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Enhancing%20effectiveness%20of%20CLIL%20through%20writing

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Title: Enhancing%20effectiveness%20of%20CLIL%20through%20writing


1
Enhancing effectiveness of CLIL through writing
  • Barbara Loranc-Paszylk
  • The Academy of Technology and Humanities,
    Bielsko-Biala
  • POLAND

2
Issues to consider effectiveness of CLIL from a
linguistic perspective
  • Development of productive skills (the
    comprehensible output hypothesis by Swain, 1985)
  • Development of academic skills
  • (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency by
    Cummins, model CALLA by Chamot and OMalley)

3
Why writing? (how does writing influence lg
learning)
  • Helps to prepare for the oral communication
  • Verifies/controls the processing of material
    acquired during reading and listening
  • Integrates reading with listening
  • Draws the learners attention to the difference
    between the spoken and written language
  • Allows more stress-free learning context in the
    process of language learning
  • Iluk (1997) enumerates practical objectives of
    writing
  • Makes the students employ certain vocabulary
    items, phrases, syntactical structures
  • Revises the material covered during the lesson
  • Enhances the progress of the learner by the means
    of homework
  • Provides visual support (especially for learners
    with a visual modality preference)

4
Writing and lg learning
One of the stages of writing a piece of discourse
is inserting the lexical material (both single
elements and phrases coordinating these elements
to fit the whole (syntactic adjustements,
coherence and cohesion) (Dakowska, 2005)
5
Why academic language skills in CLIL?
  • Students need to develop academic language skills
    to be able to summarise, analyze, ewaluate,
    construct texts, interpret diagrams, tables and
    select relevant information
  • Academic language skills are adapted to the
    cognitive level of the students, develop critical
    thinking
  • Teaching Academic Language skills signifies the
    progress from Basic Interpersonal Communicative
    Skills (BICS) to Cognitive Academic Language
    Proficiency (CALP) and abstract thinking
  • Academic skills should be taught in the context
    of authentic academic materials (Adamson, 1989)

6
Skills necessary to process textual information
in academic writing (Horowitz, 1986)
  • Selection of relevant information from the text
    sources
  • Reorganisation of information in the view of task
    response
  • Encoding information into academic English

7
Argumentative vs expository
  • Why expository texts can be particularly suitable
    for CLIL classes?
  • -The main aim of expository texts is to inform
    and explain
  • -The main aim of argumentative texts is to
    persuade and justify the opinion
  • Expository texts can be divided into following
    structures (Meyer,1985, 1999)
  • 1. Description
  • 2. Sequence
  • 3. Causation
  • 4. Problem/solution
  • 5. Comparison/contrast

8
Teaching text structures
  • Extensive discourse reading (time-consuming)
  • Explicit teaching (Rose, 1983) means
  • Introducing the structures on the real life
    examples
  • Applying the structure to the context of students
    work
  • Teaching comparison/contrast structures not only
    as a text structure but also as a cognitive
    strategy or as a way to organize information
  • Building up the range of skills towards the more
    advanced ones (first summarising, then analyzing)

9
Structures of the comparison/contrast essay
(Scull, 1987 Leki, 1998)
  • Point-by-point order
  • I. Introduction
  • II. Main idea (appearance)
  • -item A1 (person A)
  • -item B1 (person B)
  • III. Main idea (behaviour)
  • -item A2 (person A)
  • -item B2 (person B)
  • IV. Main idea (personality)
  • -item A3 (person A)
  • -item B3 (person B)
  • V. Conclusion
  • Parallel order
  • I. Introduction (announces
  • comparing two people
  • II. Main idea (person A)
  • -item A1 (appearance)
  • -item A2 (behaviour)
  • -item A3 (personality)
  • III. Main idea (person B)
  • -item B1 (appearance)
  • -item B2 (behaviour)
  • -item B3 (personality)
  • IV. Conclusion

10
Why comparison/contrast is useful in CLIL classes
  • It is one of the most difficult rhetorical
    patterns as far as the organizational structure
    is concerned it makes students develop good
    habits in keeping their writing organized and
    structured
  • It can be written with reference to source
    material, so students must first comprehend the
    source text, select relevant data and then
    organize it according to the comparison/contrast
    pattern
  • One of basic rhetorical patterns used in academic
    discourse
  • Comparing and contrasting is a typical academic
    task (Skull, 1987)
  • It is a universal rhetorical pattern
    comparing/contrasting can be applied in almost
    all subjects taught through a foreign language,
    it can also be applied to a wide range of issues,
    ideas, documents, etc.
  • It is very practical and convenient for the
    teacher topics for essays can give a fresh
    perspective on a given issue, and selecting two
    aspects/documents to be compared is usually easy
    to find within textual material of a given class

11
Comparison/contrast and learning the content
  • Organizing information and structuring the essay
    according to the comparison/contrast pattern can
    be a very effective strategy of learning the
    content (Hamman, 2003)
  • Writing comparison/contrast essays can serve as a
    testing method for the teacher to check students
    progress in content knowledge

12
Experiment details
  • 1. The students and the setting
  • 69 students of the International Relations
  • at the Academy of Technology and Humanities
  • (2nd year of undergraduate studies)
  • 34 students of the experimental groups (CLIL)
    studying social studies in English
  • (group A History of European Integration
  • group B British Civilization)
  • 35 students of the control groups (traditional
    language classes)
  • 2. The method
  • time exposure 90minutes per week during 2 sem.
    (60 hours in total for the whole course)

13
Materials
  • The experimental groups used the following course
    materials
  •  main textbooks European Integration. From the
    Idea to Practice. (Buszello Misztal, 2003)
    British Civilization. An introduction. (Oakland,
    2002).
  • internet sources
  • www.europa.eu
  • www. bbc.co.uk
  • Handouts prepared by the teacher with explicit
    instruction on academic writing (Leki, 1998)
  • Grammar exercises (selected topics)

14
Grammar compotent
  • Students self-studying
  • Teacher preparing selected excercises as feedback
    for errors appearing in students essays

15
Examples of students activities
  • Individual work
  • Reading assigned texts for a given class
  • Writing summaries of original documents/authentic
    materials
  • Writing comparison/contrast essays (400 words)
  • Grammar exercises
  • Collaborative tasks
  • Preparing reading exercises for the rest of the
    group (adapting texts from the Internet) i.e. gap
    -filling, true or false questions, completing
    texts with missing words/paragraphs,
    comprehension questions
  • Presenting viewpoints role play
  • Class debates and discussions
  • Vocabulary quizzes

16
List of topics for homework The History of
European Integration group
  • 6. Compare and contrast the Mastricht
    (convergence) criteria and the Copenhagean
    criteria
  • 7. Compare and contrast the European
    cititizenship and the national citizenship
  • 8. Compare and contrast the position of legal and
    illegal immigrants in the EU
  • 9. Compare and contrast the British, French and
    Greman visions of future of European Union
  • 10. Compare and contrast two treaties the
    Maastricht Treaty and the Constitutional Treaty
  • 1. Compare and contrast the results of the
    conference in the Haque in 1969 and the Paris
    summit in 1974.
  • 2. Compare and contrast the Bretton Woods system
    and the European Monetary System
  • 3. Compare and contrast the customs union, free
    trade area and the single market
  • 4. Compare and contrast two documents the Draft
    Treaty and the Single European Act
  • 5. Compare and contrast trade in Europe before
    and after introducing the Euro currency

17
List of topic for homework British Civilisation
group
  • 1.Compare and contrast Britains position in the
    European Union and the Commonwealth
  • 2. Compare and contrast sources of British law
  • 3. Compare and contrast civil and criminal
    proceedings in Britain
  • 4. Compare and contrast programms of the
    Conservatives and the Labour party
  • 5. Compare and contrast trade in Europe before
    and after introducing the Euro currency
  • 6. Compare and contrast two legal professions in
    Britain solicitors and barristers
  • 7. Compare and contrast the position of men and
    women on the labout market in Britain
  • 8. Compare and contrast trade unions in Poland
    and Britain
  • 9. Compare and contrast the national health
    systems in Poland and Britain
  • 10. Compare and contrast housing in Poland and
    Britain

18
Experiment hypotheses
  • 1. The experimental groups will make bigger
    progress than the control groups in
  • Academic Reading
  • Academic Writing
  • Use of English test
  • 2. The experimental groups will make comparable
    progress

19
pre- and post-testing
  • Academic writing IELTS
  • max 36 points in four categories
  • -task response 1-9
  • -coherence and cohesion 1-9
  • -lexical resource 1-9
  • -grammatical range and accuracy 1-9.
  • Academic reading IELTS
  • Grammatical competence CAE Use of English

20
Testing results the experimental and control
groups
  • The experimental groups
  • Progress in Academic Reading 21
  • Progress in Academic Writing 23
  • Progress in Use of English 20
  • The control groups
  • Progress in Academic Reading 1
  • Regress in Academic Writing -1
  • Progress in Use of English 4

21
Diagram 1 Progress in Use of English group
results
22
Diagram 2. Individual students results progress
in Use of English
23
Diagram 3. Progress in Academic Reading group
results
24
Diagram 4. Individual students results progress
in Academic Reading
25
Diagram 5. Progress in Academic Writing group
results
26
Diagram 6. The experimental groups results in
Academic reading
27
The experiment results
  • 1. The experimental groups have made bigger
    progress than the control groups
  • the experimental groups results in Academic
    Reading exceeded the control groups results by
    20
  • Academic Writing by 24
  • Use of English test by 16
  • 2. The experimental groups have made comparable
    progress
  • In Academic Reading group A - 21 group B-20
  • In Academic Writing group A 24 group B-22
  • In Use of English tests group A 20, group B -
    20

28
Questionnaire 1
  • The experimental groups students were asked to
    self-evaluate their overall progress in English
    language learning

29
Questionnaire 2
  • The experimental groups students were asked to
    self-evaluate their overall progress in
    development of lexical competence

30
Questionnaire 3
  • The experimental groups students were asked to
    self-evaluate their overall progress in
    development of grammatical competence

31
Questionnaire 4
  • The experimental groups students were asked to
    self-evaluate their overall progress in
    development of academic reading skills

32
Ouestionnaire 5
  • The experimental groups students were asked to
    self-evaluate their overall progress in
    development of academic writing skills

33
References
  • Adamson, D.(1990). ESL students' use of academic
    skills in content courses. English for Specific
    purposes. 9,67-87.
  • Iluk , J. (1997). Curriculare Entscheidungen zur
    Entwicklung der Schriebfertigkeit im FSUIn Iluk
    (ed.) Probleme der Schreibentwicklung im
    Fremdsprachenunterricht. Katowice 1997, . 11-31.
  • Chamot, A.U. i O'Malley, J.M. (1987). A Cognitive
    Academic Language Learning Approach A Bridge to
    the Mainstream. TESOL Quarterly, 21,227-247.
  • Cummins, J. (1999). Immersion education for the
    millennium What we have learned from 30 years of
    research on second language immersion. Toronto
    OISE. (See also web-references).
  • Hammann, L.A. (2003). Instructional approaches to
    improving students writing of compare-contrast
    essays. Journal of Literacy Research
  • Horowitz, D. (1986). What professors actually
    require Academic tasks for the ESL classroom.
    TESOL Quarterly 20 (3), 44562.
  • Leki, I. (1998). Academic writing. Exploring
    Processes and Strategies. Cambridge Cambridge
    University Press.
  • Meyer, B.J.F. (1985). Prose analysis Purpose
    procedures and problems Parts I and II. In B.K.
    BrittonJ.B. Black (Eds.), Understanding
    Expository Text Hillsdale, N.J. Lawrence
    Erlbaum.
  • Rose, M. (1983). Remedial writing courses A
    critique and a proposal. College English, 4,
    109-128.
  • Scull, Sharon, D.(1987). Critical reading
    writing for advanced ESL students. New Jersey
    Prentice-Hall, Inc
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