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16. Automation

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Title: 16. Automation


1
16. Automation
  • WHY AUTOMATE
  • impossible or hazardous
  • difficult or unpleasant
  • extend human capability
  • technically possible
  • STAGES AND LEVELS OF AUTOMATION
  • information acquisition, selection, and filtering
    automatic highlighting tools
  • information integration predictor displays
  • action selection and choice traffic alert and
    collision avoidance system (TCAS)
  • control and action execution autopilots, cruise
    control
  • PROBLEMS IN AUTOMATION
  • Automation Reliability
  • reliable it does what the human operator
    expects it to do
  • why automation may be perceived as unreliable
  • it may be unreliable
  • there may be certain situations in which the
    automation is not designed to operate or may not
    perform well dumb and dutiful
  • the human operator may incorrectly set up the
    automation
  • due to poor mental model, it appears to be acting
    erroneously to the operator

2
  • Trust Calibration and Mistrust
  • trust should be well calibrated trust should be
    in direct proportion to its reliability
  • mistrust occurs when trust is not directly
    related to reliability
  • distrust is a type of mistrust where the person
    fails to trust the automation as much as is
    appropriate are not necessarily severe, but may
    lead to inefficiency
  • Overtrust and Complacency
  • overtrust occurs when people trust the automation
    more than is warranted severe negative
    consequences if the automation is less than fully
    reliable
  • human tendency to let experience guide our
    expectancies perceived perfect reliability
  • three distinct implications for human
    intervention to automation
  • detection the complacent operator will likely be
    slower to detect a real failure
  • situation awareness better aware with active
    participation (generation effect) out of the
    loop, poor feedback of the automated process
  • skill loss (deskilling) the gradual loss of
    skills
  • less trustful of ones performance ? more likely
    to continue to use automation
  • degrade the operators ability to intervene
    approximately (fig 16.1)
  • Workload and Situation Awareness
  • as automation level moves up the scale, both
    workload and SA tend to go down
  • clumsy automation automation makes easy tasks
    easier and hard tasks harder
  • Training and Certification

3
  • Loss of Human Cooperation
  • Job Satisfaction
  • FUNCTION ALLOCATION BETWEEN THE PERSON AND
    AUTOMATION
  • HUMAN-CENTERED AUTOMATION
  • keeping the human informed
  • keeping the human trained
  • keeping the operator in the loop
  • selecting appropriate stages and levels when
    automation is imperfect
  • making the automation flexible and adaptive
  • maintaining a positive management philosophy
  • SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND AUTOMATION-BASED COMPLEX
    SYSTEM
  • automation is not optional, but necessity --
    production of continuous quantities (chemical
    process control), production of discrete
    quantities (manufacturing control), robotics
    control
  • how to support the supervisor in times of
    failures and fault management ? knowledge-based
    behavior, predictor displays, ecological
    interface
  • robotics control in manufacturing and in
    navigating UAV
  • hortatory control the systems being controlled
    retains a high degree of autonomy

4
17. Transportation Human Factors
  • AUTOMOTIVE HUMAN FACTORS
  • Task Analysis of the Vehicle Roadway System
  • Strategic, Tactical, and Control Aspects of
    Driving
  • strategic tasks deciding where to go, when to
    go and how to get there
  • tactical tasks choice of maneuvers and
    immediate goals in getting to a destination such
    as speed selection, the decision to pass another
    vehicle, and the choice of lanes
  • control tasks moment-to-moment operation of the
    vehicle such as maintaining a desired speed,
    keeping the desired distance from the car ahead,
    keeping the car in the lane
  • Control Task
  • two-dimensional tracking task of vehicle control
  • the lateral task of maintaining lane position
    2nd-order control task with preview and a
    predictor ? the best measure is the time to lane
    crossing (TLC)
  • longitudinal task as a first-order tracking task
    of speed keeping
  • three channels of visual information to be
    tracked along the two axes
  • lateral tracking by the roadway curvature
  • longitudinal tracking by the flow of motion along
    the roadway and the location or distance of
    hazards and traffic control devices

5
  • Multitask Demands
  • primary control task -- lane keeping and roadway
    hazard monitoring dependent upon primary vision
    attention lobe (PVAL) of information (fig 17.1
    and 17.2)
  • inattention, competing visual tasks
  • secondary motor activity conflict with
    monitoring and processing and visual information
    in the PVAL
  • Cabin Environment
  • create the simplest, most user-friendly design of
    the internal displays and controls
  • Visibility
  • Anthropometry
  • anthropometric factors of seating reachability
    of different controls
  • design for the mean is not appropriate --
    controls accessible and interpretable
  • Illumination
  • adequate highway lightning, adequate reflectors
  • Signage
  • minimize visual clutter from unnecessary signs
  • locate signs consistently
  • identify sign classes distinctly color, shape
  • allow signs to be read efficiently

6
  • Resource Competition
  • serious distraction of in-cab viewing the
    number and duration of glances
  • auditory display, speech recognition, HUD
  • Hazards and Collisions
  • Control Loss
  • slick or icy road conditions, narrow lanes and
    momentarily lapses in attention, rapid
    over-correction
  • directly related to the bandwidth of correction
    vehicle speed
  • Hazard Response
  • poor visibility and inattention can cause a
    failure to detect hazards
  • the time to react to unexpected objects (the
    perception-reaction time or brake reaction time)
    1 to 2 sec, mean of 1.5 sec
  • Speeding
  • quadruple threat to driver safety (1) increases
    the likelihood of control loss (2) decreases the
    probability of detecting hazard in time (3)
    increases the distance traveled before a
    successful avoidance maneuver (4) increases the
    damage at impact (fig 17.3)
  • why do people speed?
  • perceptual biases (underestimating true speed)
    size biased distance judgments bias to overspeed
    (quieter engines, higher seating position above
    the ground, less visible ground texture),
    adaptation
  • cognitive biases (overestimating the ability to
    stop in time)

7
  • Risky Behavior
  • cognitive biases to overspeeding overconfidence
    (underestimation of risk), expectancy (no
    experience of a collision little effect on the
    behavior of survivors)
  • The Impaired Driver
  • Fatigue
  • over 50 of the accidents leading to the death of
    a truck driver and over 10 of all fatal car
    accidents
  • Alcohol
  • the most effective interventions may be social
    norming
  • Age
  • Impairment Interactions
  • Driving Safety Improvements
  • Driver Characteristics Training and Selection
  • higher accident rates were related with limited
    skills (for the very young driver) and limited
    information processing abilities (for the
    elderly)
  • graduated licensing for younger drivers, more
    frequent driving test
  • the standard visual acuity test very little
    relevance for driving ? dynamic visual acuity
  • Driver Characteristics Driver Adaptation and
    Risk Calibration
  • risk homeostasis model partially consistent ?
    motive for driving faster and force of habit
  • any safety intervention must consider the
    tendency for people to adapt to the new situation

8
  • Driver Characteristics Regulatory Compliance
  • effective enforcement of speed limits can make a
    difference automatic speed management system,
    automated systems for issuing tickets
  • Driver and Vehicle Characteristics Fitness to
    Drive
  • driver monitoring system -- monitoring the
    vehicle (e.g., steering behavior) and the driver
    (e.g., blinking rate, EEG)
  • Vehicle Characteristics Sensing and Warnings
  • high mounted brake lights, trilight system
  • Roadway Characteristics Expectancy
  • positive guidance, light cycle
  • expectancy and standardization on sign location
    and interaction design
  • reduce the consequence of an accident
  • Driver and Vehicle Characteristics Use of
    Protective Devices
  • AUTOMATIVE AUTOMATION
  • Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)
    collision warning systems, automated navigation
    systems, driver monitors GPS system, traffic
    sensing devices, digital map database, wireless
    connection
  • user trust and complacency
  • attention may be drawn more into the vehicle
  • introduce a new type of productivity and safety
    tradeoff in driving

9
  • PUBLIC GROUND TRANSPORTATION
  • Maritime Human Factors
  • fatigue and crew reductions
  • extremely sluggish in their handling qualities,
    benefiting from predictive displays
  • Aviation Human Factors
  • The Tasks
  • primary multiaxis tracking task -- aviating
  • maintaining situation awareness, navigating to
    three-dimensional points, following procedures,
    communicating with controllers and other pilots,
    monitoring system status
  • competition -- visual, perceptual, cognitive, and
    response-related resources
  • Tracking and Flight Control
  • 6 degrees of freedom of motion
  • rotational axes -- pitch, roll (or bank), and yaw
  • translational axes lateral, vertical, and
    longitudinal
  • two primary goals
  • aviating -- keeping the plane from stalling by
    maintaining adequate air flow over the wings,
    which produces lift ? control of the airspeed and
    attitude (pitch and roll)
  • navigate the aircraft to points in the 3-D
    airspace (4-D navigation with time)
  • yoke controls the elevators and ailerons pitch
    and bank (first-order dynamics)
  • throttle controls airspeed
  • rudder pedals help coordinate turning and heading
    changes

10
  • three facets make the multielements tracking task
    much more difficult
  • displays do not show a good, integrated,
    pictorial representation of the aircraft
  • the dynamics of several aspects of flight control
    are higher order
  • the axes often have cross-couplings
  • Maintaining Situation Awareness
  • achieving SA through display design -- HUD
  • Following Procedures
  • to assist the pilots prospective memory
    knowledge in the world in the checklist
  • two kinds of errors in following checklists
  • top-down processing (coupled with time pressure)
    may lead to see the item in its appropriate
    state, even if it is not
  • distractions can lead the pilot to skip a step in
    the checklist
  • redundant participation, automation
  • The Social Context
  • breakdowns in pilot team performance ? junior vs.
    senior ? CRM (cockpit/crew resource management)
  • Supporting the Pilot
  • maintenance technicians and their inspection and
    trouble shooting skills
  • aircraft automation human-centered automation
  • air traffic control

11
18. Selection and Training
  • PERSONNEL SELECTION
  • predicting future job performance categorize
    accepted applicants into the job type
  • interviews, work histories, background checks,
    tests, references, work samples
  • signal detection theory ? hit, miss, false alarm,
    correct rejection
  • Basics of Selection
  • job analysis selection, training, performance
    appraisal, setting salary levels ? tasks,
    environments, related knowledge, skills,
    abilities
  • already have the task-specific knowledge and
    skills required or show evidence of basic
    knowledge and abilities
  • criterion-related validity
  • Selection Tests and Procedures
  • Measures of Cognitive Ability
  • standardized tests of cognitive or
    information-processing abilities ? general
    ability or intelligence, verbal ability,
    perceptual ability, numerical ability, reasoning
    or analytical ability, perceptual speed, memory,
    spatial-mechanical abilities
  • Measures of Physical Ability and Psychomotor
    Skills
  • physical strength, physical endurance, manual
    dexterity, and/or psychomotor skills
  • Personality Assessment
  • clinical measures mental illness or behavioral
    disorders
  • personality dimensions five basic personality
    factors/clusters

12
  • Work Samples and Job Knowledge
  • video assessment see a short scenario and
    respond in the situation
  • job knowledge test high transferable knowledge
    to the job, motivation factor
  • Structured Interviews
  • questions based on and related to knowledge and
    skills identified in the job analysis
  • describe previous work behavior ? critical
    behavior interview discuss recent occasions
    when they felt they were performing at their best
  • PERFORMANCE SUPPORT AND JOB AIDS
  • performance-support approach ? as needed basis,
    shifting a learn-and-apply to
    learning-while-applying cycle
  • performance support the process of providing a
    set of information and learning activities in a
    context-specific fashion during task performance
    ? efficient because of less taxing on memory
  • Job Aids and Instructions
  • job aids - daily to-do list, recipe, note cards,
    computer templates, instructions for assembling a
    product, procedural lists
  • traditional instruction manual ? Wrights
    quidelines -- caution against using prose,
    effective use of pictures (redundancy gain),
    proximity-compatibility principle
  • voice coupled with pictures when presenting
    instructions
  • Embedded Computer Support
  • on-line help system adaptive automation ?
    interrupting the ongoing task

13
  • TRAINING
  • Learning and Expertise
  • three different stages in the development of
    expertise
  • knowledge characterized by declarative knowledge
  • procedural knowledge by rules and if-then
    statements
  • automaticity
  • Methods for Enhancing Training
  • the best training in the shortest time, to the
    longest retention, the least expensive
  • Practice and Overlearning
  • overlearning beyond error-free performance
  • improving in the speed of performance involving
    cognitive or motor aspects ? automaticity ?
    important in skills with high multitasking
    requirements
  • decrease the rate of forgetting and increase the
    ease of a task
  • Encouraging Deep, Active, and Meaningful
    Processing
  • deep processing -- chunking in the formation of
    meaningful associations with material already in
    WM to learn the new material
  • generation effect
  • active problem solving and group participation
  • better retained when understanding why rather
    than what embedded in the context of the
    procedural task to be learned

14
  • Offering Feedback
  • corrective feedback, motivational feedback
  • immediately after the skill is performed
  • Consider Individual Differences
  • redundancy of graphics and words is most helpful
  • Pay Attention to Attention
  • learning is information processing, and
    information processing is generally resources
    limited
  • Training in Parts
  • part-task training is not always superior to
    whole-task training ? how the task is broken down
  • segmentation several components occurring in
    sequence without overlapping
  • fractionation component tasks performed
    simultaneously or concurrently
  • Simplifying, Guiding and Adaptive Training
  • simplification reducing load and errors of
    performance
  • guiding training wheels approach disabling
    or freezing keys
  • simplified version of a skill will not transfer
    to the complex version
  • learners can become overly dependent on the
    guidance or scaffolding
  • Media Matters?
  • modest benefits of computer-based instruction
    these gains are not large ? the particular aspect
    of the computer media not the computer itself

15
  • Transfer of Training and Simulation
  • how well the learning in one environment enhance
    performance in a new environment
  • positive/negative transfer
  • transfer (control time transfer
    time)/(control time)100 savings/(control
    time)100
  • transfer effectiveness ratio savings/(training
    time)
  • realism or fidelity of the simulator more
    realism does not necessarily produce more
    positive transfer
  • On the Job Training and Embedded training
  • much less effective than other training methods
    very effective if using Instructional System
    Design with strong guidance to the trainer
  • embedded training is most appropriate for jobs
    that rely at least partially on computers
  • TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGN
  • A Training Program Design Model
  • ISD (Instructional System Design) models
    similar to human factors design models
  • front-end analysis phase ? design and development
    phase ? implementation ? final system evaluation
    phase
  • developing job aids, instructional manuals,
    performance-support systems in addition to more
    traditional training programs

16
  • Phase 1 Front-End Analysis
  • organizational analysis
  • information-collection activity to identify any
    factors regarding the need for and success for a
    training program future company change such as
    job redesign or acquisition or new technology,
    management attitude toward job duties
  • document analysis, interviews, questionnaires,
    job tests, observation
  • task analysis
  • identify the knowledge, skills, and behavior for
    successful task performance
  • trainee analysis identifies
  • prerequisite knowledge and skills to begin the
    training program
  • demographics such as age, physical capabilities,
    primary language, and background
  • attitudes toward training methods
  • training needs analysis -- to determine the most
    appropriate performance improvement approach
    among task redesign, performance support, develop
    a training program
  • Phase 2 Design and Development
  • design concepts ? project plan ? prototype for
    formative evaluation and usability testing ?
    full-scale development
  • Phase 3 Program Evaluation
  • what criteria to measure, when to measure the
    criteria, who (which trainee) to use in measuring
    the criteria, what context to use
  • pretest-posttest experimental design, control
    group design

17
19. Social Factors
  • GROUPS AND TEAMS
  • trend in organizational design
  • flattening structures, decentralized decision
    making, use of groups and teams
  • Characteristics of Groups and Teams
  • organize every function into ten- to
    thirty-person, largely self-managing teams
  • team characteristics
  • the key to group performance communication
  • crew a group of persons or team that manages
    some of technology usually in transportation
  • Group Performance
  • better at tasks than the average but not better
    than the best
  • work productivity less than the sum of the
    individuals
  • Team Performance
  • selection of an appropriate combination of
    members
  • four categories
  • problems interfering with team performance
  • taskwork skills
  • teamwork skills cooperation, coordination,
    communication, adaptibility, giving/accepting
    suggestions or criticism, showing team spirit

18
  • factors to team performance
  • no common mental model
  • no time and cognitive resources to communicate
    plans and strategies
  • no cognitive resources available to ask others
    for information
  • Team Training
  • acquisition of team work skills
  • development and use of shared mental models
  • strategies for effective communication,
    adaptation to stress, maintenance of situational
    awareness, group decision making, coordinated
    task performance
  • job cross-training
  • Team Instructional Prescriptions (TIP)
  • COMPUTER-SUPPORTED COOPERATIVE WORK
  • Decision Making Using Groupware
  • group communication support system
    teleconferencing, e-mail
  • group decision support system
  • Effects of Decision Support Systems
  • increase group members depth of analysis, group
    communication and efforts to achieve
    clarification, member participation, the
    consensus building of group
  • decrease the domination by a few people

19
  • Effects of Communication Support System
  • increase the level of participation and effort
    expended by group members
  • increase the depth of analysis
  • decrease domination of the group by a few members
  • increase decision times
  • decrease overall cooperation and consensus
    building
  • Computer-Supported Team Performance
  • group-view displays
  • provide a status overview
  • direct personnel to additional information
  • support collaboration among crew members
  • support coordination of crew activities
  • Difficulties in Remote Collaboration
  • increased difficulty in collaboration knowing
    who is doing what
  • increased difficulty in communication
  • increased difficulty in maintaining situation
    awareness because of a decrease in communication

20
  • MACROERGONOMICS AND INDUSTRIAL INTERVENTION
  • traditional ergonomics intervention in industry
    micoergonomics
  • macroergonomics
  • top-down sociotechnical systems approach to the
    design of organizations, work systems, jobs, and
    related human-machine, user-system, and
    human-environment interfaces
  • participatory ergonomics
  • employees know a great deal about their job and
    job environment
  • employee and management ownership enhances
    program implementation
  • end-user participation causes flexible problem
    solving
  • ergonomic interventions -- organizational
    barriers
  • promoting employee self-protective behavior
  • use of individual or group incentives
  • use of disciplinary actions
  • fear messages
  • behavior modeling of others
  • employee surveys
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