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The European Union and Enlargement

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The European Union and Enlargement. PI 2003 International Organisations in Europe Week 9. Previous Enlargement ... EU Enlargement. Copenhagen Criteria ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The European Union and Enlargement


1
Dr. David Galbreath Lecturer in Politics and
International Relations d.galbreath_at_abdn.ac.uk Off
ice F36 Edward Wright Building Hours Tuesday
10-12
2
The European Union and Enlargement
  • PI 2003 International Organisations in Europe
    Week 9

3
Previous Enlargement
  • Original members Belgium, France, Germany,
    Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
  • 1973 Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom
  • 1981 Greece
  • 1986 Portugal and Spain
  • 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden
  • 2004 10 new members

4
(No Transcript)
5
EU Enlargement
  • Political
  • Economic
  • Social

6
EU Enlargement Questions
  • Why did the EU expand?
  • How did the EU expand?
  • What were the political implications of
    expansion?
  • How did EU change to prepare for 15 new members?
  • What were the political, economic and social
    requirements of new member-states?
  • What is the future for EU expansion?

7
Why did the EU expand?
  • Changes the internal order of the EU
  • Allows for greater divisions in the EU
  • Forces painful economic and institutional
    adaptations required of the applicant country
  • Encourages anxiety over immigration in the
    existing member-states.

8
Why did the EU expand?
  • Three views
  • Rationalist approach
  • Ethical-political approach
  • Moral approach

9
Why did the EU expand?
  • Three views and hypotheses
  • Rationalist approach
  • The EU would concentrate only on those states
    that offered the most gain
  • Ethical-political approach
  • The EU would concentrate on those states that had
    an element of kinship
  • Moral approach
  • The EU would concentrate on democratic states
    outside the community

10
Who supported enlargement?
  • Drivers vs. Brakemen
  • Drivers
  • those bordering the CEECs (except for Italy and
    Greece)
  • Brakemen
  • Recent new states (ex. Spain)
  • All others (except for Britain)

11
Who supported enlargement?
  • Drivers two groups
  • Limited round focusing on Central Europe
    (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland,
    Slovenia)
  • The big bang enlargement

12
Who supported enlargement?
13
Who supported enlargement?
  • Reasons for support
  • Geographical proximity
  • Interdependence
  • Shared borders
  • Economic gains

14
Member state shares of EU exports to Central and
Eastern European countries and EU economic output
15
Who supported enlargement?
  • Reasons for support
  • Geographical proximity?
  • Economic gain?
  • Influence?

16
EU Enlargement
  • Institutional Arrangements
  • Copenhagen Criteria
  • Acquis Communautaire
  • Madrid European Council
  • Agenda 2000

17
EU Enlargement
  • Copenhagen Criteria
  • stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy,
    the rule of law, human rights and respect for and
    protection of minorities
  • the existence of a functioning market economy as
    well as the capacity to cope with competitive
    pressure and market forces within the Union
  • the ability to take on the obligations of
    membership including adherence to the aims of
    political, economic monetary union.

18
EU Enlargement
  • Acquis Communautaire
  • Treaty of Amsterdam 1993
  • The body of EU law that must be adopted into
    domestic law
  • Acquis politigue
  • Finalité politique

19
EU Enlargement
  • Madrid European Council
  • Administration
  • Judicial Structures

20
EU Enlargement
  • Agenda 2000
  • Amsterdam IGC 1997 and Luxembourg European
    Council 1998
  • Development of EU
  • Challenges of Enlargement
  • Accession Process Regular Reports
  • Financial framework beyond 2000

21
EU Enlargement
  • Agenda 2000 (regular reports)
  • 1998-2003
  • Minorities
  • Adoption of Acquis
  • No delay for 6
  • Relied on other institutions and NGOs

22
EU Enlargement
  • The logistics
  • Should the Commission be re-weighted?
  • Should voting change in the Council?
  • How will the new states be represented in
    Parliament?

23
Political Conditions
  • Democracy
  • Transition
  • Consolidation
  • European Union and Democratisation

24
Political Conditions
  • Political Conditionality
  • This is achieved by specifying conditions or
    even preconditions for support, involving either
    promises of material aid or political
    opportunities.
  • Democratic Conditionality

25
Political Conditions
  • Democratic Conditionality (three stages)
  • Pre-negotiations
  • Actual negotiations
  • Once membership begins

26
Financial Issues
  • PHARE
  • (Poland and Hungary Aid for Economic
    Restructuring)
  • Three aims
  • Pre-accession Funds for adoption of the Acquis
  • Structural Funds
  • Aimed at Regions and regional institutions

27
Financial Issues
  • PHARE
  • Three phases
  • Mark I (1989-97)
  • Mark II (1997-2000)
  • Mark III (2000-)

28
Financial Issues
  • Common Agriculture Policy
  • Reforms at the Copenhagen summit in December 2002
  • Direct payments phased-in
  • Lock-in strategy

29
Financial Issues
  • The Economic and Monetary Union
  • Euro is obligation for new states
  • Although when and how is up to state
  • No states ready yet (euobserver.com)
  • Criteria exchange rates, price stability,
    interest rates, deficits and the status of
    central banks

30
What is the future for EU expansion?
  • Romania and Bulgaria (2007)
  • Turkey (2010?)
  • The Balkans (Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia,
    Albania)?
  • Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia?
  • North Africa?

31
Conclusion
  • Why did the EU expand?
  • How did the EU expand?
  • What were the political implications of
    expansion?
  • How did EU change to prepare for 15 new members?
  • What were the political, economic and social
    requirements of new member-states?
  • What is the future for EU expansion?
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