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Science, Technology and Innovation in the AsiaPacific Region: Trends and Policy


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Title: Science, Technology and Innovation in the AsiaPacific Region: Trends and Policy

Science, Technology and Innovation in the
Asia-Pacific Region Trends and Policy
  • Jerry Sheehan
  • OECD Science Technology Policy Division
  • Asian ST Forum Innovation Indicators
  • OECD Washington Center
  • 14 July 2005

The broader context for STI
  • Science, technology and innovation are receiving
    greater policy attention as their links to
    economic growth are more widely appreciated
    government funding is growing accordingly.
  • Significant policy reforms across OECD to improve
    contributions of public research, foster business
    innovation, strengthen industry-science linkages
    (e.g., via public/private partnerships).
  • Innovation policy has been slow to adapt to the
    needs of the service sector, which accounts for
    growing share of output and employment in OECD
  • Concerns about supplies of human resources for
    science and technology (HRST) are mounting across
    OECD at same time as migration patterns are
  • Science, technology and industry are increasingly
    globalized, requiring further adaptation of
    policy to ensure benefits accrue to national

Strengthening innovation systems
  • Increases in government funding for RD
  • Change in funding and governance of public
  • More project funding
  • More targeting of priority areas (IT, biotech,
    nano, energy)
  • Greater use of priority setting
  • Support for business RD increasing
  • Entrepreneurship and SME financing
  • Shift in financing of business RD away from
    direct funding and toward tax incentives
  • Strenthening industry-science linkages
  • Boost patenting licensing of public research
  • Proliferation of public/private partnerships
  • Collaborative research

Ensuring supplies of HRST
  • Global demand is growing for scientists
  • Employment in HRST occupations grew twice as fast
    as overall employment between 1995 and 2000.
  • Number of researchers in OECD grew from 2.3
    million in 1990 to 3.4 million in 2000 (5.6 to
    6.5 researchers per 10,000 employees)
  • Efforts to increase innovation performance will
    further increase demand for HRST
  • EU RD objective would require about half a
    million researchers.
  • Japan and Korea aiming to boost researchers and
    graduate enrollments, while development
    complementary skills
  • Will supply meet demand (numbers, skills?)
  • Demographic changes
  • Changing (waning?) interest in science and
    technology even as enrollments grow.
  • Patterns of international migration changing?

Driving innovation in service sector industries
Share of innovative firms, CIS3 Survey, 1998-2000
  • Services innovation driven by
  • Acquisition of equipment and knowledge
    (especially IT)
  • Training education (share of highly educated is
    twice that in manufacturing in many countries)
  • Intramural and external RD (primarily in
    business services computing, software,
  • Patterns differ by industry sector (e.g., finance
    versus business services)

Source OECD Science, Technology and Industry
Outlook 2004.
Responding to globalization Foreign affiliates
play larger role
Growth in output and employment in foreign
affiliates (manufacturing), 1995-2001
Source OECD Science, Technology and Industry
Outlook 2004
Asian-Pacific STI Different industry structures
RD by size of firm
RD by industry sector
Source OECD, RD Database, June 2005.
Different institutional role in RD and innovation
By source of funding
By performer
Source OECD Main Science Technology
Indicators, June 2005
RD investments US, Asia-Pacific and EU
Gross expenditure on RD as GDP
Source OECD Main Science Technology
Indicators, June 2005
Differences in the performance of RD
RD in public research organisations as GDP
RD in the business sector as a of GDP
Source OECD Main Science Technology
Indicators, June 2005
Patenting rates increasing across the region, but
significant difference remain
Triadic patent families per million population
Patenting linked closely to RD spending
Direct government funding of business RD
Government-funded business RD as of GDP
Source OECD STI Outlook 2004
Tax incentives becoming more generous
Rate of tax reduction for 1 unit of RD spending,
2004. (Calculated as 1 minus the B-index)
Source OECD Science, Technology and Industry
Outlook 2004.
Transition to a service economy?
Share of market services in total value added,
1980 and 2001
Source OECD Science, Technology and Industry
Outlook 2004.
Stimulating innovation in services
Share of innovative firms
Source OECD, Enhancing the Performance of the
Services Sector, 2005.
Human resources how many researchers?
Researchers per 1000 employment
  • Total number of researchers in China 811,000 in
    2002, up from 471,000 in 1991.
  • Most recent figures for US, EU, Japan and Korea
    in 2001/2 were 1.2 billion 1.0 billion, 676
    thousand, and 136 thousand, respectively
  • Researchers per thousand have increased in all
    Asia-Pacific countries, US, and EU.

Source OECD Main Science Technology
Indicators, June 2005
Supplies of skilled human resources Tertiary
Share of tertiary-level graduates in total
employment, by gender, 2003.
Source OECD Education database, June 2005
Supplies of scientists and engineers
Share of SE degrees in all tertiary level degrees
Percentage of SE degrees awarded to women
Source OECD Education Database, June 2005
Globalisation a growing share of RD is in
foreign affiliates
Share of business RD controlled by foreign
Where are US outward investments going?
Outward RD investments, US millions
  • Outward investments growing in all major regions
    (in nominal terms)
  • Growth fastest in rest of world (5X)
  • China US 506M in 2000 compared to 5M in 1994
  • Singapore US 548M in 2000, compared to lt50M in
  • Motor vehicles, Radio/TV/Comms, Computing
    equipment and non-pharmaceutical chemicals are
    largest components
  • As a share of industry financed RD, expenditures
    actually declined, from 12 in 1994 10.8 in

Source OECD Science, Technology and Industry
Outlook 2004.
Reflecting increasing capabilities of other
non-OECD countries
RD as of GDP
  • Combined RD of China, Israel and Russia equalled
    14.7 of OECDs in 2001, versus 6.4 in 1995.
  • Patenting by non-Members has increased, but EU,
    Japan and US accounted for 92.7 of global patent
    families in 2000, down from 94.4 in 1991.
  • Most rapid growth in US outward RD investments
    is outside EU, Japan and Canada

Source OECD Science, Technology and Industry
Outlook 2004.
National RD priorities in Asia-Pacific countries
Source OECD Science, Technology and Industry
Outlook 2004
Often linked to national plans/strategies
Source OECD Science, Technology and Industry
Outlook 2004.
  • Second ST Basic Plan (2001-2005) to establish a
    nation based on creativity of ST.
  • Significant reforms to innovation system
  • Change in legal status of national universities
    and public research organisations
  • More competitive funding
  • Promotion of technology transfer from public
    research (1998 Law)
  • Intellectual assets and value creationhow to
    encourage firms to invest more in intellectual
    assets (RD, patents, human resources, org.
    capital) to improve competitive performance.
  • IP Nation strengthening of IPR rights and
  • Improving productivity and performance in

Funding for priority fields in Japan
100 million yen
  • Aim to double public expenditure on RD between
    2002 and 2007.
  • Established Innovation Headquarters (within
    Ministry of ST) to coordinate innovation policy
    and RD strategy.
  • Evaluation issues gaining in importance,
    especially as relates to identification of
    promising research fields.
  • Concerns regarding supplies of human resources in
    ST, as student interest appears to be waning.

  • Backing Australias Ability
  • Generate ideas and undertake research
    Competitive grants research infrastructure
    National ICT research centre tax concession.
  • Accelerate commercialisation COMET programme,
    cooperative research centres one-stop shop
  • Develop skills programmes to improve ST
  • All of government approach science and
    innovation ministerial council chaired by Prime
  • AUD 1 billion per year 2006/7 20010/11
  • Comprehensive evaluation of all innovation
    policies underway.

New Zealand
  • Growth and innovation framework
  • focus on ICT, biotech and creative industries
  • Growth and innovation advisory board
  • whole of government approach to innovation
  • I3 Challenge
  • Defining national needs
  • Strengtehning long-term research capability
  • Extract greater commercial value
  • Reforms to university research
  • Performance-based Research Fund for universities
  • Centres of Research Excellence in areas of
    national interest
  • Research consortia (est. 2002/3) to match public
    and private sector RD

  • Strategy of Revitalizing the Nation through
    Science and Education basis for substantial
  • Restructuring of public research organisations
  • Transformation of RD institutions into business
    enterprises and/or technical service
  • Incorporation of large RD institutions into
    large enterprises
  • Openness to international markets and technology
  • Foreign direct investment as key channel for
    technology transfer and upgrading of capabilities
  • Implications for IPR regimes
  • Developments in IPR policy
  • Considerable policy development related to
    ascession to TRIPS
  • Remaining issues related to enforcement

Overall assessment of Chinas innovation system
  • RD expenditures growing, but still low,
    especially in business sector.
  • Structure of RD system improving, but system
    still not operating efficiently
  • Universities a small share of national RD and
    conduct relatively little basic research.
  • Industrys innovative outputs (patents, new
    products and services) low compared to RD
  • Domestic enterprise sector weak contributor to
  • Mobility of human resources remains a concern,
    but educational output improving.

Large firms v. technology enterprises
  • Large and medium sized firms
  • Account for most of output and profits, as well
    as 37 of RD.
  • RD capabilities expanding, but declining RD
  • RD labs not operating at full capacity,
  • Output low compared to share of inputs, but
  • Technology enterprises
  • Start ups and spin-offs from government labs.
  • Plan to convert 4000 government institutes into
    tech enterprises.
  • Universities encouraged to establish enterprises.
  • Most focus on commercialising RD
  • Technological strong, market oriented management.

Human resources for RD
  • Total number of ST workers growing, but low as
    share of total population
  • Share of scientists and engineers in ST
    workforce has declined.
  • Education system promises to be source of workers
  • 61 of undergraduates are in science and
  • Graduate enrollments increasing science and
    engineering accounts for 70 of masters and 80
    of PhD students.
  • Brain drain remains a concern, although
    repatriation of students improving.

Policy challenges
  • Redefining role of government in innovation
    system--shift from government led to market led.
  • Improving innovation capabilities of business
    sector--through financial reform, absorptive
  • Enhancing technology diffusion
    commercialisation of RD, while protecting
    science base.
  • Tapping into global knowledge networks related to
    science, technology, and personnel.
  • Framework conditions conducive to innovation
    competition policy, IPR, financial stability, etc.

Related OECD Work
  • STI Outlook 2004 (
  • Chapter 2 Recent developments in STI policy
  • National responses to STI policy questionnaire
  • Innovation Policy and Performance (chapter on
  • Public-Private Partnerships for Research and
    Innovation A Review of the Australian Experience
  • Work with China
  • Chapter 9 of STI Outlook 2002 Science and
    Technology in China
  • Promoting IPR Policy and Enforcement in China
    (conference summary) An Emerging Knowledge-Based
    Economy in China? (
  • Starting innovation systems review of China
  • Upcoming National Innovation Systems reviews
  • New Zealand (2006)
  • Australia (?)
  • China (2005-06)

For more information. . .
STI Outlook 2004
STI Scoreboard 2003
STI Outlook 2001 Drivers of Growth