The casts maintain their
    rough surface to give them an expressive
    appearance. Because of his inclusion of ready
    mades as props, the figures are set in their own
    boxed space. This makes the works relate more to
    painting than sculpture.

17
People on Park Benches, 1974
  • Segal emphasises feelings of sadness and
    loneliness in his works. He suggests that our
    current life is anonymous and non-communicative.
    He illustrates this point by confronting the
    viewer with everyday, genre scenes.

18
The Dancers, 1976
  • Segals scenes are not prettified many of the
    figures look ugly or clumsy, making them
    disturbing to look at. Segal wanted his audience
    to be able to walk around and interact with the
    figures. Gesture was of primary importance in the
    construction and arrangement of the installation.

19
Girl in Front of a Black Window, 1982
  • In his later works, Segal introduces colour and
    texture into his works. Paint and colour were
    used to unify contrasting materials and
    structures. This also intensifies the dream
    element in his work, so we continue to question
    what is real and what isnt?

20
Audrey Flack
  • Audrey Flack is a super realist whose huge
    billboard sized canvases bring the real,
    commercial world into art. Her airbrushed works
    such as this one Queen, 1976 show no sign of the
    artists hand, remaining completely objective and
    analytical.

21
Marilyn, 1977
  • Flacks works are a modern version of the Dutch
    still life vanitas paintings that emphasise
    fragile and transient objects in the passing of
    time. Like this work, many of her paintings are
    intimate self-portraits which include objects
    that are loaded with symbolism.

22
Wheel of Fortune, 1976
  • Flacks scenes are highly composed yet made to
    look jumbled. Often the objects are seen from an
    aerial view so that volumetric forms are squeezed
    into a two-dimensional space. In this work she
    explores the impact of fate, chance and astrology
    on human life.

23
Chanel, 1978
  • Many of Flacks works explore the history and
    significance of womens ideals. Here she uses a
    famous feminine brand to show her concern for
    surface and how this became an illusion because
    it was based solely on the materiality of paint.

24
Crayola, 1980
  • Audrey Flack uses the camera so that she can
    reproduce visual characteristics exactly as they
    are. It enabled her to capture a single moment in
    time. It was essential that every form,
    reflection, shadow and pattern was captured
    accurately in each work.

25
Rich Art, 1981
  • Flacks paintings often looked at optical effects
    and light. She generally limits herself to three
    high-key glossy colours which give the paintings
    a highly reflective surface. Paintings of simple,
    repetitive objects which have a special
    significance to her form a type of personalised
    narrative.

26
Richard Estes
  • Richard Estes is completely self-taught and makes
    no secret of his use of photographs for his
    paintings. One of his main aims in his work is to
    achieve total craftsmanship, which he believed
    was abandoned by the Abstract Expressionists.
    Using either oils or acrylics, he will merge two
    or three photographs together like here in
    Spirit, 1996.

27
Urban Landscape, 1978
  • His favourite subject matter is urban street
    scenes. Estes will take several shots at
    different light and focus settings some are
    just details of areas. As he is combining scenes
    together he needs to use more than one vanishing
    point.

28
Central Savings, 1976
  • Reflections are an important feature of his work
    they have a solid appearance, so he asks the
    question - which image is real? This point is
    further emphasised by Estes strong confident
    brushwork, where edges are rarely blended and
    brushstrokes remain visible in the paintings.

29
Café Express, 1975
  • Estes main focus is on New York. Here windows on
    an angle to the spectator creates deep
    perspective and complex patterns of reflection.
  • Estes believed that there needed to be no
    explanation about his work. His photo realism was
    able to say it all.

30
Façade, 1980
  • Comparisons have been made between Estes work and
    the early twentieth century photographs of Eugene
    Atget and Bernice Abbott for their extensive use
    of cropping within a complex linear structure,
    stunning effects of light and shadow and sharp
    focus.

31
Parking Lot, 1982
  • Staggered light patterns, fragmented views with
    intricate reflective imagery combined with
    vigorous architectural perspectives reminiscent
    of cubism and futurism energize and authenticate
    Estes scenes,even though the woven nature of
    the final paintings ensure they more fiction than
    fact.

32
Duane Hanson
  • Duane Hanson wanted to create sculptures that
    were replicas of human beings. His figures
    differed from waxworks in that he totally
    reformulated his person type, rather than just
    mimicking them. His figures are made of
    fibreglass and silicon. He adds real hair, glass
    eyes, extensive makeup and props to make the
    person as realistic as possible as in Young
    Worker, 1978.

33
Old Lady on Folding Chair, 1976
  • Hanson portrays real and typical ordinary
    American people in that he is interested in the
    individuals real character. The viewer becomes
    a voyeur into other peoples lives. Many of his
    scenes are of people from lower socio-economic
    classes.

34
Janitor, 1982
  • Hansons style seems to personal and intimate to
    be super realist, which is renown for its
    detachment and objectivity. However, his figures
    are super realist in that they are
    indistinguishable from real people, they are
    totally lifelike. In this work only one figure is
    a sculpture which one?

35
Body Builder, 1984
  • Unlike Segal whose figures emphasised roughness,
    Hanson removes all forms of clumsiness. The
    sculptures flesh is painstakingly painted to
    resemble its texture in reality. Hanson
    intensifies life, bringing into sharp focus the
    characteristics which define an individual,
    indicating their position within society.

36
Chinese Student, 1990
  • Hanson is seen as a social critic, a satirist. He
    goes to great lengths to include even the
    slightest action, pose or expression for absolute
    accuracy. Each figure is a treatise on
    psychiatry, economics and the class system.
    Primarily he wants to give us a vision of a slice
    of American life. Secondly, to impart to the
    spectator a fleeting, momentary expression.

37
Child with Puzzle, 1979
  • Hanson brings commonplace and genre scenes to the
    art gallery which raises questions about how art
    commentates on society. Many of the figures seem
    to have an empty and lonely existence, but Hanson
    believes that he captures the true reality of
    life for these people.
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