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Learning About and From Service Learning


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Title: Learning About and From Service Learning

Learning About and From Service Learning
Conference on Applied Learning in Higher
Education Missouri Western State
University February 23, 2007 Robert G. Bringle,
Ph.D. Chancellors Professor of Psychology and
Philanthropic Studies Director, Center for
Service and Learning Indiana University-Purdue
University Indianapolis rbringle_at_iupui.edu
Boyers Civic Engagement
  • What is needed is not just more programs, but a
    larger purpose, a larger sense of mission, a
    larger clarity of direction.
  • Ultimately, the scholarship of engagement also
    means creating a special climate in which the
    academic and civic cultures communicate more
    continuously and more creatively with each other.

IUPUI Definition of Civic Engagement
  • Civic engagement is active collaboration that
    builds on the resources, skills, expertise, and
    knowledge of the campus and community to improve
    the quality of life in communities in a manner
    that is consistent with the campus mission.

Faculty Work In the Community
Community Involvement
  • Teaching, research, and service
  • in the community
  • Occurs in profit, nonprofit, and government
  • Has no geographic boundaries

Differentiation of Terms
  • Community Involvement
  • Defined by location
  • Occurs in the community
  • Civic Engagement
  • Defined by location and process
  • Occurs in and with the community
  • Demonstrates democratic values of participation
  • Community-based Learning or Applied Learning
  • Extending learning beyond the classroom

Community-Based Learning
  • Field work experiences (e.g., Museum Studies,
  • Cooperative Education
  • Internship
  • Practicum
  • Service Learning
  • Pre-professional field experiences Clinicals,
    Student Teaching
  • Applied Learning
  • Experiential Learning
  • Public Service-Focused Learning
  • Academically Based Community Learning
  • Academic Service Learning
  • Student Engagement

Service learning is a course-based,
credit-bearing educational experience in which
students a) participate in an organized service
activity that meets identified community needs,
and b) reflect on the service activity in such
a way as to gain further understanding of course
content, a broader appreciation of the
discipline, and an enhanced sense of personal
values and civic responsibility.
define 2
(Bringle Hatcher, 1995)
Distinctions Among Approaches to Service
Experiential Learning
(Furco, 1996)
define 5
Why Service Learning in Higher Education?
  • Powerful Pedagogy
  • Involves Faculty Expertise
  • Involves Structured Service
  • Develops Civic Responsibility
  • Enhances Student Development
  • Student Persistence and Retention
  • Supports an Expanding Role of Higher Education
  • Addresses Community Issues

Promoting Learning for Understanding
  • Active Engagement
  • Frequent Feedback
  • Collaboration
  • Cognitive Apprenticeship
  • Practical Application
  • Marchese

Service Learning Outcomes
  • Academic
  • Learning
  • Cognitive processes
  • Critical thinking
  • Persistence and retention
  • Achievement and aspirations
  • Integration
  • Life Skills
  • Racial tolerance
  • Cultural understanding
  • Self-efficacy
  • Problem solving
  • Career clarification
  • Leadership

Service Learning Outcomes
  • Civic and Social Responsibility
  • Commitment to community
  • Aspirations to volunteer
  • Empathy
  • Philanthropy
  • Civic-minded professional
  • Personal Development
  • Moral development
  • Self-concept
  • Motives, attitudes, and values
  • Personal development

Service Learning Outcomes
  • Academic Development
  • Persistence and retention
  • Achievement and aspirations
  • Life Skills
  • Racial tolerance
  • Cultural understanding
  • Civic Responsibility
  • Commitment to community
  • Aspirations to volunteer (Sax Astin, 1997)
  • (See www.compact.org/resource/aag.pdf)

  • Why do we need more than a vocational education?
    In part, because we live more than a vocational
    life we live a larger civic life and we have to
    be educated for it.
  • - D. Mathews

What is Good Citizenship?
  • Battistoni (2002)
  • Civic Professionalism
  • Social Responsibility
  • Social Justice
  • Connected Knowing Ethic of Care
  • Public Leadership
  • Public Intellectual
  • Engaged/Public Scholarship

Key Principles
  • Academic credit is for learning, not service.
  • Set learning goals for students.
  • Establish criteria for the selection of community
    service placements.
  • Be prepared for uncertainty and variation in
    student learning outcomes.
  • Maximize the community responsibility for
    orientation of the course.
  • Do not compromise academic rigor.
  • (Howard, 1993)

course 7
  • Course expectations on syllabus
  • Number of service hours
  • Scheduling information
  • Liability issues
  • Line of communication
  • Agency expectations
  • Importance of volunteers
  • Organizational policies
  • Liability issues
  • Ethical issues
  • Issues of confidentiality
  • Line of communication

orientation 4
Key Elements of Service Learning
  • Reflection
  • Perplexity (Dewey, 1933)
  • Activities to structure learning from the service
  • Reciprocity
  • Partnerships
  • Dialogue to structure the service experience

define 4
Key Elements of Service Learning
  • Reflection
  • Perplexity (Dewey, 1933)
  • Activities to structure learning from the service
  • Reciprocity
  • Partnerships
  • Dialogue to structure the service experience

define 4
(No Transcript)
Integrating Service into Courses Reflection
  • Perplexity, confusion, doubt
  • Attentive interpretation of the given elements
  • Examination, exploration, and analysis to define
    and clarify the problem
  • Elaboration of a tentative hypothesis
  • Testing the hypothesis through action to produce
  • Dewey, 1933

From A Students Journal
Today I got to the nursing home at 200. Talked
to some ladies. Passed out popcorn at the movie.
Went home at 400
Conrad Hedin, 1990
Reflection as Cognitive Activity
  • Engages students in the intentional consideration
    of their experiences in light of particular
    learning objectives.
  • Reflection is both retrospective and prospective.
  • Educates the students attention.

Guidelines for Reflection
  • Clearly links service experience to learning
  • Is structured in terms of expectations,
    assessment criteria
  • Occurs regularly throughout semester
  • Instructor provides feedback
  • Includes opportunity to explore, clarify, and
    alter values

(Bringle Hatcher, 1999)
Examples of Reflection Activities
  • Personal Journals
  • Directed Writings
  • Classroom Assessment Techniques
  • Agency Presentations
  • Ethical Case Studies
  • Student Portfolios
  • On-line Techniques
  • Experiential Research Paper
  • Minute Papers
  • Stand and Declare

(Hatcher Bringle, 1997)
reflection 10
  • Three-part journal
  • Double-entry journal
  • Highlighted journal
  • Critical incident journal
  • Free write journal
  • Key word journal

(Hatcher Bringle, 1997)
reflection 11
Criteria For Assessing Reflection
  • Level One
  • Gives examples of observed behaviors,
    characteristics of clients or settings, but
    provides no insight into reasons behind the
    observation observations tend to be one
    dimensional and conventional or unassimilated
    repetitions of what has been heard in class or
    from peers.
  • Tends to focus on just one aspect of the
  • Uses unsupported personal beliefs as a frequently
    as hard evidence.
  • May acknowledge differences of perspective but
    does not discriminate effectively among them.
  • Bradley, 1995

Criteria For Assessing Reflection
  • Level Two
  • Observations are fairly thorough and nuanced
    although they tend not to be placed in a broader
  • Provides a cogent critique from one perspective,
    but fails to see the broader system in which the
    aspect is embedded and other factors which may
    make change difficult.
  • Uses both unsupported personal belief and
    evidence but is beginning to be able to
    differentiate between the.
  • Perceives legitimate differences of viewpoint.
  • Demonstrates a beginning ability to interpret
  • Bradley, 1995

Criteria For Assessing Reflection
  • Level Three
  • Views events from multiple perspectives able to
    observe multiple aspects of the situation and
    place them in context.
  • Perceives conflicting goals within and among the
    individuals involved in the situation and
    recognizes that the differences can be evaluated.
  • Recognizes that actions must be situationally
    dependent and understands many of the factors
    which affect their choice.
  • Makes appropriate judgments based on reasoning
    and evidence.
  • Has a reasonable assessment of the importance of
    the decisions facing clients and of his or her
    responsibility as a part of the clients lives.
  • Bradley, 1995

DEAL A Model For Critical Reflection (Clayton et
  • Describe experience
  • Examine experience, per learning objectives
  • Personal ? Civic ? Academic
  • Articulate Learning, in each category and across
  • Clayton et al.

Articulated Learning (AL)
  • What did I learn?
  • How did I learn it?
  • Why does it matter/why is it important?
  • In what ways will I use this learning/what goals
    will I set to improve (my learning, my service)

Rubrics For Assessment
  • 1. Hierarchically-Expressed Learning Objectives
  • Organized around Blooms Taxonomy in each of the
    categories of learning (academic, civic,
  • Knowledge and Comprehension (identify and
  • Application (to service specifically to life
    more generally)
  • Analysis and Synthesis (compare and contrast
    causation integration)
  • Evaluation (critique judgments)

  • 2. Intellectual Standards of Critical Thinking
    (adapted from Richard Paul, Foundation for
    Critical Thinking, www.criticalthinking.org)
  • Clarity expands on ideas defines terms
    provides examples
  • Accuracy statements presented as fact are
    accurate or supported with evidence academic AL
    accurately describes/applies academic principle
  • Relevance statements, reasoning are relevant to
    the AL category and to the specific learning
  • Depth addresses the complexity of the problem
    avoids over-simplifying when making connections
  • Breadth considers alternative points of view /
    interpretations related to service experiences
  • Logic line of reasoning is logical conclusions
    and goals follow clearly from it
  • Significance draws conclusions / sets goals
    representing major issues raised by the

These two tools work together to improve the
thinking associated with, and the writing of,
reflection products
Accuracy Clarity Relevance Depth Breadth Logic Sig
IUPUI Experiential Education
  • Community-based research This includes, but is
    not limited to, field work, e.g., courses in
    which students complete research in which they
    collect data in a community setting and/or share
    findings with community entities in a
    service-learning course or an internship.
  • Service-learning Courses in which students
    participate in service learning as defined above.
  • Community Courses in which students spend a
    significant amount, e.g., one-third, of their
    time in a community setting in ways that
    contribute to learning objectives of the course.
  • Cultural Immersion Courses in which students are
    immersed in a culture different from ones own
    while extending the study of the course content.
    Such courses include, but are not limited to,
    courses taken as part of a study abroad
    experience. They may also include field work,
    practica, internships, and all other categories
    defined above, provided such experiences involve
    immersion in a culture different from that of the

IUPUI Attributes
  • Knowledgethe concepts, facts, and information
    acquired through formal learning and past
  • Activitythe application of knowledge to a real
    world setting and
  • Reflectionthe analysis and synthesis of
    knowledge and activity to create new knowledge.

Missouri Western Applied Learning
  • Study Abroad
  • Service Learning
  • Research
  • Internships Practica

MWSC Assessment Rubric
MWSC Assessment Rubric
Hybrid Experiences ? Civic
  • Study Abroad SL Intl SL
  • Research SL Participatory Action
  • SL Internship Service Internship

Civic-Minded Graduate
  • Knowledge
  • Volunteer Opportunities
  • My experiences at IUPUI have helped me know a lot
    about opportunities to become involved in the
  • Academic Knowledge
  • After being a student at IUPUI, I feel confident
    that I will be able to apply what I have learned
    in my classes to solve real problems in society
  • Contemporary Social Issues

Civic-Minded Graduate
  • Skills
  • Listening
  • My IUPUI education has prepared me to listen to
    others and understand their perspective on
    controversial issues.
  • Diversity
  • My IUPUI education has helped me appreciate how
    my community is enriched by having some cultural
    or ethnic diversity
  • Consensus Building

Civic-Minded Graduate
  • Dispositions
  • Valuing Community Engagement
  • My IUPUI experiences have helped me develop my
    sense of who I am, which now includes a sincere
    desire to be of service to others.
  • Efficacy
  • My IUPUI education has convinced me that social
    problems are much too complex for me to help
    solve (Reverse)
  • Social Trustee of Knowledge

Service Learning as a Subversive Activity
  • Develops the public purposes of higher education
  • Change the traditional assumptions about faculty
  • Change the way faculty teach
  • Increase interdisciplinary work
  • Contribute to the nature of first-year, honors,
    scholarships, capstones
  • Promote democratic values in the academy and with
    the community
  • Broaden assessment
  • Broaden promotion and tenure
  • Increase the salience of service in the campus
  • Change campus/community relationships
  • Change institutional accreditation and quality

  • To institutionalize service-learning effectively,
    service-learning must be viewed not as a discrete
    program but as a means to accomplish other
    important goals for the campus.
  • Furco Holland
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