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Chapter 16: DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

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Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider ... Related to lifestyle: diet and exercise. Reversible dementia, about 20 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 16: DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY


1
Chapter 16Development Psychopathology
2
Chapter 16 Developmental Psychopathology
  • Abnormality
  • Statistical deviance
  • Maladaptiveness
  • Interferes with personal and social life
  • Poses danger to self or others
  • Personal distress
  • DSM-IV diagnostic criteria (APA)

3
Developmental Aspects
  • Development, not disease
  • A pattern of maladaption, not defects
  • Social and Age Norms
  • Developmental issues
  • Nature/Nurture
  • Risk factors
  • Prediction

4
The Diathesis-Stress Model
  • Interaction of genes and environment
  • Example Depression
  • Genetic vulnerability
  • Environmental trigger(s)
  • Not specific stressors for specific disorders
  • Bad things have bad effects for some people some
    of the time

5
Infancy - Autism
  • Begins in infancy more boys
  • Several autistic spectrum disorders
  • Impaired social interaction, communication
  • Repetitive, stereotyped behaviors
  • 80 retarded savant syndrome can occur
  • Severe cognitive impairment
  • Biologically based
  • Concordance MZ60, DZ less (0-6)

6
Childhood
  • Externalizing problems
  • Undercontrolled disorders
  • Acting out
  • Aggressive, out of control
  • Internalizing problems
  • Overcontrolled disorders
  • Inner distress, shyness
  • More girls

7
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • DSM-IV Criteria some combination of
  • Inattention
  • Impulsivity
  • Hyperactivity
  • More boys 3-5 (and rising) of US kids
  • Comorbidity common
  • Overactive behavior wanes with age
  • Attentional, adjustment problems remain
  • Most well adjusted in adulthood

8
ADHD-Causes and Treatment
  • Neurological low Dopamine, other NTs
  • Differential processing
  • Underactivity in motor area
  • Hypometabolism of prefrontal cortex
  • Genetic predisposition Environmental stress
  • 70 helped by stimulants
  • Overprescription a problem
  • Most successful if combined with behavioral
    treatment

9
Depression
  • Infancy
  • Somatic symptoms
  • Depressive-like states
  • Related to poor attachment
  • At risk if mother depressed
  • Failure to thrive syndrome may occur
  • Childhood
  • Somatic symptoms
  • Psychotherapy, medication effective
  • Nature/Nurture question
  • Adolescence
  • Often related to childhood symptoms

10
Adolescent Depression and Suicide
  • 35 depressed 7 diagnosable
  • Cognitive symptoms
  • Behavioral acting out
  • Genetic link
  • Environmental triggers
  • Suicide 3rd leading cause of death
  • Males commit 3/1 girls attempt 3/1

11
Adolescence
  • Storm and stress
  • Heightened vulnerability to psychological
    disorders
  • Alcohol and drugs are problems
  • Eating disorders
  • Anorexia nervosa more girls
  • Bulemia nervosa binge-purge
  • Some genetic predisposition stress also
  • Psychological treatment usually successful

12
Adulthood
  • Rates of disorder decrease after age 18
  • Depression
  • Elderly less vulnerable to major depression
  • Concern with elderly
  • Depression often related to health
  • 15 have some symptoms
  • 1-3 diagnosable
  • Difficult to diagnose
  • More women (2/1)

13
Depression and Dementia
  • Many undiagnosed and untreated
  • Elderly can benefit, should NOT be excluded from
    treatment
  • Sometimes dementia symptoms appear as depression
  • Dementia progressive deterioration
  • Not normal aging
  • Alzheimers Disease
  • Leading cause of dementia
  • Progressive and irreversible

14
Causes of Cognitive Impairment
  • Genetic e.g., Alzheimers
  • Vascular dementia - multi-infarct
  • Minor strokes deficits accumulate
  • Related to lifestyle diet and exercise
  • Reversible dementia, about 20
  • Delerium reversible, often drug related
  • Depression treatable
  • Critical to distinguish for proper treatment
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